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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733568/nucleus-prepositus-hypoglossi-lesions-produce-a-unique-ocular-motor-syndrome
#1
Sung-Hee Kim, David S Zee, Sascha du Lac, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. METHODS: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. RESULTS: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711146/distribution-and-structure-of-synapses-on-medial-vestibular-nuclear-neurons-targeted-by-cerebellar-flocculus-purkinje-cells-and-vestibular-nerve-in-mice-light-and-electron-microscopy-studies
#2
Hitomi Matsuno, Moeko Kudoh, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Soichi Nagao
Adaptations of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic response eye movements have been studied as an experimental model of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Several previous physiological and pharmacological studies have consistently suggested that the cerebellar flocculus (FL) Purkinje cells (P-cells) and the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons targeted by FL (FL-targeted MVN neurons) may respectively maintain the memory traces of short- and long-term adaptation. To study the basic structures of the FL-MVN synapses by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), we injected green florescence protein (GFP)-expressing lentivirus into FL to anterogradely label the FL P-cell axons in C57BL/6J mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643747/cerebellar-control-of-eye-movements
#3
Shin C Beh, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum plays a central role in the online, real-time control, and long-term modulation of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We reviewed the latest (fifth) edition of Leigh and Zee's textbook, The Neurology of Eye Movements, and literature in PUBMED using the following terms: cerebellum, flocculus, paraflocculus, vermis, oculomotor vermis, dorsal vermis, caudal fastigial nucleus, fastigial oculomotor region, uvula, nodulus, ansiform lobule, eye movements, saccades, ipsipulsion, contrapulsion, smooth pursuit, vergence, convergence, divergence, gaze-holding, down beat nystagmus, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), angular VOR, translational VOR, skew deviation, velocity storage...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638066/eye-movements-in-vestibular-disorders
#4
A Kheradmand, A I Colpak, D S Zee
The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328868/xantholipin-b-produced-by-the-stnr-inactivation-mutant-streptomyces-flocculus-cgmcc-4-1223-wjn-1
#5
Sifan Wu, Tingting Huang, Dan Xie, Jing Wo, Xiaozheng Wang, Zixin Deng, Shuangjun Lin
Xantholipin is a polycyclic xanthone antibiotic that exhibits potent cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In this study, a new xanthone-type antibiotic, xantholipin B (1), was isolated for the first time along with its known derivative, xantholipin (2), from strain WJN-1, an aminotransferase inactivation mutant of the streptonigrin-producer Streptomyces flocculus CGMCC 4.1223. The structure of 1 was established based on spectroscopic analysis and supports the previously proposed biosynthetic pathway as a key intermediate of 2...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192984/is-cerebellar-architecture-shaped-by-sensory-ecology-in-the-new-zealand-kiwi-apteryx-mantelli
#6
Jeremy R Corfield, Jeffrey Kolominsky, Iulia Craciun, Bridget E Mulvany-Robbins, Douglas R Wylie
Among some mammals and birds, the cerebellar architecture appears to be adapted to the animal's ecological niche, particularly their sensory ecology and behavior. This relationship is, however, not well understood. To explore this, we examined the expression of zebrin II (ZII) in the cerebellum of the kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), a fully nocturnal bird with auditory, tactile, and olfactory specializations and a reduced visual system. We predicted that the cerebellar architecture, particularly those regions receiving visual inputs and those that receive trigeminal afferents from their beak, would be modified in accordance with their unique way of life...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047067/isolation-and-in-vitro-selection-of-actinomycetes-strains-as-potential-probiotics-for-aquaculture
#7
Milagro García Bernal, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova, Pedro Enrique Saucedo, Marlen Casanova González, Ricardo Medina Marrero, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui
AIM: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates...
February 2015: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001776/-cerebellar-control-of-ocular-movements-application-to-the-topographical-diagnosis-of-cerebellar-lesions
#8
REVIEW
Genjiro Hirose
Over the last decade, substantial information on cerebellar oculomotor control has been provided by the use of sophisticated neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and imaging techniques. We now know that an intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for normal oculomotor performance. This review clarifies the current knowledge on structure-function correlations of the cerebellum in relation to ocular movements and allows them to be applied to topographical diagnosis of cerebellar lesions. The cerebellar regions most closely related to oculomotor function are: (1) the flocculus/paraflocculus for VOR suppression, cancellation, smooth pursuit eye movement and gaze-holding, (2) the nodulus/ventral uvula for velocity storage and low frequency prolonged vestibular response, and (3) the dorsal oculomotor vermis (declive VI, folium VII) and the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (fastigial oculomotor region) for saccades and smooth pursuit initiation...
March 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859398/visual-suppression-is-impaired-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-6-but-preserved-in-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#9
Masahiko Kishi, Ryuji Sakakibara, Tomoe Yoshida, Masahiko Yamamoto, Mitsuya Suzuki, Manabu Kataoka, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Akihiko Tateno, Fuyuki Tateno
Positional vertigo is a common neurologic emergency and mostly the etiology is peripheral. However, central diseases may mimic peripheral positional vertigo at their initial presentation. We here describe the results of a visual suppression test in six patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), a central positional vertigo, and nine patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the major peripheral positional vertigo. As a result, the visual suppression value of both diseases differed significantly; e...
2012: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675624/choroid-plexus-of-the-fourth-ventricle-review-and-anatomic-study-highlighting-anatomical-variations
#10
R Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M Shoja, Anjali Aggarwal, Tulika Gupta, Marios Loukas, Daisy Sahni, Shaheryar F Ansari, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
Relatively few studies have been performed that analyze the morphology of the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle. Due to the importance of this tissue as a landmark on imaging and during surgical intervention of the fourth ventricle, the authors performed a cadaveric study to better characterize this important structure. The choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle of 60 formalin fixed adult human brains was examined and measured. The horizontal distance from the midline to the lateral most point of the protruding tip of the horizontal limbs was measured...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536776/-a-patient-with-early-stage-multiple-system-atrophy-showing-augmented-nystagmus-in-light
#11
Masayoshi Oguri, Yousuke Nakamura, Ayako Hara, Hiroya Kitano, Toru Motokura
The ability to fix the eyes on a target, visual fixation, is important for the maintenance of equilibrium. The visual suppression (VS) test is one method of measuring the function of visual fixation. The test records caloric nystagmus by electrooculography, and the maximum slow phase velocity of caloric nystagmus in darkness is compared with the slow phase velocity in light with eyes fixed. Lesions of the cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebrum cause abnormalities of VS. We report a patient whose VS became a clue in the diagnosis of a disorder of the central nervous system...
April 2015: Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26420782/anisotropy-of-human-horizontal-and-vertical-navigation-in-real-space-behavioral-and-pet-correlates
#12
Andreas Zwergal, Florian Schöberl, Guoming Xiong, Cauchy Pradhan, Aleksandar Covic, Philipp Werner, Christoph Trapp, Peter Bartenstein, Christian la Fougère, Klaus Jahn, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt
Spatial orientation was tested during a horizontal and vertical real navigation task in humans. Video tracking of eye movements was used to analyse the behavioral strategy and combined with simultaneous measurements of brain activation and metabolism ([(18)F]-FDG-PET). Spatial navigation performance was significantly better during horizontal navigation. Horizontal navigation was predominantly visually and landmark-guided. PET measurements indicated that glucose metabolism increased in the right hippocampus, bilateral retrosplenial cortex, and pontine tegmentum during horizontal navigation...
September 28, 2015: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339858/microvascular-anatomy-of-the-cerebellar-parafloccular-perforating-space
#13
Pablo Sosa, Manuel Dujovny, Ibe Onyekachi, Noressia Sockwell, Fabián Cremaschi, Luis E Savastano
OBJECTIVE: The cerebellopontine angle is a common site for tumor growth and vascular pathologies requiring surgical manipulations that jeopardize cranial nerve integrity and cerebellar and brainstem perfusion. To date, a detailed study of vessels perforating the cisternal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle-namely, the paraflocculus or parafloccular perforating space-has yet to be published. In this report, the perforating vessels of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in the parafloccular space, or on the cisternal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle, are described to elucidate their relevance pertaining to microsurgery and the different pathologies that occur at the cerebellopontine angle...
February 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26337365/a-review-of-analogies-between-some-neuroanatomical-terms-and-roman-household-objects
#14
REVIEW
Dana Turliuc, Şerban Turliuc, Andrei Cucu, Gabriela Florenţa Dumitrescu, Alexandru Cărăuleanu, Cătălin Buzdugă, Camelia Tamaş, Anca Sava, Claudia Florida Costea
Wishing to contribute to an easier remembrance of the name, shape, location and function of some neuroanatomical structures, this paper aims to identify the origin of eight Latin terms (pulvinar, capsula, infundibulum, operculum, flocculus, forceps, falx, habenula). Therefore, we analyzed the etymology of these Latin neuroanatomical terms in brief, and searched the possible correlations between the shape of different household objects used in Roman Antiquity and the shape of neuroanatomical structures bearing those names...
March 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26280650/visuo-vestibular-information-processing-by-unipolar-brush-cells-in-the-rabbit-flocculus
#15
Robert A Hensbroek, Tom J H Ruigrok, Boeke J van Beugen, Jun Maruta, John I Simpson
The unipolar brush cell (UBC) is a glutamatergic granular layer interneuron that is predominantly located in the vestibulocerebellum and parts of the vermis. In rat and rabbit, we previously found using juxtacellular labeling combined with spontaneous activity recording that cells with highly regular spontaneous activity belong to the UBC category. Making use of this signature, we recorded from floccular UBCs in both anesthetized and awake rabbits while delivering visuo-vestibular stimulation by using sigmoidal rotation of the whole animal...
October 2015: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26137459/expression-pattern-of-immediate-early-genes-in-the-cerebellum-of-d1r-ko-d2r-ko-and-wild-type-mice-under-vestibular-controlled-activity
#16
Toru Nakamura, Asako Sato, Takashi Kitsukawa, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Tetsuo Yamamori
We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere...
2015: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26111610/bdnf-signaling-in-the-rat-cerebello-vestibular-pathway-during-vestibular-compensation-bdnf-signaling-in-vestibular-compensation
#17
Liuqing Zhou, Wen Zhou, Sulin Zhang, Bo Liu, Pei Liang, Yan Zhou, Tao Zhou, Kun Zhang, Yangming Leng, Weijia Kong
Vestibular compensation, which is the behavioral recovery from lesions to the peripheral vestibular system, is attributed to plasticity of the central vestibular system. It has been reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed and released in an activity-dependent manner. Upon binding to the tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), BDNF can acutely modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in the central nervous system. To assess the possible contribution of BDNF to this recovery process, we studied the expression of BDNF, TrkB...
September 2015: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26055313/decreased-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-availability-in-a-patient-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-6-a-11-c-itmm-pet-study
#18
Kenji Ishibashi, Yoshiharu Miura, Kinya Ishikawa, Kenji Ishii, Kiichi Ishiwata
OBJECTIVE: Imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1), localized exclusively in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and related to cerebellar function, has recently become possible using positron emission tomography (PET). We report the initial mGluR1 imaging in a 74-year-old woman with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). METHODS: The patient and 9 age-matched healthy controls underwent PET scanning with a mGluR1 radiotracer, N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl] -4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26024694/downbeat-nystagmus-evidence-for-enhancement-of-utriculo-ocular-pathways-by-ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#19
Tatiana Bremova, Stefan Glasauer, Michael Strupp
Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is caused by an impairment of Purkinje cells in the flocculus. The decreased cerebellar inhibitory input affects otolith pathways. Since ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o-/cVEMP) test the otoliths, the VEMP were measured in DBN patients and in controls. Sixteen patients with DBN, 14 cerebellar oculomotor disorder patients without DBN (COMD), and 16 healthy controls were examined with o-/cVEMP. Computational modeling was used to predict VEMP differences between groups...
November 2015: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25980905/gaze-holding-deficits-discriminate-early-from-late-onset-cerebellar-degeneration
#20
Alexander A Tarnutzer, K P Weber, B Schuknecht, D Straumann, S Marti, G Bertolini
The vestibulo-cerebellum calibrates the output of the inherently leaky brainstem neural velocity-to-position integrator to provide stable gaze holding. In healthy humans small-amplitude centrifugal nystagmus is present at extreme gaze-angles, with a non-linear relationship between eye-drift velocity and eye eccentricity. In cerebellar degeneration this calibration is impaired, resulting in pathological gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN). For cerebellar dysfunction, increased eye drift may be present at any gaze angle (reflecting pure scaling of eye drift found in controls) or restricted to far-lateral gaze (reflecting changes in shape of the non-linear relationship) and resulting eyed-drift patterns could be related to specific disorders...
August 2015: Journal of Neurology
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