keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

efference copy

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730751/the-sensory-origin-of-the-sense-of-effort-is-context-dependent
#1
Florian Monjo, Jonathan Shemmell, Nicolas Forestier
The origin of the sense of effort has been debated for several decades and there is still no consensus among researchers regarding the underlying neural mechanisms. Some advocate that effort perception mainly arises from an efference copy originating within the brain while others believe that it is predominantly carried by muscle afferent signals. To move the debate forward, we here tested the hypothesis that there is not one but several senses of effort which depend on the way it is evaluated. For this purpose, we used two different psychophysical tests designed to test effort perception in elbow flexors...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701820/cerebello-cortical-network-fingerprints-differ-between-essential-parkinson-s-and-mimicked-tremors
#2
Muthuraman Muthuraman, Jan Raethjen, Nabin Koirala, Abdul Rauf Anwar, Kidist G Mideksa, Rodger Elble, Sergiu Groppa, Günter Deuschl
Cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops play a major role in the emergence of pathological tremors and voluntary rhythmic movements. It is unclear whether these loops differ anatomically or functionally in different types of tremor. We compared age- and sex-matched groups of patients with Parkinson's disease or essential tremor and healthy controls (n = 34 per group). High-density 256-channel EEG and multi-channel EMG from extensor and flexor muscles of both wrists were recorded simultaneously while extending the hands against gravity with the forearms supported...
April 26, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677323/probing-transsaccadic-correspondence-with-reverse-correlation
#3
Eva R M Joosten, Thérèse Collins
The phenomenon of visual stability is classically explained by an internal forward model predicting the sensory consequences of an eye movement based on efference copy. However, this model cannot explain why some object displacements go undetected, a phenomenon that may depend on a passive prior belief that the world is stable. With reverse correlation, we investigated saccadic suppression of displacement and found that transsaccadic correspondence operates differently depending on the position of the postsaccadic visual target relative to the primary landing position; when the signal falls within the extent of primary saccadic scatter, observers are less able to remap accurately...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649561/real-motion-signals-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#4
Matthias Nau, Andreas Schindler, Andreas Bartels
Eye movements induce visual motion that can complicate the stable perception of the world. The visual system compensates for such self-induced visual motion by integrating visual input with efference copies of eye movement commands. This mechanism is central as it does not only support perceptual stability but also mediates reliable perception of world-centered objective motion. In humans, it remains elusive whether visual motion responses in early retinotopic cortex are driven by objective motion or by retinal motion associated with it...
July 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520891/my-prolonged-collaboration-with-ray-guillery
#5
REVIEW
S Murray Sherman
My active collaboration with Ray Guillery started in 1968, when he was a Full Professor at the University of Wisconsin and I was a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania. The collaboration lasted almost 50 years with virtually no breaks. Among the ideas we proposed are that glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex can be classified into drivers and modulators; that many thalamic nuclei could be classified as higher order, meaning that they receive driving input from layer 5 of cortex and participate in cortico-thalamocortical circuits; and that much of the information relayed by thalamus serves as an efference copy for motor commands initiated by cortex...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510116/a-new-perspective-on-predictive-motor-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Hans Straka, John Simmers, Boris P Chagnaud
Adaptive behavior relies on complex neural processing in multiple interacting networks of both motor and sensory systems. One such interaction employs intrinsic neuronal signals, so-called 'corollary discharge' or 'efference copy', that may be used to predict the sensory consequences of a specific behavioral action, thereby enabling self-generated (reafferent) sensory information and extrinsic (exafferent) sensory inflow to be dissociated. Here, by using well-established examples, we seek to identify the distinguishing features of corollary discharge and efference copy within the framework of predictive motor-to-sensory system coordination...
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467603/cognitive-functions-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-involving-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#7
REVIEW
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321562/perception-during-double-step-saccades
#8
E Zimmermann, M C Morrone, P Binda
How the visual system achieves perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements is a long-standing question in neuroscience. It has been proposed that an efference copy informs vision about upcoming saccades, and this might lead to shifting spatial coordinates and suppressing image motion. Here we ask whether these two aspects of visual stability are interdependent or may be dissociated under special conditions. We study a memory-guided double-step saccade task, where two saccades are executed in quick succession...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246747/tms-over-posterior-parietal-cortex-disrupts-trans-saccadic-visual-stability
#9
Thérèse Collins, Pierre O Jacquet
BACKGROUND: Saccadic eye movements change the retinal location of visual objects, but we do not experience the visual world as constantly moving, we perceive it as seamless and stable. This visual stability may be achieved by an internal or efference copy of each saccade that, combined with the retinal information, allows the visual system to cancel out or ignore the self-caused retinal motion. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the underlying brain mechanisms responsible for visual stability in humans with online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
March 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199947/neurophysiological-evidence-of-efference-copies-to-inner-speech
#10
Thomas J Whitford, Bradley N Jack, Daniel Pearson, Oren Griffiths, David Luque, Anthony Wf Harris, Kevin M Spencer, Mike E Le Pelley
Efference copies refer to internal duplicates of movement-producing neural signals. Their primary function is to predict, and often suppress, the sensory consequences of willed movements. Efference copies have been almost exclusively investigated in the context of overt movements. The current electrophysiological study employed a novel design to show that inner speech - the silent production of words in one's mind - is also associated with an efference copy. Participants produced an inner phoneme at a precisely specified time, at which an audible phoneme was concurrently presented...
December 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194516/deficits-in-cortical-suppression-during-vocalization-are-associated-with-structural-abnormalities-in-the-arcuate-fasciculus-in-early-illness-schizophrenia-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#11
Thomas J Whitford, Lena K L Oestreich, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon
Self-generated speech produces a smaller N1 amplitude in the auditory-evoked potential than externally generated speech; this phenomenon is known as N1-suppression. Schizophrenia patients show less N1-suppression than healthy controls. This failure to self-suppress may underlie patients' characteristic tendency to misattribute self-generated thoughts and actions to external sources. While the cause of N1-suppression deficits to speech in schizophrenia remains unclear, structural damage to the arcuate fasciculus is a candidate, due to its ostensible role in transmitting the efference copy of the motor plan to speak...
November 29, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145761/non-fluent-speech-following-stroke-is-caused-by-impaired-efference-copy
#12
Lynda Feenaughty, Alexandra Basilakos, Leonardo Bonilha, Dirk-Bart den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Brielle Stark, Julius Fridriksson
Efference copy is a cognitive mechanism argued to be critical for initiating and monitoring speech: however, the extent to which breakdown of efference copy mechanisms impact speech production is unclear. This study examined the best mechanistic predictors of non-fluent speech among 88 stroke survivors. Objective speech fluency measures were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The primary PCA factor was then entered into a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis as the dependent variable, with a set of independent mechanistic variables...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101168/genetically-increased-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-alters-peripheral-and-renal-vascular-reactivity-to-angiotensin-ii-and-bradykinin-in-mice
#13
Catherine Chollet, Sandrine Placier, Christos Chatziantoniou, Annette Hus-Citharel, Nathalie Caron, Ronan Roussel, François Alhenc-Gelas, Nadine Bouby
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) levels in humans are under strong genetic influence. Genetic variation in ACE has been linked to risk for and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Causality has been documented in genetically modified mice, but the mechanisms underlying causality are not completely elucidated. To further document the vascular and renal consequences of a moderate genetic increase in ACE synthesis, we studied genetically modified mice carrying three copies of the ACE gene (three-copy mice) and littermate wild-type animals (two-copy mice)...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073639/our-sense-of-direction-progress-controversies-and-challenges
#14
Kathleen E Cullen, Jeffrey S Taube
In this Perspective, we evaluate current progress in understanding how the brain encodes our sense of direction, within the context of parallel work focused on how early vestibular pathways encode self-motion. In particular, we discuss how these systems work together and provide evidence that they involve common mechanisms. We first consider the classic view of the head direction cell and results of recent experiments in rodents and primates indicating that inputs to these neurons encode multimodal information during self-motion, such as proprioceptive and motor efference copy signals, including gaze-related information...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893926/limited-contribution-of-primary-motor-cortex-in-eye-hand-coordination-a-tms-study
#15
James Mathew, Alexandre Eusebio, Frederic Danion
The ability to track a moving target with the eye is substantially improved when the target is self-moved compared with when it is moved by an external agent. To account for this observation, it has been postulated that the oculomotor system has access to hand efference copy, thereby allowing to predict the motion of the visual target. Along this scheme, we tested the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) when human participants (50% females) are asked to track with their eyes a visual target whose horizontal motion is driven by their grip force...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769747/movement-related-sensorimotor-high-gamma-activity-mainly-represents-somatosensory-feedback
#16
Seokyun Ryun, June S Kim, Eunjeong Jeon, Chun K Chung
Somatosensation plays pivotal roles in the everyday motor control of humans. During active movement, there exists a prominent high-gamma (HG >50 Hz) power increase in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and this provides an important feature in relation to the decoding of movement in a brain-machine interface (BMI). However, one concern of BMI researchers is the inflation of the decoding performance due to the activation of somatosensory feedback, which is not elicited in patients who have lost their sensorimotor function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699322/a-respiratory-marker-derived-from-left-vagus-nerve-signals-recorded-with-implantable-cuff-electrodes
#17
REVIEW
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Benedict Kjaergaard, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVE: Left vagus nerve (LVN) stimulation (LVNS) has been tested for lowering the blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). Whereas, closed-loop LVNS (CL-LVNS) driven by a BP marker may be superior to open-loop LVNS, there are situations (e.g., exercising) when hypertension is normal. Therefore, an ideal anti-RH CL-LVNS system requires a variable to avoid stimulation in such conditions, for example, a respiratory marker ideally extracted from the LVN. As the LVN conducts respiratory signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals can be recorded using implantable means and if a marker to monitor respiration could be derived from such recordings...
April 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642572/disrupted-pursuit-compensation-during-self-motion-perception-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Jingru Wang, Xiaojun Guo, Xianbo Zhuang, Tuanzhi Chen, Wei Yan
Our perception of the world is remarkably stable despite of distorted retinal input due to frequent eye movements. It is considered that the brain uses corollary discharge, efference copies of signals sent from motor to visual regions, to compensate for distortions and stabilize visual perception. In this study, we tested whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have impaired corollary discharge functions as evidenced by reduced compensation during the perception of optic flow that mimics self-motion in the environment...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638335/quantification-of-head-movement-predictability-and-implications-for-suppression-of-vestibular-input-during-locomotion
#19
Paul R MacNeilage, Stefan Glasauer
Achieved motor movement can be estimated using both sensory and motor signals. The value of motor signals for estimating movement should depend critically on the stereotypy or predictability of the resulting actions. As predictability increases, motor signals become more reliable indicators of achieved movement, so weight attributed to sensory signals should decrease accordingly. Here we describe a method to quantify this predictability for head movement during human locomotion by measuring head motion with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and calculating the variance explained by the mean movement over one stride, i...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593438/eye-movements-are-correctly-timed-during-walking-despite-bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#20
Eric R Anson, Tim Kiemel, John P Carey, John J Jeka
Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia (the perception that the world is bouncing or unstable) during walking. Efference copy/proprioception contributes to locomotion gaze stability in animals, sometimes inhibiting the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Gaze stability requires both adequate eye velocity and appropriate timing of eye movements. It is unknown whether eye velocity (VOR gain), timing (phase), or both are impaired for individuals with BVH during walking...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
keyword
keyword
101457
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"