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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520662/anxiety-disorders-in-adults-with-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-evidence-of-difficulties-more-than-10-years-postinjury
#1
Michelle Albicini, Audrey McKinlay
OBJECTIVE: To explore long-term psychiatric outcomes in individuals with a history of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI). SETTING: Hospital emergency department, medical admission records and outpatient settings. PARTICIPANTS: There were 95 males (M = 22.78 years, SD = 3.44 years) and 74 females (M = 22.27 years, SD = 3.09 years), 65 with mild TBI (M = 23.25 years, SD = 3.58 years), 61 with moderate-severe TBI (M = 22...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513061/disorder-specific-versus-generic-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-children-and-young-people-a-systematic-narrative-review-of-evidence-for-the-effectiveness-of-disorder-specific-cbt-compared-with-the-disorder-generic-treatment-coping-cat
#2
Rose Oldham-Cooper, Maria Loades
BACKGROUND: Coping Cat (CC), a generic cognitive-behavioral intervention for anxiety disorders in children and young people, is recommended in the United Kingdom for social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety (SA), and specific phobias (SP), with disorder-specific approaches generally favored in treatment of anxiety disorders in adults. OBJECTIVES: To compare CC with disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions based on anxiety-related treatment outcomes...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512692/virtual-reality-enhanced-extinction-of-phobias-and-post-traumatic-stress
#3
REVIEW
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Carly Yasinski, Nicole Manjin, Barbara Olasov Rothbaum
Virtual reality (VR) refers to an advanced technological communication interface in which the user is actively participating in a computer-generated 3-dimensional virtual world that includes computer sensory input devices used to simulate real-world interactive experiences. VR has been used within psychiatric treatment for anxiety disorders, particularly specific phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder, given several advantages that VR provides for use within treatment for these disorders. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorder is grounded in fear-conditioning models, in which extinction learning involves the process through which conditioned fear responses decrease or are inhibited...
May 16, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472176/testing-the-metacognitive-model-against-the-benchmark-cbt-model-of-social-anxiety-disorder-is-it-time-to-move-beyond-cognition
#4
Henrik Nordahl, Adrian Wells
The recommended treatment for Social Phobia is individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT). CBT-treatments emphasize social self-beliefs (schemas) as the core underlying factor for maladaptive self-processing and social anxiety symptoms. However, the need for such beliefs in models of psychopathology has recently been questioned. Specifically, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders asserts that particular beliefs about thinking (metacognitive beliefs) are involved in most disorders, including social anxiety, and are a more important factor underlying pathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456564/respiratory-and-hemodynamic-contributions-to-emotion-related-pre-syncopal-vasovagal-symptoms
#5
Johanna M Harrison, Philippe T Gilchrist, Tiana S Corovic, Curtis Bogetti, Yuqing Song, Simon L Bacon, Blaine Ditto
Vasovagal reactions are conventionally understood as resulting from systemic changes in cardiovascular activity; however, there exists a complementary perspective focused on specific changes in cerebral vasoconstriction associated with hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia. The present study investigated the role cardiovascular and respiratory activity in self-reported pre-syncopal vasovagal reactions to a surgery video in a sample a 49 healthy women. Participants who indicated more previous real-life episodes of dizziness reported experiencing significantly more symptoms in the laboratory consistent with a vasovagal response...
April 26, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433854/comorbidity-age-of-onset-and-suicidality-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-an-international-collaboration
#6
V Brakoulias, V Starcevic, A Belloch, C Brown, Y A Ferrao, L F Fontenelle, C Lochner, D Marazziti, H Matsunaga, E C Miguel, Ycj Reddy, M C do Rosario, R G Shavitt, A Shyam Sundar, D J Stein, A R Torres, K Viswasam
OBJECTIVES: To collate data from multiple obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment centers across seven countries and five continents, and to report findings in relation to OCD comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders, and suicidality, in a large clinical and ethnically diverse sample, with the aim of investigating cultural variation and the utility of the psychiatric diagnostic classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. METHODS: Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on current and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders and suicidality in their patients with OCD...
April 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423069/trypophobia-an-investigation-of-clinical-features
#7
Michelle Vlok-Barnard, Dan J Stein
Objective: Trypophobia refers to the fear of, or aversion to, clusters of holes. We assessed clinical features of trypophobia and investigated whether it most resembled a specific phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods: An online survey was conducted to gather information on sociodemographic variables, course and duration, severity, associated features, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and levels of psychological distress and impairment in individuals with trypophobia...
April 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421901/bmi-at-early-puerperium-body-image-eating-attitudes-and-mood-states
#8
Carmela Mento, Maria Le Donne, Sabrina Crisafulli, Amelia Rizzo, Salvatore Settineri
The present study was aimed to verify if body weight could influence self-perception, in terms of body image, mood states, dissatisfaction with physical appearance and risk of eating disorders. In particular, we evaluated the differences between women of normal weight vs. overweight and obese during the delicate phase of puerperium to verify if there were different emotional structures, linked to BMI. Thirty-two women, 16 normal-weight and 16 overweight or obese, belonging to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University Hospital, were individually interviewed...
May 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417842/blood-injection-injury-b-i-i-specific-phobia-affects-the-outcome-of-hypoxic-challenge-testing
#9
Kristofer J Spurling, Veronica P McGoldrick
BACKGROUND: Blood-injection-injury (B-I-I) phobia is capable of producing inaccurate hypoxic challenge testing results due to anxiety-induced hyperventilation. CASE REPORT: A 69-yr-old woman with a history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation requiring supplementary oxygen on mobilizing, reduced DLco, and B-I-I phobia was referred for hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) to assess in-flight oxygen requirements. HCT was performed by breathing a 15% FIo2 gas mixture, simulating the available oxygen in ambient air onboard aircraft pressurized to an equivalent altitude of 8000 ft...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403387/skin-conductance-responses-and-neural-activations-during-fear-conditioning-and-extinction-recall-across-anxiety-disorders
#10
Marie-France Marin, Rachel G Zsido, Huijin Song, Natasha B Lasko, William D S Killgore, Scott L Rauch, Naomi M Simon, Mohammed R Milad
Importance: The fear conditioning and extinction neurocircuitry has been extensively studied in healthy and clinical populations, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite significant overlap of symptoms between posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders, the latter has received less attention. Given that dysregulated fear levels characterize anxiety disorders, examining the neural correlates of fear and extinction learning may shed light on the pathogenesis of underlying anxiety disorders...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396644/parent-child-diagnostic-agreement-on-anxiety-symptoms-with-a-structured-diagnostic-interview-for-mental-disorders-in-children
#11
Lukka Popp, Murielle Neuschwander, Sandra Mannstadt, Tina In-Albon, Silvia Schneider
Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394508/persistence-of-specific-phobia-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood-longitudinal-follow-up-of-the-mexican-adolescent-mental-health-survey
#12
Yesica C Albor, Corina Benjet, Enrique Méndez, María Elena Medina-Mora
BACKGROUND: Specific phobia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population, begins at a younger age, and has high comorbidity. However, it receives less treatment than other disorders, perhaps because it is circumscribed to a specific object or situation that can be avoided or is difficult to differentiate from developmentally adaptive fear. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify its clinical significance, risk factors, and course. This study was designed to determine the persistence of specific phobia in participants during an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood and its predictors in a Mexican cohort...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388948/investigating-the-potential-of-the-anti-epileptic-drug-imepitoin-as-a-treatment-for-co-morbid-anxiety-in-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#13
Rowena M A Packer, Luisa De Risio, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Behavioural changes associated with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) have been identified in dogs, with fear and anxiety-related problems seen in both drug-naïve dogs and dogs treated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Treating anxiety-related behaviour in dogs with IE may be challenging, as seizures are a contraindication for many conventional anxiolytic drugs. In addition, many dogs with IE are already treated with AEDs to reduce their seizure frequency, which may have negative effects if used in polytherapy...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348720/the-optimum-study-emdr-therapy-in-pregnant-women-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-previous-childbirth-and-pregnant-women-with-fear-of-childbirth-design-of-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
M A M Baas, C A I Stramrood, L M Dijksman, A de Jongh, M G van Pampus
Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338644/clinical-hypnosis-an-effective-mind-body-modality-for-adolescents-with-behavioral-and-physical-complaints
#15
REVIEW
Anju Sawni, Cora Collette Breuner
Mind-body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t'ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind-body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind-body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being...
March 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331799/commonalities-and-differences-in-the-neural-substrates-of-threat-predictability-in-panic-disorder-and-specific-phobia
#16
Anna Luisa Klahn, Isabelle A Klinkenberg, Ulrike Lueken, Swantje Notzon, Volker Arolt, Christo Pantev, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghoefer
Different degrees of threat predictability are thought to induce either phasic fear or sustained anxiety. Maladaptive, sustained anxious apprehension is thought to result in overgeneralization of anxiety and thereby to contribute to the development of anxiety disorders. Therefore, differences in threat predictability have been associated with pathological states of anxiety with specific phobia (SP) representing phasic fear as heightened response to predictable threat, while panic disorder (PD) is characterized by sustained anxiety (unpredictable threat) and, as a consequence, overgeneralization of fear...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331505/fear-of-vomiting-and-low-body-weight-in-two-pediatric-patients-diagnostic-challenges
#17
Charlotte Maertens, Jennifer Couturier, Christina Grant, Natasha Johnson
Fear of vomiting can be a symptom associated with several disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED), Specific Phobia (Emetophobia), Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), making proper diagnosis challenging. At this time the literature exploring this symptom is limited, and to our knowledge very few cases have been described in the child and adolescent population. We report here the cases of one child and one adolescent presenting with significant weight loss, food restriction and fear of vomiting...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321945/quantitative-representations-of-an-exaggerated-anxiety-response-in-the-brain-of-female-spider-phobics-a-parametric-fmri-study
#18
Anna Zilverstand, Bettina Sorger, Anita Kaemingk, Rainer Goebel
We employed a novel parametric spider picture set in the context of a parametric fMRI anxiety provocation study, designed to tease apart brain regions involved in threat monitoring from regions representing an exaggerated anxiety response in spider phobics. For the stimulus set, we systematically manipulated perceived proximity of threat by varying a depicted spider's context, size, and posture. All stimuli were validated in a behavioral rating study (phobics n = 20; controls n = 20; all female). An independent group participated in a subsequent fMRI anxiety provocation study (phobics n = 7; controls n = 7; all female), in which we compared a whole-brain categorical to a whole-brain parametric analysis...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300935/specific-and-social-fears-in-children-and-adolescents-separating-normative-fears-from-problem-indicators-and-phobias
#19
Paola P Laporte, Pedro M Pan, Mauricio S Hoffmann, Lauren S Wakschlag, Luis A Rohde, Euripedes C Miguel, Daniel S Pine, Gisele G Manfro, Giovanni A Salum
Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears...
March 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273888/the-experience-of-social-exclusion-in-women-with-a-history-of-suicidal-acts-a-neuroimaging-study
#20
Emilie Olié, Fabrice Jollant, Jeremy Deverdun, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Fabienne Cyprien, Emmanuelle Le Bars, Thibaut Mura, Alain Bonafé, Philippe Courtet
Suicidal behaviors result from a complex interaction between social stressors and individual vulnerability. However, little is known of the specific neural network supporting the sensitivity to social stressors in patients at risk of suicidal acts. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, we investigated brain processing of social rejection in suicide attempters. Thirty-six euthymic women with a history of depression and suicidal behavior were compared to 41 euthymic women with a history of depression but no suicidal attempt, and 28 healthy controls...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
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