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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769747/movement-related-sensorimotor-high-gamma-activity-mainly-represents-somatosensory-feedback
#1
Seokyun Ryun, June S Kim, Eunjeong Jeon, Chun K Chung
Somatosensation plays pivotal roles in the everyday motor control of humans. During active movement, there exists a prominent high-gamma (HG >50 Hz) power increase in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and this provides an important feature in relation to the decoding of movement in a brain-machine interface (BMI). However, one concern of BMI researchers is the inflation of the decoding performance due to the activation of somatosensory feedback, which is not elicited in patients who have lost their sensorimotor function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699322/a-respiratory-marker-derived-from-left-vagus-nerve-signals-recorded-with-implantable-cuff-electrodes
#2
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Benedict Kjaergaard, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVE: Left vagus nerve (LVN) stimulation (LVNS) has been tested for lowering the blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). Whereas, closed-loop LVNS (CL-LVNS) driven by a BP marker may be superior to open-loop LVNS, there are situations (e.g., exercising) when hypertension is normal. Therefore, an ideal anti-RH CL-LVNS system requires a variable to avoid stimulation in such conditions, for example, a respiratory marker ideally extracted from the LVN. As the LVN conducts respiratory signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals can be recorded using implantable means and if a marker to monitor respiration could be derived from such recordings...
July 11, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642572/disrupted-pursuit-compensation-during-self-motion-perception-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jingru Wang, Xiaojun Guo, Xianbo Zhuang, Tuanzhi Chen, Wei Yan
Our perception of the world is remarkably stable despite of distorted retinal input due to frequent eye movements. It is considered that the brain uses corollary discharge, efference copies of signals sent from motor to visual regions, to compensate for distortions and stabilize visual perception. In this study, we tested whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have impaired corollary discharge functions as evidenced by reduced compensation during the perception of optic flow that mimics self-motion in the environment...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638335/quantification-of-head-movement-predictability-and-implications-for-suppression-of-vestibular-input-during-locomotion
#4
Paul R MacNeilage, Stefan Glasauer
Achieved motor movement can be estimated using both sensory and motor signals. The value of motor signals for estimating movement should depend critically on the stereotypy or predictability of the resulting actions. As predictability increases, motor signals become more reliable indicators of achieved movement, so weight attributed to sensory signals should decrease accordingly. Here we describe a method to quantify this predictability for head movement during human locomotion by measuring head motion with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and calculating the variance explained by the mean movement over one stride, i...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593438/eye-movements-are-correctly-timed-during-walking-despite-bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#5
Eric R Anson, Tim Kiemel, John P Carey, John J Jeka
Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia (the perception that the world is bouncing or unstable) during walking. Efference copy/proprioception contributes to locomotion gaze stability in animals, sometimes inhibiting the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Gaze stability requires both adequate eye velocity and appropriate timing of eye movements. It is unknown whether eye velocity (VOR gain), timing (phase), or both are impaired for individuals with BVH during walking...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491047/upper-limb-asymmetry-in-the-sense-of-effort-is-dependent-on-force-level
#6
Mark Mitchell, Bernard J Martin, Diane E Adamo
Previous studies have shown that asymmetries in upper limb sensorimotor function are dependent on the source of sensory and motor information, hand preference and differences in hand strength. Further, the utilization of sensory and motor information and the mode of control of force may differ between the right hand/left hemisphere and left hand/right hemisphere systems. To more clearly understand the unique contribution of hand strength and intrinsic differences to the control of grasp force, we investigated hand/hemisphere differences when the source of force information was encoded at two different force levels corresponding to a 20 and 70% maximum voluntary contraction or the right and left hand of each participant...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392112/a-descending-neuron-correlated-with-the-rapid-steering-maneuvers-of-flying-drosophila
#7
Bettina Schnell, Ivo G Ros, Michael H Dickinson
To navigate through the world, animals must stabilize their path against disturbances and change direction to avoid obstacles and to search for resources [1, 2]. Locomotion is thus guided by sensory cues but also depends on intrinsic processes, such as motivation and physiological state. Flies, for example, turn with the direction of large-field rotatory motion, an optomotor reflex that is thought to help them fly straight [3-5]. Occasionally, however, they execute fast turns, called body saccades, either spontaneously or in response to patterns of visual motion such as expansion [6-8]...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384194/loss-of-slc9a3-decreases-cftr-protein-and-causes-obstructed-azoospermia-in-mice
#8
Ya-Yun Wang, Ying-Hung Lin, Yi-No Wu, Yen-Lin Chen, Yung-Chih Lin, Chiao-Yin Cheng, Han-Sun Chiang
Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF) and are associated with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), which is the major cause of infertility in male patients with CF. However, most Taiwanese patients with CBAVD do not carry major CFTR mutations. Some patients have a single copy deletion of the solute carrier family 9 isoform 3 (SLC9A3) gene. SLC9A3 is a Na+/H+ exchanger, and depleted Slc9a3 in male mice causes infertility due to the abnormal dilated lumen of the rete testis and efferent ductules...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381489/parallel-processing-of-internal-and-external-feedback-in-the-spinocerebellar-system-of-primates
#9
Oren Cohen, Ran Harel, Tim D Aumann, Zvi Israel, Yifat Prut
Cerebellar control of voluntary movements is achieved by the integration of external and internal feedback information to adjust and correct properly ongoing actions. In the forelimb of primates, rostral-spinocerebellar tract (RSCT) neurons are thought to integrate segmental, descending, and afferent sources and relay upstream a compound signal that contains both an efference copy of the spinal-level motor command and the state of the periphery. We tested this hypothesis by implanting stimulating electrodes in the superior cerebellar peduncle and recording the activity of cervical spinal neurons in primates...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374088/experimental-investigations-of-control-principles-of-involuntary-movement-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-kohnstamm-phenomenon
#10
REVIEW
Jack De Havas, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
The Kohnstamm phenomenon refers to the observation that if one pushes the arm hard outwards against a fixed surface for about 30 s, and then moves away from the surface and relaxes, an involuntary movement of the arm occurs, accompanied by a feeling of lightness. Central, peripheral and hybrid theories of the Kohnstamm phenomenon have been advanced. Afferent signals may be irrelevant if purely central theories hold. Alternatively, according to peripheral accounts, altered afferent signalling actually drives the involuntary movement...
July 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333385/functioning-of-circuits-connecting-thalamus-and-cortex
#11
S Murray Sherman
Glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex are divided into two distinct classes: driver, which carries the main information between cells, and modulator, which modifies how driver inputs function. Identifying driver inputs helps to reveal functional computational circuits, and one set of such circuits identified by this approach are cortico-thalamo-cortical (or transthalamic corticocortical) circuits. This, in turn, leads to the conclusion that there are two types of thalamic relay: first order nuclei (such as the lateral geniculate nucleus) that relay driver input from a subcortical source (i...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#12
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158959/the-effect-of-visual-feedback-of-the-neck-during-movement-in-people-with-chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-an-experimental-study
#13
Sanneke Don, Margot De Kooning, Lennard Voogt, Kelly Ickmans, Liesbeth Daenen, Jo Nijs
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is an important health issue associated with poor recovery outcomes. Sensorimotor incongruence (SMI), defined as a mismatch between the efference copy in the brain and afferent sensory feedback from the body, is proposed as a possible underlying cause of chronic pain. Objectives To determine whether SMI causes sensory disturbances or pain in people with chronic WAD and healthy controls. Methods Sixty-four participants (30 with chronic WAD and 34 healthy controls) participated in a visual feedback experiment involving the neck and a bimanual coordination experiment involving the arms...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053244/distinct-neural-circuits-for-control-of-movement-vs-holding-still
#14
REVIEW
Reza Shadmehr
In generating a point-to-point movement, the brain does more than produce the transient commands needed to move the body part; it also produces the sustained commands that are needed to hold the body part at its destination. In the oculomotor system, these functions are mapped onto two distinct circuits: a premotor circuit that specializes in generating the transient activity that displaces the eyes and a "neural integrator" that transforms that transient input into sustained activity that holds the eyes. Different parts of the cerebellum adaptively control the motor commands during these two phases: the oculomotor vermis participates in fine tuning the transient neural signals that move the eyes, monitoring the activity of the premotor circuit via efference copy, whereas the flocculus participates in controlling the sustained neural signals that hold the eyes, monitoring the activity of the neural integrator...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018189/auditory-somatosensory-temporal-sensitivity-improves-when-the-somatosensory-event-is-caused-by-voluntary-body-movement
#15
Norimichi Kitagawa, Masaharu Kato, Makio Kashino
When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements. Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877114/ontogenetic-development-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflexes-in-amphibians
#16
REVIEW
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833537/forward-prediction-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-and-dynamic-brain-machine-interface
#17
He Cui
While remarkable progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) over the past two decades, it is still difficult to utilize neural signals to drive artificial actuators to produce predictive movements in response to dynamic stimuli. In contrast to naturalistic limb movements largely based on forward planning, brain-controlled neuroprosthetics mainly rely on feedback without prior trajectory formation. As an important sensorimotor interface integrating multisensory inputs and efference copy, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might play a proactive role in predictive motor control...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807142/practice-improves-peri-saccadic-shape-judgment-but-does-not-diminish-target-mislocalization
#18
Yuval Porat, Ehud Zohary
Visual sensitivity is markedly reduced during an eye movement. Peri-saccadic vision is also characterized by a mislocalization of the briefly presented stimulus closer to the saccadic target. These features are commonly viewed as obligatory elements of peri-saccadic vision. However, practice improves performance in many perceptual tasks performed at threshold conditions. We wondered if this could also be the case with peri-saccadic perception. To test this, we used a paradigm in which subjects reported the orientation (or location) of an ellipse briefly presented during a saccade...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798135/physiological-and-perceptual-sensory-attenuation-have-different-underlying-neurophysiological-correlates
#19
Clare E Palmer, Marco Davare, James M Kilner
Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560037/the-pretectal-connectome-in-lamprey
#20
Lorenza Capantini, Arndt von Twickel, Brita Robertson, Sten Grillner
In vertebrates, the pretectum and optic tectum (superior colliculus in mammals) are visuomotor areas that process sensory information and shape motor responses. Whereas the tectum has been investigated in great detail, the pretectum has received far less attention. The present study provides a detailed analysis of the connectivity and neuronal properties of lamprey pretectal cells. The pretectum can be subdivided roughly into three areas based on cellular location and projection pattern: superficial, central, and periventricular...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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