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Y group neurons

Mansi R Khanna, Jane Kovalevich, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Kurt R Brunden
A group of neurodegenerative diseases referred to as tauopathies are characterized by the presence of brain cells harboring inclusions of pathological species of the tau protein. These disorders include Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau pathology, including progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and Pick's disease. Tau is normally a microtubule (MT)-associated protein that appears to play an important role in ensuring proper axonal transport, but in tauopathies tau becomes hyperphosphorylated and disengages from MTs, with consequent misfolding and deposition into inclusions that mainly affect neurons but also glia...
October 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Marivi Nabong Moen, Roar Fjær, El Hassan Hamdani, Jon K Laerdahl, Robin Johansen Menchini, Magnus Dehli Vigeland, Ying Sheng, Dag Erik Undlien, Bjørnar Hassel, Mustafa A Salih, Heba Y El Khashab, Kaja Kristine Selmer, Farrukh Abbas Chaudhry
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. We here present two affected brothers. At 9 months of age the elder brother developed ataxia and myoclonic jerks. In his second year he lost the ability to walk and talk, and he developed drug-resistant progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The cerebrospinal fluid level of glutamate was decreased while glutamine was increased. His younger brother manifested similar symptoms from 6 months of age...
October 14, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Vivian Y Poon, Minxia Gu, Fang Ji, Antonius M VanDongen, Marc Fivaz
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of neuronal and synaptic development. The precise impact of miRNAs on presynaptic function and neurotransmission remains, however, poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we identify miR-27b-an abundant neuronal miRNA implicated in neurological disorders-as a global regulator of the presynaptic transcriptome. miR-27b influences the expression of three quarters of genes associated with presynaptic function in cortical neurons...
October 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
X Li, P Zhuang, M Hallett, Y Zhang, J Li, Y Li
OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed to explore oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with off-period dystonia, a type of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). METHODS: Eighteen patients with PD who underwent STN DBS were studied. Nine patients had dyskinesia defined as the LID group and nine patients who did not present any sign of dyskinesia were defined as the control group. Microelectrode recordings in the STN together with electromyogram (EMG) were recorded...
November 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Sukumaran Muralidharan, Nathaniel D A Dirda, Elizabeth J Katz, Cha-Min Tang, Sharba Bandyopadhyay, Patrick O Kanold, Joseph P Y Kao
Ncm, 6-nitrocoumarin-7-ylmethyl, is a photolabile protective group useful for making "caged" molecules. Ncm marries the reliable photochemistry of 2-nitrobenzyl systems with the excellent stability and spectroscopic properties of the coumarin chromophore. From simple, commercially available starting materials, preparation of Ncm and its caged derivatives is both quick and easy. Photorelease of Ncm-caged molecules occurs on the microsecond time scale, with quantum efficiencies of 0.05-0.08. We report the synthesis and physical properties of Ncm and its caged derivatives...
2016: PloS One
Wei-Hsiang Huang, Casey J Guenthner, Jin Xu, Tiffany Nguyen, Lindsay A Schwarz, Alex W Wilkinson, Or Gozani, Howard Y Chang, Mehrdad Shamloo, Liqun Luo
Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which is associated with diverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral symptoms as well as obesity. RAI1 encodes a nuclear protein but little is known about its molecular function or the cell types responsible for SMS symptoms. Using genetically engineered mice, we found that Rai1 preferentially occupies DNA regions near active promoters and promotes the expression of a group of genes involved in circuit assembly and neuronal communication...
September 22, 2016: Neuron
Y S Zhang, Y Y Chen, D X Chen, H C Mai, D W Dong, J S Zeng
Objective: To investigate the expression pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ) in rats after focal cerebral cortex infarction, and to identify whether the Aβ expression in the ipsilateral thalamus was directly related to focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: The distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed by electrocoagulation in rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham group (n=18) and MCAO group (n=30) . We used 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and immunohistochemical staining to detect the location of cerebral infarction and Aβ expression, respectively...
September 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Pedro A Pereira, Tiago Millner, Manuel Vilela, Sérgio Sousa, Armando Cardoso, M Dulce Madeira
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been identified as a critical center for working and long-term memory. In this study, we have examined the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in mPFC interneurons and the density of the mPFC cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in cognitively-impaired aged Wistar rats. We also tested the possibility that the potential age-related changes might rely on insufficient neurotrophic support. The total number of NPY- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive varicosities were estimated using stereological methods...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Benjie Barzel, Sandra Burke
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects one third of the population around the world and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that the main cause of hypertension is increases sympathetic nerve activity to specific organs. Plasma leptin levels correlate with blood pressure (BP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Both neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
So Y Cheon, Kyoung J Cho, So Y Kim, Eun H Kam, Jong E Lee, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Conditions of increased oxidative stress including cerebral ischemia can lead to blood-brain barrier dysfunction via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). It is known that MMP-9 in particular is released from brain endothelial cells is involved in the neuronal cell death that occurs after cerebral ischemia. In the intracellular signaling network, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is the main activator of the oxidative stress that is part of the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. ASK1 also promotes apoptotic cell death and brain infarction after ischemia and is associated with vascular permeability and the formation of brain edema...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yang Liu, Di Wu, Mei-Yu Qu, Jian-Li He, Mei Yuan, Miao Zhao, Jian-Xin Wang, Jian He, Lu-Qi Wang, Xin-Jing Guo, Meng Zuo, Shu-Yang Zhao, Mei-Na Ma, Jun-Nan Li, Weinian Shou, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-mediated gender-difference in blood pressure (BP) regulation are largely unknown. METHODS: Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated by measuring the response of BP to phenylephrine/nitroprusside. Serum NPY concentration was determined using ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression of NPY receptors were assessed in tissue and single-cell by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. NPY was injected into the nodose while arterial pressure was monitored...
September 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Adejoke Y Onaolapo, Olakunle J Onaolapo, Polycarp U Nwoha
OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated changes in open field behaviours, cerebral cortical histomorphology and biochemical markers of oxidative stress following repeated administration of aspartame in mice. METHODOLOGY: Adult mice were assigned into five groups of twelve each. Vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last dose of aspartame...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
L K Friedman, A Sharma, M Corcia, T Webster, L Qazi, D Simsovits, Y Khalil, S Hu, M Kantrowitz, H Hong
The present study examined whether a single or multiple episode(s) of status epilepticus induced with kainic acid (KA) during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) development would aberrantly stimulate proliferation zones that alters migration to potentially injured areas and whether they would be blocked by selective Group I mGluR antagonists. mGluR1α (LY367385) and mGluR5 (MPEP) antagonists were administered 2h following KA-induced status epilepticus and animals were examined after 7days. Proliferating cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), third ventricle, hippocampus, amygdala cortical complex were analyzed with the proliferative marker, Ki67; and two complementary retrograde dye tracers...
November 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Q Wang, Y H Song, Z Tang, Z P Wang, Q Xu, N Bao
Neurogenesis, recovery from nerve injury, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson's disease affect people's health, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effect of ganglioside GM1 and neural growth factor (NGF) on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation in vitro to provide a scientific basis for comprehensive treatment of nervous system diseases via NSC application. As widely applied methods of relatively high accuracy, cell counts and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to assess NSC proliferation...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
R K Mo, J Wang, J Y Huang, Q L Wen, J F Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in behavioristics, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells, and ultrastructure of substantia nigra neurons in rats after manganese exposure via intracerebral injection. METHODS: A total of 72 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into exposure group and control group, with 36 rats in each group. The stereotactic technique was used for injection of 1 μl MnCl2·4H2O (1 mol/L) into the corpus striatum in the exposure group, and the control group was injected with the same volume of normal saline...
June 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
K Lim, B Barzel, S Burke, G Head
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is closely associated with a greater risk of developing hypertension and strong link exist between bodyweight gain and greater blood pressure (BP). Plasma leptin levels correlate with BP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Dense projections of both Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in several hypothalamic nuclei such as the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to brown adipose and renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
L E Jin, M Wang, S-T Yang, Y Yang, V C Galvin, T C Lightbourne, D Ottenheimer, Q Zhong, J Stein, A Raja, C D Paspalas, A F T Arnsten
Cognitive deficits in psychiatric and age-related disorders generally involve dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but there are few treatments for these debilitating symptoms. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3), which couple to Gi/Go, have been a focus of therapeutics based on rodent research, where mGluR2/3 have been shown to reduce axonal glutamate release and increase glial glutamate uptake. However, this strategy has had mixed results in patients, and understanding mGluR2/3 mechanisms in primates will help guide therapeutic interventions...
August 9, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Guohua Zhang, Yuhu Zhang, Chengguo Zhang, Yukai Wang, Guixian Ma, Kun Nie, Haiqun Xie, Jianping Liu, Lijuan Wang
A recent study has shown that striatal silent infarction may occur secondary to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice. However, it is uncertain whether this phenomenon occurs in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) and can be detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). A total of 72 untreated patients with early-stage PD underwent conventional MRI and DKI. Participants were divided into control and striatal silent lacunar infarction (SSLI) groups. The differences in mean kurtosis (MK) values of the SN, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III score between groups, were analyzed...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jing Li, Lijuan Gao, Kaiyue Sun, Dan Xiao, Wanyi Li, Lan Xiang, Jianhua Qi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: G. rigescens Franch (Long Dan Cao in Chinese) is a well-known TCM herb. It is clinically used with other drugs for the treatment of brain diseases such as epilepsy, postherpetic neuralgia in China. AIM OF STUDY: In our previous study, the 11 dihydroxybenzoates compounds with NGF mimicking activity from G. rigescens Franch were found. In the present study, the neurogenesis and neuroprotection of a mixture of benzoates (n-GS) were investigated in animal level...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J H Harreld, S N Hwang, I Qaddoumi, R G Tatevossian, X Li, J Dalton, K Haupfear, Y Li, D W Ellison
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilocytic astrocytomas, the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, are characterized by KIAA1549-BRAF fusions and shows excellent 5-year survival rates. Pilocytic astrocytoma with gangliocytic differentiation, a recently defined pilocytic astrocytoma variant that includes glial and neuronal elements similar to a ganglioglioma, may be distinguished from a classic ganglioglioma by molecular, radiologic, and histopathologic features. This study investigated whether imaging could distinguish posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma with and without gangliocytic differentiation...
July 28, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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