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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501818/the-central-nervous-system-and-bone-metabolism-an-evolving-story
#1
Paul Dimitri, Cliff Rosen
Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180340/effects-of-nicotine-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-vitamin-e-on-morphology-viability-and-osteogenic-gene-expression-in-mg-63-osteoblast-like-cells
#2
Maryam Torshabi, Zeinab Rezaei Esfahrood, Parisan Gholamin, Elahe Karami
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that oxidative stress induced by nicotine plays an important role in bone loss. Vitamin E with its antioxidative properties may be able to reverse the effects of nicotine on bone. This study aimed to assess the effects of nicotine in the presence and absence of vitamin E on morphology, viability and osteogenic gene expression in MG-63 (osteosarcoma) human osteoblast-like cells. METHODS: We treated the cells with 5 mM nicotine. The viability and morphology of cells were evaluated respectively using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and crystal violet assays...
May 16, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26722551/effects-of-a7nachr-agonist-on-the-tissue-estrogen-receptor-expression-of-castrated-rats
#3
Feng Ma, Fan Gong, Jinhan Lv, Jun Gao, Jingzu Ma
Osteoporosis is one common disease in postmenopausal women due to depressed estrogen level. It has been known that inflammatory factors are involved in osteoporosis pathogenesis. One regulator of inflammatory cascade reaction, a7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR), therefore, may exert certain role in osteoporosis. This study thus investigated this question on an osteoporosis rat model after castration. Rats were firstly castrated to induce osteoporosis, and then received a7nAChR agonist (PNU-282987), diethylstilbestrol or saline via intraperitoneal injection...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26386154/impact-of-acetylcholine-and-nicotine-on-human-osteoclastogenesis-in-vitro
#4
Sebastian Ternes, Katja Trinkaus, Ivonne Bergen, Sven Knaack, Michael Gelinsky, Olaf Kilian, Christian Heiss, Katrin Susanne Lips
Recent studies showed that the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) is taking part in bone metabolism. Most studies investigated its role in osteoblasts, but up to now, the involvement of the NNCS in human osteoclastogenesis remains relatively unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to determine whether the application of acetylcholine (ACh, 10(−4) M), nicotine (10(−6) M), mineralized collagen membranes or brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 40 ng/mL) influences the mRNA regulation of molecular components of the NNCS and the neurotrophin family during osteoclastogenesis...
November 2015: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26215588/regulation-of-acetylcholine-receptors-during-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-harvested-from-human-reaming-debris
#5
Andreas Zablotni, Olga Dakischew, Katja Trinkaus, Sonja Hartmann, Gabor Szalay, Christian Heiss, Katrin Susanne Lips
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important signaling molecule in non-neuronal systems where it is involved in regulation of viability, proliferation, differentiation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that are capable to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Patients with the systemic disease osteoporosis show altered MSC properties, reduced bone formation and mineral density followed by increased bone fragility and high fracture incidence. Here we asked whether nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are expressed in osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes differentiated from bone MSC extracted from human reaming debris (RDMSC) that was harvested during surgery of long bone diaphyseal fractures...
November 2015: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25757953/sirt3-mnsod-axis-represses-nicotine-induced-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-mtdna-damage-in-osteoblasts
#6
Yong Li, Chen Yu, Guangsi Shen, Guangfei Li, Junkang Shen, Youjia Xu, Jianping Gong
Increasing evidence has suggested an important role played by reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis, and nicotine is one of the major components in tobacco. However, the mechanism by which nicotine promotes osteoporosis is not fully understood. Here, in this study, we found that nicotine-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in osteoblasts differentiated from mouse mesenchymal stem cell...
April 2015: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25636336/small-changes-in-bone-structure-of-female-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-knockout-mice
#7
Katrin S Lips, Özcan Yanko, Mathias Kneffel, Imke Panzer, Vivien Kauschke, Maria Madzharova, Anja Henss, Peter Schmitz, Marcus Rohnke, Tobias Bäuerle, Yifei Liu, Marian Kampschulte, Alexander C Langheinrich, Lutz Dürselen, Anita Ignatius, Christian Heiss, Reinhard Schnettler, Olaf Kilian
BACKGROUND: Recently, analysis of bone from knockout mice identified muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 (mAChR M3) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit α2 as positive regulator of bone mass accrual whereas of male mice deficient for α7-nAChR (α7KO) did not reveal impact in regulation of bone remodeling. Since female sex hormones are involved in fair coordination of osteoblast bone formation and osteoclast bone degradation we assigned the current study to analyze bone strength, composition and microarchitecture of female α7KO compared to their corresponding wild-type mice (α7WT)...
2015: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25322153/a-comprehensive-mixture-of-tobacco-smoke-components-retards-orthodontic-tooth-movement-via-the-inhibition-of-osteoclastogenesis-in-a-rat-model
#8
Maya Nagaie, Aki Nishiura, Yoshitomo Honda, Shin-Ichi Fujiwara, Naoyuki Matsumoto
Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of numerous components. Nevertheless, most experiments have examined the effects of individual chemicals in tobacco smoke. The comprehensive effects of components on tooth movement and bone resorption remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that a comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components (TSCs) attenuated bone resorption through osteoclastogenesis inhibition, thereby retarding experimental tooth movement in a rat model. An elastic power chain (PC) inserted between the first and second maxillary molars robustly yielded experimental tooth movement within 10 days...
October 15, 2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24956521/anabolic-actions-of-the-regenerative-agent-enamel-matrix-derivative-emd-in-oral-periosteal-fibroblasts-and-mg-63-osteoblasts-modulation-by-nicotine-and-glutathione-in-a-redox%C3%A2-environment
#9
Tareq Al-Qattan, Mena Soory
Our study seeks to explore anabolic effects of a periodontal regenerative agent enamel matrix derivative (EMD). Its modulation by nicotine and the anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH) are investigated in human periosteal fibroblasts (HPF) and MG63 osteoblasts. Androgen biomarkers of oxidative stress and healing, resulting from radiolabeled androgen substrates are assayed. This in vitro model simulates a redox environment relevant to the periodontal lesion. It aims to confirm the hypothesis that EMD is an effective regenerative agent in a typically redox environment of the periodontal lesion...
2012: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24830656/effect-of-nicotine-on-rankl-and-opg-and-bone-mineral-density
#10
Soycan Mizrak, Volkan Turan, Sevinc Inan, Aysegul Uysal, Candeger Yilmaz, Gülinnaz Ercan
AIM: The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is a key in maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss. In this study, our aim was to assess the effects of long-term nicotine exposure on plasma RANKL and OPG levels, tissue RANKL and OPG immunoreactivities, and bone mineral density (BMD) scores in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six Swiss Albino rats weighing 70 ± 10 g were divided into three groups. While the controls (n = 12) were only given normal drinking water, for low-dose nicotine (LDN) group (n = 12) 0...
December 2014: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24777817/sub-toxic-nicotine-concentrations-affect-extracellular-matrix-and-growth-factor-signaling-gene-expressions-in-human-osteoblasts
#11
Lorella Marinucci, Maria Bodo, Stefania Balloni, Paola Locci, Tiziano Baroni
Exposure to nicotine and other compounds contained in cigarette smoking affects human health. This study examined the effects of exposure to a single or multiple sub-toxic nicotine concentrations on human osteoblasts. Cell growth and expression of genes involved in bone differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism, and growth factor signaling pathways were investigated in nicotine-treated cells compared to untreated cells. Depending on osteoblast concentration and maturation stages, nicotine differently regulated cell growth...
December 2014: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24508663/acetylcholine-affects-osteocytic-mlo-y4-cells-via-acetylcholine-receptors
#12
Yuanyuan Ma, Xianxian Li, Jing Fu, Yue Li, Li Gao, Ling Yang, Ping Zhang, Jiefei Shen, Hang Wang
The identification of the neuronal control of bone remodeling has become one of the many significant recent advances in bone biology. Cholinergic activity has recently been shown to favor bone mass accrual by complex cellular regulatory networks. Here, we identified the gene expression of the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (m- and nAChRs) in mice tibia tissue and in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells. Acetylcholine, which is a classical neurotransmitter and an osteo-neuromediator, not only influences the mRNA expression of the AChR subunits but also significantly induces the proliferation and viability of osteocytes...
March 25, 2014: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24353962/nicotine-increases-osteoblast-activity-of-induced-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-a-dose-dependent-manner-an-in-vitro-cell-culture-experiment
#13
Scott D Daffner, Stacey Waugh, Timothy L Norman, Nilay Mukherjee, John C France
Previous studies by our group showed that nicotine delivered via a transdermal nicotine patch significantly enhanced posterior spinal fusion rates in rabbits. Nicotine transdermal patches provide a steady serum level; there may be a dose-dependent effect of nicotine on posterior spinal fusion. In an in vitro cell culture model of rabbit bone marrow-derived osteoblast-like cells, cells were exposed to different concentrations of nicotine (0, 20, 40, 80 ng/mL and 10, 100, 250 μg/mL). Wells were stained with an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining kit to determine ALP enzyme activity...
September 2012: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23888288/cigarette-smoking-and-musculoskeletal-disorders
#14
Michele Abate, Daniele Vanni, Andrea Pantalone, Vincenzo Salini
Cigarette smoking has deleterious effects on the musculo-skeletal system. The loss of bone mineral content and increased incidence of fractures are the best known negative consequences. The pathogenesis is complex, due to direct toxic effects on osteoblasts/osteoclasts activity of nicotine, and indirect actions on sex and adrenocortical hormones, vitamin D, intestinal calcium absorption, vessels and oxygen supply. Smoking may favour the onset or aggravate the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and back pain...
April 2013: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23686245/activating-transcription-factor-4-is-involved-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-contributing-to-vascular-calcification
#15
Xiao-Hui Duan, Jin-Rui Chang, Jing Zhang, Bao-Hong Zhang, Yu-Lin Li, Xu Teng, Yi Zhu, Jie Du, Chao-Shu Tang, Yong-Fen Qi
Our previous work reported that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated apoptosis was activated during vascular calcification (VC). Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and ERS-induced apoptosis. However, whether ATF4 is involved in ERS-mediated apoptosis contributing to VC remains unclear. In the present study, in vivo VC was induced in rats by administering vitamin D3 plus nicotine. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro was induced by incubation in calcifying media containing β-glycerophosphate and CaCl2...
September 2013: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23555029/nicotine-affects-bone-resorption-and-suppresses-the-expression-of-cathepsin-k-mmp-9-and-vacuolar-type-h-atpase-d2-and-actin-organization-in-osteoclasts
#16
Hideki Tanaka, Natsuko Tanabe, Takayuki Kawato, Kumiko Nakai, Taro Kariya, Sakurako Matsumoto, Ning Zhao, Masafumi Motohashi, Masao Maeno
Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of several cancers, osteoporosis, and inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Nicotine is one of the major components of tobacco. In previous study, we showed that nicotine inhibits mineralized nodule formation by osteoblasts, and the culture medium from osteoblasts containing nicotine and lipopolysaccharide increases osteoclast differentiation. However, the direct effect of nicotine on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is poorly understood...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23497312/advanced-glycation-end-products-accelerate-rat-vascular-calcification-through-rage-oxidative-stress
#17
Qin Wei, Xiaomei Ren, Yibo Jiang, Hong Jin, Naifeng Liu, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Arterial media calcification (AMC) is highly prevalent and is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, stroke and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Previous research suggests that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are responsible for vascular calcification in diabetic patients. The potential link between oxidative stress and AGEs-induced vascular calcification, however, has not been examined. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce DM (DM)...
2013: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23410538/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-nicotine-on-bone-bone-cells-and-fracture-repair
#18
REVIEW
Rami Kallala, Jonathan Barrow, Simon Matthew Graham, Nikolaos Kanakaris, Peter V Giannoudis
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoke has negative effects on bone metabolism and fracture repair. However, no study has reviewed effects of nicotine on bone and fracture repair independent of other constituents of cigarette smoke. The authors review the existing evidence of the effect of nicotine on 'bone' and 'bone cells' and fracture repair, drawing conclusions relevant to clinical practice and future research. AREAS COVERED: A literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines and PubMed, Cochrane, MEDLINE/OVID, EMBASE, NHS Evidence and Google scholar databases...
March 2013: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23192567/sodium-hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-nicotine-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-osteoclastic-differentiation-and-reversed-osteoblastic-differentiation-in-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#19
Sun-Kyung Lee, Jong-Hyuk Chung, Sung-Chul Choi, Q-Schick Auh, Young-Man Lee, Sang-Im Lee, Eun-Cheol Kim
Although previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) stimulated or inhibited osteoclastic differentiation, little is known about the effects of H(2)S on the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To determine the possible bioactivities of H(2)S on bone metabolism, we investigated the in vitro effects of H(2)S on cytotoxicity, osteoblastic, and osteoclastic differentiation as well as the underlying mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and nicotine-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs)...
May 2013: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23049610/effects-of-palm-vitamin-e-on-bone-formation-related-gene-expression-in-nicotine-treated-rats
#20
Seham Salem Ahmed Abukhadir, Norazlina Mohamed, Suzana Makpol, Norliza Muhammad
The study determines the effects of palm vitamin E on the gene expression of bone-formation-related genes in nicotine-treated rats. Male rats were divided into three groups: normal saline olive oil (NSO), nicotine olive oil (NO), and nicotine palm vitamin E (NE). The treatment was carried out in 2 phases. During the first 2 months, the NSO group received normal saline while the NO and NE groups received nicotine 7 mg/kg, 6 days a week, intraperitoneally. The following 2 months, normal saline and nicotine administration was stopped and was replaced with oral supplementation of olive oil for the NSO and NO groups and oral supplementation of palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg) for the NE group...
2012: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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