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specific phobias

Katharine C N S Simon, Rebecca L Gómez, Lynn Nadel
Targeting memories during sleep opens powerful and innovative ways to influence the mind. We used targeted memory reactivation (TMR), which to date has been shown to strengthen learned episodes, to instead induce forgetting (TMR-forget). Participants were first trained to associate the act of forgetting with an auditory forget tone. In a second, separate, task they learned object-sound-location pairings. Shortly thereafter, some of the object sounds were played during slow wave sleep, paired with the forget tone to induce forgetting...
March 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lieke A M W Wijnhoven, Daan H M Creemers, Ad A Vermulst, Isabela Granic
Anxiety is highly prevalent in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is inconsistency in studies investigating the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in children with ASD. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in a clinical Dutch sample of children with ASD. The second aim was to investigate age, gender, ASD subtype, and IQ as potential risk factors for anxiety in this sample. In total, 172 children with ASD (age, 8-15 years) and their parents participated in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sarah K Schäfer, Frank R Ihmig, Karen A Lara H, Frank Neurohr, Stephan Kiefer, Marlene Staginnus, Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Tanja Michael
BACKGROUND: Specific phobias are among the most common anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy is the treatment of choice for specific phobias. However, not all patients respond equally well to it. Hence, current research focuses on therapeutic add-ons to increase and consolidate the effects of exposure therapy. One potential therapeutic add-on is biofeedback to increase heart rate variability (HRV). A recent meta-analysis shows beneficial effects of HRV biofeedback interventions on stress and anxiety symptoms...
March 16, 2018: Trials
Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kristin Gustavson, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Ragnar Nesvåg, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Stein Emil Vollset, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. METHODS: DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63...
March 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Anna McKinnon, Robert Keers, Jonathan R I Coleman, Kathryn J Lester, Susanna Roberts, Kristian Arendt, Susan M Bögels, Peter Cooper, Cathy Creswell, Catharina A Hartman, Krister W Fjermestad, Tina In-Albon, Kristen Lavallee, Heidi J Lyneham, Patrick Smith, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Maaike H Nauta, Ronald M Rapee, Yasmin Rey, Silvia Schneider, Wendy K Silverman, Mikael Thastum, Kerstin Thirlwall, Gro Janne Wergeland, Thalia C Eley, Jennifer L Hudson
BACKGROUND: Several delivery formats of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety have been proposed, however, there is little consensus on the optimal delivery format. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on changes in clinical severity (of the primary problem) during individual CBT, group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The secondary goal was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on rates of remission for the three treatment formats...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Vidya Viswanath, Gayatri Palat, Srini Chary, Ann Broderick
Palliative care providers across India lobbied to gain access to methadone for pain relief and this has finally been achieved. Palliative care activists will count on the numerous strengths for introducing methadone in India, including the various national and state government initiatives that have been introduced recognizing the importance of palliative care as a specialty in addition to improving opioid accessibility and training. Adding to the support are the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the medical fraternity and the international interactive and innovative programs such as the Project Extension for Community Health Outcome...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Daniel Feingold, Jürgen Rehm, Hagai Factor, Avigayil Redler, Shaul Lev-Ran
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use has been reported to negatively affect the course and outcome of various psychiatric disorders, yet little is known on its effect on rates of remission from anxiety disorders and associated clinical and functional outcomes. METHODS: In this study, data were drawn from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, focusing on individuals who qualified for a diagnosis of any anxiety disorder (social anxiety, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and specific phobias) at Wave 1 (N = 3,723)...
February 27, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Joseph A Hirsch
There is a high prevalence of anxiety disorders including specific phobias and panic disorder in the United States and Europe. A variety of therapeutic modalities including pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, systematic desensitization, hypnosis, in vivo exposure, and virtual reality exposure therapy have been applied. No one modality has been entirely successful. There has been only a limited attempt to combine psychological therapies in the treatment of specific phobias and panic disorder and what has been done has been primarily with systematic desensitization or cognitive behavioral therapy along with hypnotherapy...
April 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Andras N Zsido, Anita Deak, Adrienn Losonci, Diana Stecina, Akos Arato, Laszlo Bernath
Numerous objects and animals could be threatening, and thus, children learn to avoid them early. Spiders and syringes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias of the modern word. However, they are of different origins: while the former is evolutionary relevant, the latter is not. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms that make the quick detection of such stimuli possible and enable the impulse to avoid them in the future. The respective categories of threatening and non-threatening targets were similar in shape, while low-level visual features were controlled...
February 23, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Dóra Antal-Uram, László Harsányi, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Benedetta Grancini, Vera De Carlo, Mariacarlotta Palazzo, Matteo Vismara, Chiara Arici, Laura Cremaschi, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo Altamura, Bernardo Dell'Osso
It is established that delayed effective pharmacotherapy plays a significant role in the overall burden of psychiatric disorders, which are often treated with symptomatic drugs, that is benzodiazepines (BZDs), in relation to their rapid onset of action and safety, despite long-term side effects. We aimed to assess the influence of initial treatment with BZDs on the duration of untreated illness (DUI) and whether specific sociodemographic and clinical factors could influence the choice of BZDs as first treatment in 545 patients affected by schizophrenia, mood and anxiety spectrum disorders...
February 15, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
R S Honjo, C B Mello, L S E Pimenta, E C Nuñes-Vaca, L M Benedetto, R B F Khoury, D M Befi-Lopes, C A Kim
BACKGROUND: Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic syndrome caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. Although the main clinical features of CdCS are well known, the neurocognitive and behavioural characteristics of the phenotype are rarely described in detail in the literature. In this study, we analysed the main phenotypic features of CdCS from a parental perspective. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to 700 Brazilian families that were registered in the Brazilian Association of CdCS...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Alfredo H Cía, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Sergio Aguilar Gaxiola, Horacio Vommaro, Gustavo Loera, María Elena Medina-Mora, Sebastían Sustas, Corina Benjet, Ronald C Kessler
PURPOSE: Although the Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that depressive disorders and anxiety disorders are the second and fifth leading causes of disability in Argentina, these estimates were based on imputations rather than epidemiological data. The policy implications of these results for the necessary expansion of mental health services in Argentina are sufficiently great that more direct estimates of the population burdens of common mental disorders are needed. Therefore, the purpose is to present the first results regarding lifetime prevalence, projected lifetime risk up to age 75, age-of-onset, cohort effects and socio-demographic correlates of DSM-IV mental disorders among adults (18+) from the general population of urban areas of Argentina...
February 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Matthew Tyler Boden
AIMS: To examine prevalence, functioning and treatment associated with all DSM-5 12-month mood, anxiety, eating and substance use disorders among people with diabetes in data obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. METHODS: Through multistage stratified randomized sampling a sample representative of the United States civilian population was obtained. Prevalence of diabetes (Type 1 and 2), DSM-5 disorders, physical and mental functioning, and treatment utilization were assessed via telephone interview...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Rafael T da Costa, Marcele R de Carvalho, Pedro Ribeiro, Antonio E Nardi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) sessions. METHODS: The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants' sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Deborah S Hasin, Aaron L Sarvet, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Tulshi D Saha, W June Ruan, Malka Stohl, Bridget F Grant
Importance: No US national data are available on the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5-defined major depressive disorder (MDD) or on MDD specifiers as defined in DSM-5. Objective: To present current nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and treatment of DSM-5 MDD and initial information on the prevalence, severity, and treatment of DSM-5 MDD severity, anxious/distressed specifier, and mixed-features specifier, as well as cases that would have been characterized as bereavement in DSM-IV...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
A Ströhle, T Fydrich
According to the Federal Healthcare Survey (Bundesgesundheitssurvey), approximately 15% of the German population fulfil the diagnostic criteria for at least one anxiety disorder within (any) 1 year. Women are affected approximately twice as often as men. The study by the Robert Koch Institute included the systematic assessment of panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias; therefore, the question for both those affected and the treating therapist is "anxiety disorders: which psychotherapy for whom?" is of great clinical and healthcare political importance...
March 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Meryem Ozlem Kutuk, Ebru Altintas, Ali Evren Tufan, Gulen Guler, Betul Aslan, Nurgul Aytan, Ozgur Kutuk
The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and clinical features of the mothers and their offspring staying with them in prison. The study was planned as a cross-sectional, single-center study of mothers residing in Tarsus Closed Women's Prison of Turkish Ministry of Justice along with their 0 to 6 years old offspring. Mothers were evaluated via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. A psychologist blind to maternal evaluations applied the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DII-DST)...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Petrus J W Naudé, Annelieke M Roest, Dan J Stein, Peter de Jonge, Bennard Doornbos
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that inflammatory processes may play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the involvement of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), in specific anxiety disorders. This study examines the relation between anxiety disorders and CRP. METHODS: Associations of serum CRP with anxiety disorders were determined in a large population study (n = 54,326 participants, mean age = 47 years; 59% female), the LifeLines cohort...
February 22, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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