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efference copy

Lorenza Capantini, Arndt von Twickel, Brita Robertson, Sten Grillner
In vertebrates, the pretectum and optic tectum (superior colliculus in mammals) are visuomotor areas that process sensory information and shape motor responses. Whereas the tectum has been investigated in great detail, the pretectum has received far less attention. The present study provides a detailed analysis of the connectivity and neuronal properties of lamprey pretectal cells. The pretectum can be subdivided roughly into three areas based on cellular location and projection pattern: superficial, central, and periventricular...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Delphine Lévy-Bencheton, Aarlenne Zein Khan, Denis Pélisson, Caroline Tilikete, Laure Pisella
It is relatively easy to adapt visually-guided saccades because the visual vector and the saccade vector match. The retinal error at the saccade landing position is compared to the prediction error, based on target location and efference copy. If these errors do not match, planning processes at the level(s) of the visual and/or motor vector processing are assumed to be inaccurate and the saccadic response is adjusted. In the case of a sequence of two saccades, the final error can be attributed to the last saccade vector or to the entire saccadic displacement...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pierre Berthet, Mikael Lindahl, Philip J Tully, Jeanette Hellgren-Kotaleski, Anders Lansner
The brain enables animals to behaviorally adapt in order to survive in a complex and dynamic environment, but how reward-oriented behaviors are achieved and computed by its underlying neural circuitry is an open question. To address this concern, we have developed a spiking model of the basal ganglia (BG) that learns to dis-inhibit the action leading to a reward despite ongoing changes in the reward schedule. The architecture of the network features the two pathways commonly described in BG, the direct (denoted D1) and the indirect (denoted D2) pathway, as well as a loop involving striatum and the dopaminergic system...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Marc Benazet, François Thénault, Kevin Whittingstall, Pierre-Michel Bernier
It is well established that the cortical processing of somatosensory and auditory signals is attenuated when they result from self-generated actions as compared to external events. This phenomenon is thought to result from an efference copy of motor commands used to predict the sensory consequences of an action through a forward model. The present work examined whether attenuation also takes place for visual reafferent signals from the moving limb during voluntary reaching movements. To address this issue, EEG activity was recorded in a condition in which visual feedback of the hand was provided in real time and compared to a condition in which it was presented with a 150 ms delay, thus creating a mismatch between the predicted and actual visual consequences of the movement...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jack De Havas, Arko Ghosh, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
The capacity to inhibit actions is central to voluntary motor control. However, the control mechanisms and subjective experience involved in voluntarily stopping an involuntary movement remain poorly understood. Here we examined, in humans, the voluntary inhibition of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, in which sustained voluntary contraction of shoulder abductors is followed by involuntary arm raising. Participants were instructed to stop the involuntary movement, hold the arm in a constant position, and 'release' the inhibition after ∼2s...
October 2016: Cognition
Anatol G Feldman
Although action and perception are different behaviors, they are likely to be interrelated, as implied by the notions of perception-action coupling and active sensing. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the nervous system directly preprograms motor commands required for actions and uses a copy of them called efference copy (EC) to also influence our senses. This review offers a critical analysis of the EC concept by identifying its limitations. An alternative to the EC concept is based on the experimentally confirmed notion that sensory signals from receptors are perceived relative to referent signals specified by the brain...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Daria Genzel, Uwe Firzlaff, Lutz Wiegrebe, Paul R MacNeilage
Humans localize sounds by comparing inputs across the two ears, resulting in a head-centered representation of sound-source position. When the head moves, information about head movement must be combined with the head-centered estimate to correctly update the world-centered sound-source position. Spatial updating has been extensively studied in the visual system, but less is known about how head movement signals interact with binaural information during auditory spatial updating. In the current experiments, listeners compared the world-centered azimuthal position of two sound sources presented before and after a head rotation that depended on condition...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Carolyn J Perry, Prakash Amarasooriya, Mazyar Fallah
Feedback within the oculomotor system improves visual processing at eye movement end points, also termed a visual grasp. We do not just view the world around us however, we also reach out and grab things with our hands. A growing body of literature suggests that visual processing in near-hand space is altered. The control systems for moving either the eyes or the hands rely on parallel networks of fronto-parietal regions, which have feedback connections to visual areas. Since the oculomotor system effects on visual processing occur through feedback, both through the motor plan and the motor efference copy, a parallel system where reaching and/or grasping motor-related activity also affects visual processing is likely...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Géraldine von Uckermann, François M Lambert, Denis Combes, Hans Straka, John Simmers
During swimming in the amphibian ITALIC! Xenopus laevis, efference copies of rhythmic locomotor commands produced by the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) can drive extraocular motor output appropriate for producing image-stabilizing eye movements to offset the disruptive effects of self-motion. During metamorphosis, ITALIC! X. laevisremodels its locomotor strategy from larval tail-based undulatory movements to bilaterally synchronous hindlimb kicking in the adult. This change in propulsive mode results in head/body motion with entirely different dynamics, necessitating a concomitant switch in compensatory ocular movements from conjugate left-right rotations to non-conjugate convergence during the linear forward acceleration produced during each kick cycle...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
S Murray Sherman
Several challenges to current views of thalamocortical processing are offered here. Glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex are divided into two distinct classes: driver and modulator. We suggest that driver inputs are the main conduits of information and that modulator inputs modify how driver inputs are processed. Different driver sources reveal two types of thalamic relays: first order relays receive subcortical driver input (for example, retinal input to the lateral geniculate nucleus), whereas higher order relays (for example, pulvinar) receive driver input from layer 5 of cortex and participate in cortico-thalamo-cortical (or transthalamic) circuits...
April 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Ji-Soo Kim
Non-vestibular sensorimotor signals modulate the vestibular nucleus neuron to achieve current behavioral goals, and may generate or modulate nystagmus. In central lesions affecting the vestibular nuclei, non-vestibular signals such as mastication or swallowing may induce nystagmus. However, the influence of non-vestibular signals on these types of nystagmus has not been investigated in a systematic way and the underlying mechanisms of the modulation are poorly understood. In this study, several non-vestibular sensorimotor stimuli were applied to evaluate the patterns of nystagmus modulation in a patient with suspected rhombencephalitis or imaging negative small infarction, probably involving the left dorsolateral medulla...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Zhenyu Gao, Martina Proietti-Onori, Zhanmin Lin, Michiel M Ten Brinke, Henk-Jan Boele, Jan-Willem Potters, Tom J H Ruigrok, Freek E Hoebeek, Chris I De Zeeuw
Closed-loop circuitries between cortical and subcortical regions can facilitate precision of output patterns, but the role of such networks in the cerebellum remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterize the role of internal feedback from the cerebellar nuclei to the cerebellar cortex in classical eyeblink conditioning. We find that excitatory output neurons in the interposed nucleus provide efference-copy signals via mossy fibers to the cerebellar cortical zones that belong to the same module, triggering monosynaptic responses in granule and Golgi cells and indirectly inhibiting Purkinje cells...
February 3, 2016: Neuron
James Cavanaugh, Rebecca A Berman, Wilsaan M Joiner, Robert H Wurtz
UNLABELLED: Saccadic eye movements direct the high-resolution foveae of our retinas toward objects of interest. With each saccade, the image jumps on the retina, causing a discontinuity in visual input. Our visual perception, however, remains stable. Philosophers and scientists over centuries have proposed that visual stability depends upon an internal neuronal signal that is a copy of the neuronal signal driving the eye movement, now referred to as a corollary discharge (CD) or efference copy...
January 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Guido C H E de Croon
The visual cue of optical flow plays an important role in the navigation of flying insects, and is increasingly studied for use by small flying robots as well. A major problem is that successful optical flow control seems to require distance estimates, while optical flow is known to provide only the ratio of velocity to distance. In this article, a novel, stability-based strategy is proposed for monocular distance estimation, relying on optical flow maneuvers and knowledge of the control inputs (efference copies)...
February 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Robert Numan
The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Akira Murata, Wen Wen, Hajime Asama
The network between the parietal cortex and premotor cortex has a pivotal role in sensory-motor control. Grasping-related neurons in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (F5) showed complementary properties each other. The object information for grasping is sent from the parietal cortex to the premotor cortex for sensory-motor transformation, and the backward signal from the premotor cortex to parietal cortex can be considered an efference copy/corollary discharge that is used to predict sensory outcome during motor behavior...
March 2016: Neuroscience Research
Antimo Buonocore, David Melcher
Our perception of the surrounding environment remains stable despite the fact that we frequently change the retinal position of input by rapid gaze shifts (saccades). There is a long-standing debate whether visual stability depends on an active mechanism using an efference copy of the impending saccadic motor command. Behavioral studies showing changes in perception around the time of saccades are consistent with a predictive mechanism, but previous studies of perceptual effects in humans confounded saccade programming with the resulting physical eye movement...
2015: Journal of Vision
David Jenson, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, Andrew L Bowers, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex, PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Markus Lappe, Fred H Hamker
When visual stimuli are presented at the onset of a saccadic eye movement they are seen compressed onto the target location of the saccade. This peri-saccadic compression is believed to result from internal feedback pathways between oculomotor and visual areas of the brain. This feedback enhances vision around the saccade target at the expense of localization ability in other regions of the visual field. Although saccades can be targeted at only one object at a time, often multiple potential targets are available in a visual scene, and the oculomotor system has to choose which target to look at...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Qiao Hao, Taiki Ogata, Ken-Ichiro Ogawa, Jinhwan Kwon, Yoshihiro Miyake
The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
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