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inferior olivary nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843044/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-finding-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-symmetrical-central-tegmental-tract-hyperintensity
#1
Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Evrim Ozmen, Havva Akmaz-Unlu, Namik Kemal Altinbas, Esra Gurkas, Oznur Boyunaga
BACKGROUND: Central tegmental tract is an extrapyramidal tract between red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus which is located in the tegmentum pontis bilaterally and symmetrically. The etiology of the presence of central tegmental tract hyperintensity on MRI is unclear. PURPOSE: In this study our aim is to evaluate the frequency of central tegmental tract lesions in patients with cerebral palsy and control group, as well as to determine whether there is an association between central tegmental tract lesions and cerebral palsy types...
November 11, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772756/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#2
Shyam Sabat, Neil Mannering, Amit Agarwal
Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration (HOD) is a rare neurological condition caused by trans-synaptic degeneration in the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in varied clinical symptoms, classical being palatal tremors, along with characteristic imaging presentation. Large number of pathologic lesions can cause this condition, ranging from ischemic stroke to neoplasm. The most common conditions include hemorrhage, vascular malformations and infarct. Magnetic resonance scan (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice which shows signal changes with hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus, as well as the primary underlying pathology...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767209/active-integration-of-glutamatergic-input-to-the-inferior-olive-generates-bi-directional-postsynaptic-potentials
#3
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638512/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-neurons-in-the-mouse-brain-a-study-using-corticotropin-releasing-factor-modified-yellow-fluorescent-protein-knock-in-mouse
#4
Junko Kono, Kohtarou Konno, Ashraf Hossain Talukder, Toshimitsu Fuse, Manabu Abe, Katsuya Uchida, Shuhei Horio, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Keiichi Itoi
We examined the morphological features of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in a mouse line in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was expressed under the CRF promoter. We previously generated the CRF-Venus knock-in mouse, in which Venus is inserted into the CRF gene locus by homologous recombination. In the present study, the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (Neo), driven by the pgk-1 promoter, was deleted from the CRF-Venus mouse genome, and a CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse was generated. Venus expression is much more prominent in the CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse when compared to the CRF-Venus mouse...
September 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620513/dopaminergic-projections-of-the-subparafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-to-the-auditory-brainstem
#5
Alexander A Nevue, Richard A Felix, Christine V Portfors
Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis...
November 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536461/bilateral-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-and-holmes-tremor-without-palatal-tremor-an-unusual-association
#6
Carlos Cosentino, Miriam Velez, Yesenia Nuñez, Henry Palomino, Darko Quispe, Martha Flores, Luis Torres
BACKGROUND: Lesions in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle or dentate-rubro-olivary pathway may lead to hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD), a secondary trans-synaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is usually associated with palatal tremor and rarely with Holmes tremor. Bilateral HOD is a very unusual condition and very few cases are reported. CASE REPORT: We report here two cases of bilateral HOD after two different vascular lesions located at the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thus impairing both central tegmental tracts and interrupting bilaterally the dentate-rubral-olivary pathway...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436355/an-autopsied-case-of-mm1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mm2-cortical-with-thalamic-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-presenting-with-hyperintensities-on-diffusion-weighted-mri-before-clinical-onset
#7
Yasushi Iwasaki, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida
A 78-year-old Japanese man presented with rapidly progressive dementia and gait disturbances. Eight months before the onset of clinical symptoms, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) demonstrated hyperintensities in the right temporal, right parietal and left medial occipital cortices. Two weeks after symptom onset, DWI showed extensive hyperintensity in the bilateral cerebral cortex, with regions of higher brightness that existed prior to symptom onset still present. Four weeks after clinical onset, periodic sharp wave complexes were identified on an electroencephalogram...
July 20, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222085/-the-essence-of-essential-tremor-neurochemical-bases
#8
REVIEW
A Gironell, J Marin-Lahoz
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor is the most frequent movement disorder in adults. It has been considered a benign disease, but can result in significant physical and psychosocial disability. Pharmacological treatment is still not very satisfactory. Its causation, pathophysiology and anatomy remain only partially understood. AIMS: An understanding of its neurochemical basis is essential to be able to develop more efficient therapies. We review what is currently known in this field in order to motivate further research and ideas that allow an enhanced understanding of the disease and which foster the development of new pharmacological therapies...
June 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937009/loss-of-ptf1a-leads-to-a-widespread-cell-fate-misspecification-in-the-brainstem-affecting-the-development-of-somatosensory-and-viscerosensory-nuclei
#9
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Ekaterina Y Steshina, Victor V Chizhikov
UNLABELLED: The brainstem contains diverse neuronal populations that regulate a wide range of processes vital to the organism. Proper cell-fate specification decisions are critical to achieve neuronal diversity in the CNS, but the mechanisms regulating cell-fate specification in the developing brainstem are poorly understood. Previously, it has been shown that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ptf1a is required for the differentiation and survival of neurons of the inferior olivary and cochlear brainstem nuclei, which contribute to motor coordination and sound processing, respectively...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921579/the-effects-of-the-auditory-brainstem-response-before-and-after-fluoro-gold-injection-in-medial-geniculate-body
#10
Meichan Zhu, Guangyao He, Heng Li, Mao Xie, Bibek Gyanwali, Lihong Xie, Yikang Liu, Songhua Tan, Tiansong Lin, Anzhou Tang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use the tree shrew as an otological model, not only to verify the location of the auditory pathway in tree shrews by fluoro-gold (FG) but also to elucidate the effects of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) before and after FG injection. METHODS: FG was injected into the medial geniculate body (MGB) of experimental group (n=10).The normal group (n=10) was inserted the microsyringe, which was not perfused FG. Hearing was assessed by testing ABRs before and after the operation...
2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911465/mapping-the-calcitonin-receptor-in-human-brain-stem
#11
Rebekah L Bower, Sajedeh Eftekhari, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull, János Tajti, Lars Edvinsson, Debbie L Hay, Christopher S Walker
The calcitonin receptor (CTR) is relevant to three hormonal systems: amylin, calcitonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Receptors for amylin and calcitonin are targets for treating obesity, diabetes, and bone disorders. CGRP receptors represent a target for pain and migraine. Amylin receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906676/graded-and-discontinuous-epha-ephrinb-expression-patterns-in-the-developing-auditory-brainstem
#12
Matthew M Wallace, J Aaron Harris, Donald Q Brubaker, Caitlyn A Klotz, Mark L Gabriele
Eph-ephrin interactions guide topographic mapping and pattern formation in a variety of systems. In contrast to other sensory pathways, their precise role in the assembly of central auditory circuits remains poorly understood. The auditory midbrain, or inferior colliculus (IC) is an intriguing structure for exploring guidance of patterned projections as adjacent subdivisions exhibit distinct organizational features. The central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) and deep aspects of its neighboring lateral cortex (LCIC, Layer 3) are tonotopically-organized and receive layered inputs from primarily downstream auditory sources...
May 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884266/transduction-profile-of-the-marmoset-central-nervous-system-using-adeno-associated-virus-serotype-9-vectors
#13
Yasunori Matsuzaki, Ayumu Konno, Ryo Mukai, Fumiaki Honda, Masafumi Hirato, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hirokazu Hirai
The common marmoset is a small New World primate that has attracted remarkable attention as a potential experimental animal link between rodents and humans. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated expression of a disease-causing gene or a potential therapeutic gene in the brain may allow the construction of a marmoset model of a brain disorder or an exploration of the possibility of gene therapy. To gain more insights into AAV vector-mediated transduction profiles in the marmoset central nervous system (CNS), we delivered AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors expressing GFP to the cisterna magna or the cerebellar cortex...
February 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857613/trade-off-between-frequency-and-precision-during-stepping-movements-kinematic-and-bold-brain-activation-patterns
#14
Martin Martínez, Miguel Valencia, Marta Vidorreta, Elkin O Luis, Gabriel Castellanos, Federico Villagra, Maria A Fernández-Seara, Maria A Pastor
The central nervous system has the ability to adapt our locomotor pattern to produce a wide range of gait modalities and velocities. In reacting to external pacing stimuli, deviations from an individual preferred cadence provoke a concurrent decrease in accuracy that suggests the existence of a trade-off between frequency and precision; a compromise that could result from the specialization within the control centers of locomotion to ensure a stable transition and optimal adaptation to changing environment...
May 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760498/structural-changes-and-lack-of-hcn1-channels-in-the-binaural-auditory-brainstem-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber
#15
Nikodemus Gessele, Elisabet Garcia-Pino, Damir Omerbašić, Thomas J Park, Ursula Koch
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26755490/characteristic-brain-mri-findings-in-ataxia-neuropathy-spectrum-related-to-polg-mutation
#16
Adriana I Henao, Sonia Pira, Diego A Herrera, Sergio A Vargas, Jorge Montoya, Mauricio Castillo
Patients with mutations in the polymerase gamma gene (POLG) may present with progressive ataxia and in such situations neuroimaging findings may suggest the diagnosis. Herein we report a patient with a POLG gene W748S homozygous mutation and characteristic lesions in the thalamus, cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus seen on magnetic resonance imaging.
February 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746805/prenatal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-effects-on-apoptotic-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-expression-in-the-infant-mouse-brainstem
#17
Arunnjah Vivekanandarajah, Yik Lung Chan, Hui Chen, Rita Machaalani
Infants exposed to cigarette smoked during pregnancy into infancy have increased respiratory and cardiac abnormalities. Nicotine, the major neurotoxic component of cigarette smoke, induces its actions by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), with one downstream effect being increased apoptosis. Using a pre- into post- natal cigarette smoke exposure mouse model (SE), we studied the immunohistochemical expression of nAChR subunits α2, α3, α4, α5, α7, α9, β1 and β2 and two markers of apoptosis, active caspase-3 and TUNEL, in seven nuclei of the medulla and facial nucleus of the pons in male mice...
March 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740379/the-guillain-mollaret-triangle-in-action
#18
Sheena Murdoch, Pushkar Shah, Ravi Jampana
The Guillain-Mollaret triangle comprises the ipsilateral red nucleus in the midbrain, the inferior olive in the medulla and the contralateral dentate nucleus in the cerebellum: together, these form the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway. Pathology in this triangle disinhibits (and so activates) the inferior olivary nucleus. The olivary nucleus then hypertrophies and its rhythmical discharges may manifest clinically as oculopalatal tremor. We describe three cases with either oculopalatal tremor or MRI evidence of olivary hypertrophy caused by vascular insults to this triangle...
June 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26698925/differential-frequency-modulation-of-neural-activity-in-the-lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-in-failed-and-successful-grasps
#19
Jessica Cooperrider, John T Gale, Raghavan Gopalakrishnan, Hugh H Chan, Connor Wathen, Hyun-Joo Park, Kenneth B Baker, Aasef G Shaikh, Andre G Machado
The olivo-cerebellar system has an essential role in the detection and adaptive correction of movement errors. While there is evidence of an error signal in the cerebellar cortex and inferior olivary nucleus, the deep cerebellar nuclei have been less thoroughly investigated. Here, we recorded local field potential activity in the rodent lateral cerebellar nucleus during a skilled reaching task and compared event-related changes in neural activity between unsuccessful and successful attempts. Increased low gamma (40-50 Hz) band power was present throughout the reach and grasp behavior, with no difference between successful and unsuccessful trials...
March 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26618761/-thalamus-and-attention
#20
REVIEW
Kazuhiko Tokoro, Hironobu Sato, Mayumi Yamamoto, Yoshiko Nagai
Attention is the process by which information and selection occurs, the thalamus plays an important role in the selective attention of visual and auditory information. Selective attention is a conscious effort; however, it occurs subconsciously, as well. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) filters visual information before it reaches the cortex (bottom-up attention). The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides a strong inhibitory input to both the LGB and pulvinar. This regulation involves focusing a spotlight on important information, as well as inhibiting unnecessary background information...
December 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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