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inferior olivary nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790896/a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-crh-neurons-in-whole-mouse-brain
#1
Jie Peng, Ben Long, Jing Yuan, Xue Peng, Hong Ni, Xiangning Li, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Anan Li
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707628/brainframe-a-node-level-heterogeneous-accelerator-platform-for-neuron-simulations
#2
Georgios Smaragdos, Georgios Chatzikonstantis, Rahul Kukreja, Harry Sidiropoulos, Dimitrios Rodopoulos, Ioannis Sourdis, Zaid Al-Ars, Christoforos Kachris, Dimitrios Soudris, Chris de Zeeuw, Christos Strydis
OBJECTIVE: The advent of High-Performance Computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain study through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC platforms can often deal with such challenges, the vast diversity of the modeling field does not permit for a homogeneous acceleration platform to effectively address the complete array of modeling requirements...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706504/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-and-palatal-or-oculopalatal-tremor
#3
REVIEW
Caroline Tilikete, Virginie Desestret
Hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive is mainly observed in patients developing palatal tremor (PT) or oculopalatal tremor (OPT). This syndrome manifests as a synchronous tremor of the palate (PT) and/or eyes (OPT) that may also involve other muscles from the branchial arches. It is associated with hypertrophic inferior olivary degeneration that is characterized by enlarged and vacuolated neurons, increased number and size of astrocytes, severe fibrillary gliosis, and demyelination. It appears on MRI as an increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity and enlargement of the inferior olive...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691164/pick-s-disease-with-neuronal-four-repeat-tau-accumulation-in-the-basal-ganglia-brain-stem-nuclei-and-cerebellum
#4
Chikako Ikeda, Osamu Yokota, Tomoko Miki, Shintaro Takenoshita, Hideki Ishizu, Yoko Mori, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Shu-Ichi Ueno, Takeshi Ishihara, Masato Hasegawa, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
It is very rare that cases of Pick's disease, a representative three-repeat (3R) tauopathy, also have significant four-repeat (4R) tau accumulation. Here, we report a Pick's disease case that clinically showed behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia without motor disturbance during the course, and pathologically had 3R tau-positive Pick bodies as well as numerous 4R tau-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs). Abundant 3R tau-positive 4R tau-negative spherical or horseshoe-shaped Pick bodies were found in the frontotemporal cortex, limbic region, striatum and pontine nucleus...
July 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650218/bilateral-surgical-damage-of-the-central-tegmental-tract-resulting-in-bilateral-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-an-mri-case-report
#5
Silvia Lana, Chiara Ganazzoli, Girolamo Crisi
Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare trans-synaptic neuronal degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus caused by an injury to the dentato-rubro-olivary connection, also known as Guillain-Mollaret triangle. It leads to hypertrophy of the affected nucleus rather than atrophy and is characterized by hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. Unilateral and bilateral cases are described. We present a case of a 70-year-old patient affected by a tumor inside the fourth ventricle who suffered from diplopia and right seventh cranial nerve palsy...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647093/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-after-cerebellar-hemorrhage
#6
Gregory Walker, Kaustubh Limaye, Brian T Jankowitz, Ashutosh P Jadhav
We present a striking example of hypertrophic olivary degeneration after cerebellar hemorrhage. This case highlights some important teaching points: unique response of the inferior olivary nucleus to de-afferentation, anatomy of Mollaret's triangle and clinical manifestations of disruption in Mollaret's triangle. The purpose of this teaching case is to highlight a rare but important post-stroke complication.
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247932/the-dentato-rubro-olivary-pathway-revisited-new-mr-imaging-observations-regarding-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration
#7
Gitte Smets, Julie Lambert, Maud Tijssen, Cindy Mai, Thomas Decramer, Wim Vandenberghe, Johannes Van Loon, Philippe Demaerel
INTRODUCTION: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) following a lesion of the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway (DROP) is a well-known imaging finding and has extensively been described in the recent literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed our patients with HOD as a result of a lesion of the DROP in order to analyze the disruption of the DROP and the resulting HOD in comparison with the literature. RESULTS: We observed unusual imaging findings in four patients...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025812/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning
#8
Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
This chapter reviews the past research toward identifying the brain circuit and its computation underlying the associative memory in eyeblink classical conditioning. In the standard delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) and eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) converge in the cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus (IPN) through the pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus. Repeated pairings of CS and US modify synaptic weights in the cerebellar cortex and IPN, enabling IPN neurons to activate the red nucleus and generate the conditioned response (CR)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942473/post-operative-pediatric-cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-and-its-association-with-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration
#9
Shivaram Avula, Michaela Spiteri, Ram Kumar, Emma Lewis, Srikrishna Harave, David Windridge, Chan Ong, Barry Pizer
BACKGROUND: The dentato-thalamo-cortical (DTC) pathway is recognized as the anatomical substrate for postoperative pediatric cerebellar mutism (POPCMS), a well-recognized complication affecting up to 31% of children undergoing posterior fossa brain tumour resection. The proximal structures of the DTC pathway also form a segment of the Guillain and Mollaret triangle, a neural network which when disrupted causes hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) of the inferior olivary nucleus (ION)...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928422/the-development-of-hypertrophic-inferior-olivary-nucleus-in-oculopalatal-tremor
#10
Bokkwan Jun
Oculopalatal tremor is an acquired clinical condition resulting from the interruption of the dentato-rubro-olivary neuronal pathway. The signal change in inferior olivary nucleus and its hypertrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be observed prior to the development of symptomatic oculopalatal tremor. This is a case of the fourth cranial nerve palsy followed by oculopalatal tremor, and increased signal intensity in inferior olivary nucleus on MRI was observed in 7 months after damage to the dentate-rubro-olivary pathway and 5 months prior to the development of oscillopsia and oculopalatal tremor...
December 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843044/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-finding-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-symmetrical-central-tegmental-tract-hyperintensity
#11
Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Evrim Ozmen, Havva Akmaz-Unlu, Namik Kemal Altinbas, Esra Gurkas, Oznur Boyunaga
BACKGROUND: Central tegmental tract is an extrapyramidal tract between red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus which is located in the tegmentum pontis bilaterally and symmetrically. The etiology of the presence of central tegmental tract hyperintensity on MRI is unclear. PURPOSE: In this study our aim is to evaluate the frequency of central tegmental tract lesions in patients with cerebral palsy and control group, as well as to determine whether there is an association between central tegmental tract lesions and cerebral palsy types...
March 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772756/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#12
REVIEW
Shyam Sabat, Neil Mannering, Amit Agarwal
Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration (HOD) is a rare neurological condition caused by trans-synaptic degeneration in the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in varied clinical symptoms, classical being palatal tremors, along with characteristic imaging presentation. Large number of pathologic lesions can cause this condition, ranging from ischemic stroke to neoplasm. The most common conditions include hemorrhage, vascular malformations and infarct. Magnetic resonance scan (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice which shows signal changes with hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus, as well as the primary underlying pathology...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767209/active-integration-of-glutamatergic-input-to-the-inferior-olive-generates-bidirectional-postsynaptic-potentials
#13
Derek L F Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
KEY POINTS: We establish experimental preparations for optogenetic investigation of glutamatergic input to the inferior olive. Neurones in the principal olivary nucleus receive monosynaptic extra-somatic glutamatergic input from the neocortex. Glutamatergic inputs to neurones in the inferior olive generate bidirectional postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), with a fast excitatory component followed by a slower inhibitory component. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are required for the slow inhibitory component of glutamatergic PSPs and oppose temporal summation of inputs at intervals ≤ 20 ms...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638512/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-neurons-in-the-mouse-brain-a-study-using-corticotropin-releasing-factor-modified-yellow-fluorescent-protein-knock-in-mouse
#14
Junko Kono, Kohtarou Konno, Ashraf Hossain Talukder, Toshimitsu Fuse, Manabu Abe, Katsuya Uchida, Shuhei Horio, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Keiichi Itoi
We examined the morphological features of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in a mouse line in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was expressed under the CRF promoter. We previously generated the CRF-Venus knock-in mouse, in which Venus is inserted into the CRF gene locus by homologous recombination. In the present study, the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (Neo), driven by the pgk-1 promoter, was deleted from the CRF-Venus mouse genome, and a CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse was generated. Venus expression is much more prominent in the CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse when compared to the CRF-Venus mouse...
September 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620513/dopaminergic-projections-of-the-subparafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-to-the-auditory-brainstem
#15
Alexander A Nevue, Richard A Felix, Christine V Portfors
Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis...
November 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536461/bilateral-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-and-holmes-tremor-without-palatal-tremor-an-unusual-association
#16
Carlos Cosentino, Miriam Velez, Yesenia Nuñez, Henry Palomino, Darko Quispe, Martha Flores, Luis Torres
BACKGROUND: Lesions in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle or dentate-rubro-olivary pathway may lead to hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD), a secondary trans-synaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is usually associated with palatal tremor and rarely with Holmes tremor. Bilateral HOD is a very unusual condition and very few cases are reported. CASE REPORT: We report here two cases of bilateral HOD after two different vascular lesions located at the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thus impairing both central tegmental tracts and interrupting bilaterally the dentate-rubral-olivary pathway...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436355/an-autopsied-case-of-mm1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mm2-cortical-with-thalamic-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-presenting-with-hyperintensities-on-diffusion-weighted-mri-before-clinical-onset
#17
Yasushi Iwasaki, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida
A 78-year-old Japanese man presented with rapidly progressive dementia and gait disturbances. Eight months before the onset of clinical symptoms, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) demonstrated hyperintensities in the right temporal, right parietal and left medial occipital cortices. Two weeks after symptom onset, DWI showed extensive hyperintensity in the bilateral cerebral cortex, with regions of higher brightness that existed prior to symptom onset still present. Four weeks after clinical onset, periodic sharp wave complexes were identified on an electroencephalogram...
February 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222085/-the-essence-of-essential-tremor-neurochemical-bases
#18
REVIEW
A Gironell, J Marin-Lahoz
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor is the most frequent movement disorder in adults. It has been considered a benign disease, but can result in significant physical and psychosocial disability. Pharmacological treatment is still not very satisfactory. Its causation, pathophysiology and anatomy remain only partially understood. AIMS: An understanding of its neurochemical basis is essential to be able to develop more efficient therapies. We review what is currently known in this field in order to motivate further research and ideas that allow an enhanced understanding of the disease and which foster the development of new pharmacological therapies...
June 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937009/loss-of-ptf1a-leads-to-a-widespread-cell-fate-misspecification-in-the-brainstem-affecting-the-development-of-somatosensory-and-viscerosensory-nuclei
#19
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Ekaterina Y Steshina, Victor V Chizhikov
UNLABELLED: The brainstem contains diverse neuronal populations that regulate a wide range of processes vital to the organism. Proper cell-fate specification decisions are critical to achieve neuronal diversity in the CNS, but the mechanisms regulating cell-fate specification in the developing brainstem are poorly understood. Previously, it has been shown that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ptf1a is required for the differentiation and survival of neurons of the inferior olivary and cochlear brainstem nuclei, which contribute to motor coordination and sound processing, respectively...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921579/the-effects-of-the-auditory-brainstem-response-before-and-after-fluoro-gold-injection-in-medial-geniculate-body
#20
Meichan Zhu, Guangyao He, Heng Li, Mao Xie, Bibek Gyanwali, Lihong Xie, Yikang Liu, Songhua Tan, Tiansong Lin, Anzhou Tang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use the tree shrew as an otological model, not only to verify the location of the auditory pathway in tree shrews by fluoro-gold (FG) but also to elucidate the effects of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) before and after FG injection. METHODS: FG was injected into the medial geniculate body (MGB) of experimental group (n=10).The normal group (n=10) was inserted the microsyringe, which was not perfused FG. Hearing was assessed by testing ABRs before and after the operation...
2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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