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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813110/trait-vs-state-anxiety-in-different-threatening-situations
#1
Pollyana Caldeira Leal, Tiago Costa Goes, Luiz Carlos Ferreira da Silva, Flavia Teixeira-Silva
Objective: Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test - VMST) and physical threat (third molar extraction - TME)...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812274/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders
#2
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805400/anxiety-and-depression-as-bidirectional-risk-factors-for-one-another-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#3
Nicholas C Jacobson, Michelle G Newman
Not only do anxiety and depression diagnoses tend to co-occur, but their symptoms are highly correlated. Although a plethora of research has examined longitudinal associations between anxiety and depression, these data have not yet been effectively synthesized. To address this need, the current study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of 66 studies involving 88,336 persons examining the prospective relationship between anxiety and depression at both symptom and disorder levels. Using mixed-effect models, results suggested that all types of anxiety symptoms predicted later depressive symptoms (r = ...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766176/play-modified-one-session-treatment-for-young-children-with-a-specific-phobia-of-dogs-a-multiple-baseline-case-series
#4
Lara J Farrell, Helen Kershaw, Thomas Ollendick
The one-session treatment (OST) approach for SPs is deemed well-established, and has been found to be highly effective for older children and adults; however, has not yet been trialled with very young children. The present study examines the preliminary effectiveness of play-modified OST for young children with a SP of dogs, using a multiple baseline controlled case series design. Treatment involved play modified one-session of intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy (OST plus Play) which was followed by brief telephone delivered maintenance calls over the 3 weeks immediately following treatment...
August 1, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747933/i-think-i-m-going-to-be-sick-an-eight-year-old-boy-with-emetophobia-and-secondary-food-restriction
#5
Sarabpreet Dosanjh, William Fleisher, Diana Sam
We present a case of an eight-year-old boy with a specific phobia of vomiting who developed subsequent food restriction and weight loss. Our case report includes a review of treatment modalities for specific phobias including cognitive behavioural and exposure therapy in young children and the importance of parental involvement in the treatment process. After an initial assessment and diagnosis of this boy with emetophobia, treatment took place over ten subsequent visits, one hour each in duration. His treatment included a cognitive approach utilizing exposure therapy to re-introduce foods to his diet, working through a fear hierarchy, addressing cognitive distortions/misconceptions and psychoeducational supports...
July 2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745033/psychometric-investigation-of-the-specific-phobia-of-vomiting-inventory-a-new-factor-model
#6
Danielle J Maack, Chad Ebesutani, Todd A Smitherman
Well-validated, standardized measures are lacking for the assessment of emetophobia, the specific phobia of vomiting. The Specific Phobia of Vomiting Inventory (SPOVI) was recently developed and shows promise as a useful measure of emetophobia. The goal of the present study was to further examine and investigate the psychometric properties of the SPOVI in a large student sample (n = 1626), specifically focusing on its factor structure, measurement invariance across gender, and convergent/divergent validity...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735718/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-work-anxiety-in-medical-rehabilitation-patients-a-cross-sectional-observation-study
#7
Beate Muschalla, Michael Jöbges
OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency, type and characteristics of work-anxieties in somatic rehabilitation inpatients. Work-anxieties are serious disorders which affect occupational functioning and often go along with long-term sick leave. Somatic patients may suffer from work-related participation problems due to their chronic health condition. Work-anxieties need specific diagnostic and treatment. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observation study. SETTING: We investigated inpatients from a neurological, orthopedic and cardiologic rehabilitation clinic...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734237/the-spider-and-the-snake-a-psychometric-study-of-two-phobias-and-insights-from-the-hungarian-validation
#8
Andras N Zsido
Specific phobias-particularly zoophobias-are prevalent worldwide and can have fairly dramatic health consequences. Self-report measurements play a crucial role in phobia research studies; thus, it is important to have a reliable tool in different languages. The present investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of two commonly used measures of fear: the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (i.e. SPQ) and the Snake Questionnaire (i.e. SNAQ). The SPQ and SNAQ scores both demonstrated excellent reliability, including a test-retest over a 4-week period...
July 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726454/attitude-roots-and-jiu-jitsu-persuasion-understanding-and-overcoming-the-motivated-rejection-of-science
#9
Matthew J Hornsey, Kelly S Fielding
There is a worryingly large chasm between scientific consensus and popular opinion. Roughly one third of Americans are skeptical that humans are primarily responsible for climate change; rates of some infectious diseases are climbing in the face of anti-immunization beliefs; and significant numbers of the population worldwide are antievolution creationists. It is easy to assume that resistance to an evidence-based message is a result of ignorance or failure to grasp evidence (the "deficit model" of science communication)...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724128/topical-corticosteroid-phobia-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-systematic-review
#10
Alvin W Li, Emily S Yin, Richard J Antaya
Importance: Topical corticosteroid (TCS) phobia refers to the negative feelings and beliefs related to TCSs experienced by patients and patients' caregivers. This phenomenon may be a major contributing factor in treatment failure in patients with atopic dermatitis, yet it has been sparsely described in the literature. Objective: To systematically assess the nomenclature, prevalence, origins, and effect on treatment adherence of TCS phobia in atopic dermatitis. Evidence Review: A literature search was conducted using specific eligibility criteria across electronic databases, including Ovid (MEDLINE, EMBASE), PubMed, and Web of Science, for articles published from January 1, 1946, to October 31, 2016...
July 19, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707502/appraisal-of-the-psychiatric-diagnostic-screening-questionnaire-in-a-perinatal-cohort-the-apron-study
#11
Brenda Leung, Nicole Letourneau, Katherine Bright, Gerald F Giesbrecht, Henry Ntanda, Lisa Gagnon
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are routinely screened as part of perinatal care. However, other Axis 1 disorders and specific anxiety disorders are less likely to be screened or assessed as part of obstetric care. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ) is a potentially useful tool to screen for psychiatric conditions in pregnant and postpartum women in a community setting. METHODS: We compared the prevalence of DSM Axis I disorders obtained on the PDSQ with: (1) the prevalence of these disorders reported in previous studies of pregnant and postpartum women, and (2) scores obtained on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) anxiety scale...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700042/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-serious-post-earthquake-complication
#12
Mudassir Farooqui, Syed A Quadri, Sajid S Suriya, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Muhammad Ovais, Zohaib Sohail, Samra Shoaib, Hassaan Tohid, Muhammad Hassan
Objectives: Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD...
April 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686068/differential-associations-between-excess-body-weight-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-men-and-women
#13
Mathilde M Husky, Carolyn M Mazure, Alexis Ruffault, Cécile Flahault, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
BACKGROUND: The current investigation is the first large-scale population-based study from France that documents the association between excess body weight and common psychiatric disorders, and examines the influence of gender on the association between excess body weight and these disorders. A recent plan has been implemented in France to treat the rising rate of those who are overweight or obese, and we seek to demonstrate whether integrated treatment of excess weight and psychiatric conditions appears as indicated...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671977/the-moderating-role-of-avoidance-behavior-on-anxiety-over-time-is-there-a-difference-between-social-anxiety-disorder-and-specific-phobia
#14
Myriam Rudaz, Thomas Ledermann, Jürgen Margraf, Eni S Becker, Michelle G Craske
Theories of anxiety disorders and phobias have ascribed a critical role to avoidance behavior in explaining the persistence of fear and anxiety, but knowledge about the role of avoidance behavior in the maintenance of anxiety in social anxiety disorder relative to specific phobia is lacking. This study examined the extent to which avoidance behavior moderates the relationship between general anxiety at baseline and 18 months later in women with a diagnosed social anxiety disorder (n = 91) and women with a diagnosed specific phobia (n = 130) at baseline...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667690/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-cardiac-responses-to-phobia-relevant-and-disgust-specific-emotion-provocation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia-with-and-without-fainting-history
#15
Erica Simon, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz
The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remained rare and inconclusive, including with regard to disgust, a frequent response to BII stimuli. Existing studies using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a noninvasive index of parasympathetic cardiac activity also have not accounted sufficiently for effects of respiration...
June 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666366/child-maltreatment-and-clinical-outcome-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-the-eu-gei-high-risk-study
#16
Tamar C Kraan, Eva Velthorst, Manouk Themmen, Lucia Valmaggia, Matthew J Kempton, Phillip McGuire, Jim van Os, Bart P F Rutten, Filip Smit, Lieuwe de Haan, Mark van der Gaag
Background: Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of mental disorders in adulthood. Whether child maltreatment is specifically associated with psychosis risk in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, or leads to a general vulnerability for overall psychopathology in the UHR stage remains unclear. The present study examines the association between child maltreatment and transition to psychosis and other mental disorders. Methods: The sample consisted of 259 UHR individuals from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study...
June 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651207/metacognitive-therapy-versus-disorder-specific-cbt-for-comorbid-anxiety-disorders-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Sverre Urnes Johnson, Asle Hoffart, Hans M Nordahl, Bruce E Wampold
Few studies have compared the effects of Metacognitive therapy (MCT) and Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid anxiety disorders. In the current study we compared CBT and MCT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders in a residential setting. Ninety patients with a primary diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Social Phobia or Panic disorder, with and without Agoraphobia, were randomized to either CBT or MCT. Patients were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and one-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures were Beck Anxiety Inventory and ADIS IV and secondary outcome measures were SCID II, Beck Depression Inventory, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647668/a-combined-marker-of-early-non-improvement-and-the-occurrence-of-melancholic-features-improve-the-treatment-prediction-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorders
#18
Stefanie Wagner, André Tadić, Sibylle C Roll, Alice Engel, Nadine Dreimüller, Jan Engelmann, Klaus Lieb
BACKGROUND: Early Improvement of depressive symptoms within two weeks of antidepressant treatment is a highly sensitive but less specific predictor of later treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features at treatment initiation which are associated with early improvement and non-improvement as well as to identify variables predicting non-remission in patients showing an early improvement. METHODS: 889 patients with a major depressive episode according to DSM-IV who had participated in an antidepressant treatment trial served as study sample...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642683/object-phobia-and-altered-rhoa-signaling-in-amygdala-of-mice-lacking-rich2
#19
Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
RICH2 knockout (RICH2 KO) mice exhibit neophobia in the novel object test. To gain further insight into their anxiety-related phenotype, we subjected these mice to additional behavioral tests to elucidate whether the behavioral abnormality in these mice is a consequence of reduced exploratory motivation, and whether the neophobia is linked specifically to objects or also present for other modalities. RICH2 KO mice engage in normal exploration in a novel environment, suggesting that the anxiety-related phenotype is not due to reduced exploratory drive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642079/common-and-distinct-brain-networks-underlying-panic-and-social-anxiety-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Ho-Kyoung Yoon
Although panic disorder (PD) and phobic disorders are independent anxiety disorders with distinct sets of diagnostic criteria, there is a high level of overlap between them in terms of pathogenesis and neural underpinnings. Functional connectivity research using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) shows great potential in identifying the similarities and differences between PD and phobias. Understanding common and distinct networks between PD and phobic disorders is critical for identifying both specific and general neural characteristics of these disorders...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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