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specific phobias

Luis-Joaquin Garcia-Lopez, Natalia Bonilla, Jose-Antonio Muela-Martinez
Social anxiety disorder is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder, with elevated comorbidity rates with other mental health disorders and may cause severe negative consequences. In adolescence, there is a lack of research on how comorbid disorders to social anxiety tends to form particular associations. With a large sample of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, data have revealed that certain disorders are more frequent and tend to dwell on concrete aggregates. Thus, it may be particularly useful and efficient for mental health providers, pediatricians and school counselors to screen for generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobia when assessing SAD in youth...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Thashi Chang, Bethan Lang, Angela Vincent
BACKGROUND: Stiff person syndrome is a highly disabling, progressive autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system characterized by muscle rigidity and spasms. Stiff person syndrome is rare, but is believed to be under diagnosed with only 14 cases been reported among a 1.7 billion population in South Asia. We report the first authenticated case from Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with difficulty in walking and recurrent falls due to progressive muscular rigidity in her lower limbs and trunk with superimposed muscle spasms that occurred in response to unexpected noise, startle or emotional upset...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Diogo A DeSousa, André L Moreno, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Richard LeBeau, Gisele G Manfro, Giovanni A Salum, Silvia H Koller
The DSM-5 highlights the use of dimensional assessments of mental health as a supplement to categorical diagnoses. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Brazilian community sample. Dimensional scales for generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and specific phobia were administered to 930 adults aged 18 to 70, 64.2% female. Psychometric properties investigated were: unidimensionality; measurement invariance; internal consistency; composite reliability; test-retest reliability; convergent and divergent validity; category thresholds and item performance analyses...
October 16, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Ulrike Halsband, Thomas Gerhard Wolf
Visiting the dentist is often accompanied by apprehension or anxiety. People, who suffer from specific dental phobia, a disproportional fear of dental procedures show psychological and physiological symptoms which make dental treatments difficult or impossible. For such purposes, hypnosis is often used in dental practice as an alternative for a number of treatments adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anesthetic, as medication is often associated with risks and side effects. This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Ralf Ulrich Trappe, Marianne Sinn, Hanno Riess
There is only limited data for the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in tumor patients and no data from prospective randomised trials comparing DOACs to the current standard care: low molecular weight heparine (LMWH). Therefore, DOACs must be used with caution and should be restricted to tumor patients with (1) contraindications for LMWH (e.g. HIT II, phobia of syringe) or (2) to the situations of prolonged anticoagulation after initial therapy with LMWH. Cancer-associated disorders as well as side effects of chemotherapy as nausea and emesis have to be considered as well as potential substance-specific interactions...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Masahito Nakataki, Leila M Soravia, Simon Schwab, Helge Horn, Thomas Dierks, Werner Strik, Roland Wiest, Markus Heinrichs, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Andrea Federspiel, Yosuke Morishima
Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in patients with anxiety disorders. Previous studies have shown that fear-related activation of the amygdala can be mediated through the visual cortical pathway, which includes the fusiform gyrus, or through other pathways. However, it is not clear which of the pathways that activate the amygdala is responsible for the pathophysiology of a specific phobia and how glucocorticoid treatment alleviates fear processing in these neural networks. We recorded the brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with spider phobia, who received either 20 mg of cortisol or a placebo while viewing pictures of spiders...
October 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elham Abbas, Devin M Cox, Teri Smith, Merlin G Butler
We report a 14-year-old adolescent girl with selective mutism (SM) and a 7q11.23 microduplication detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis and reviewed the literature from 18 published clinical reports. Our patient had specific phobias, SM, extreme anxiety, obesity, cutis marmorata, and a round appearing face with a short neck and over folded ears. We reviewed the published clinical, cognitive, behavioral, and cytogenetic findings grouped by speech and language delay, growth and development, craniofacial, clinical, and behavior and cognitive features due to the 7q11...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Diana Paksarian, Lihong Cui, Jules Angst, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Wulf Rössler, Kathleen R Merikangas
Importance: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that most of the general population will experience a mental health disorder at some point in their lives. However, few prospective population-based studies have estimated trajectories of risk for mental disorders from young through middle adulthood to estimate the proportion of individuals who experience persistent mental disorder across this age period. Objectives: To describe the proportion of the population who experience persistent mental disorder across adulthood and to estimate latent trajectories of disorder risk across this age period...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Rob A B Oostendorp, Hans Elvers, Emilia Mikolajewska, Nathalie Roussel, Emiel van Trijffel, Han Samwel, Jo Nijs, William Duquet
OBJECTIVES: The term 'cephalalgiaphobia' was introduced in the mid-1980s and defined as fear of migraine (attacks). We hypothesized that a specific subtype of cephalalgiaphobia affects patients with cervicogenic headache (CEH). This study aimed to: (1) define the term 'cervico-cephalalgiaphobia'; (2) develop a set of indicators for phobia relevant to patients with CEH; and (3) apply this set to a practice test in order to estimate the frequency of cervico-cephalalgiaphobia in the Dutch primary care practice of manual physical therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Rebecca J Hamblin, Alison Salloum, Ross Andel, Joshua M Nadeau, Nicole M McBride, Adam B Lewin, Eric A Storch
Diagnostic agreement between parents' and children's reports on children's anxiety problems is notoriously poor; however, very few investigations have examined specific predictors of inter-rater agreement on child anxiety diagnoses. This study examined predictors of categories of parent and child diagnostic endorsement on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-IV. One hundred eight children (ages 7-13) and their parents completed structured diagnostic interviews for non-OCD/PTSD anxiety diagnoses and paper and pencil measures of functioning and impairment in a variety of domains...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Sarah Gowling, Jennie Persson, Genevieve Holt, Sue Ashbourne, James Bloomfield, Hannah Shortland, Clare Bate
IAPT (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies) is a national programme aimed at increasing availability of evidence based psychological therapies in the NHS. IAPT is primarily for people who have mild to moderate, common mental health difficulties such as depression, anxiety, phobias and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The programme seeks to use the least intrusive method of care possible to treat people at the time when it will be of most help to them. Individuals are able to self-refer into most IAPT services or alternatively can request to be referred by their GP or other services in the community...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Marcelo L Berthier, Núria Roé-Vellvé, Ignacio Moreno-Torres, Carles Falcon, Karl Thurnhofer-Hemsi, José Paredes-Pacheco, María J Torres-Prioris, Irene De-Torres, Francisco Alfaro, Antonio L Gutiérrez-Cardo, Miquel Baquero, Rafael Ruiz-Cruces, Guadalupe Dávila
Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a speech disorder that is defined by the emergence of a peculiar manner of articulation and intonation which is perceived as foreign. In most cases of acquired FAS (AFAS) the new accent is secondary to small focal lesions involving components of the bilaterally distributed neural network for speech production. In the past few years FAS has also been described in different psychiatric conditions (conversion disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia) as well as in developmental disorders (specific language impairment, apraxia of speech)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
C H Pitts, B P Klein-Tasman, J W Osborne, C B Mervis
BACKGROUND: Specific phobia (SP) is the most common anxiety disorder among children with Williams syndrome (WS); prevalence rates derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-based diagnostic interviews range from 37% to 56%. We evaluated the effects of gender, age, intellectual abilities and/or behaviour regulation difficulties on the likelihood that a child with WS would be diagnosed with SP. METHODS: A total of 194 6-17 year-olds with WS were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Daniel Campos, Juana Bretón-López, Cristina Botella, Adriana Mira, Diana Castilla, Rosa Baños, Miquel Tortella-Feliu, Soledad Quero
BACKGROUND: Flying phobia (FP) is a common and disabling mental disorder. Although in vivo exposure is the treatment of choice, it is linked to a number of limitations in its implementation. Particularly important, is the limited access to the feared stimulus (i.e., plane). Moreover, the economic cost of in vivo exposure should be specially considered as well as the difficulty of applying the exposure technique in an appropriate way; controlling important variables such as the duration of the exposure or the number of sessions...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Elisa Berdica, Antje B M Gerdes, Georg W Alpers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The so called inhibition of return (IOR) effect refers to a bias against returning attention to a location which was previously investigated. Because emotionally salient material has the capacity to capture and hold attention it has been suggested that this material may disrupt this otherwise impressively stable phenomenon. METHODS: 40 students participated in the experiment. Black and white schematic drawings of a spider, a butterfly or a cross were used as cues...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Abigail Powers, Charles F Gillespie, Kerry J Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
The study of inflammation in fear- and anxiety-based disorders has gained interest as growing literature indicates that pro-inflammatory markers can directly modulate affective behavior. Indeed, heightened concentrations of inflammatory signals, including cytokines and C-reactive protein, have been described in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and phobias (agoraphobia, social phobia, etc.). However, not all reports indicate a positive association between inflammation and fear- and anxiety-based symptoms, suggesting that other factors are important in future assessments of inflammation's role in the maintenance of these disorders (ie, sex, co-morbid conditions, types of trauma exposure, and behavioral sources of inflammation)...
August 31, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dilek Unal, Nazan Emiroğlu, Fatma Pelin Cengiz
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a visible skin disease commonly seen in adolescence. As it affects the appearance, it is likely to bring stress to the adolescent's life regarding sensitivity about their appearance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the social anxiety level, acne-specific life quality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acne vulgaris. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between these parameters, clinical severity, and sociodemographic data...
August 5, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Tobias Teismann, Thomas Forkmann, Dajana Rath, Heide Glaesmer, Jürgen Margraf
Perceived burdensomeness is considered a proximal risk factor for suicide ideation. However, there is a lack of prospective studies. Furthermore, it is unclear in as much psychotherapy for anxiety disorders is associated with a decrease in suicide ideation. A total of 105 adult outpatients suffering from panic disorder, agoraphobia, or specific phobia received manualized exposure-therapy. Perceived burdensomeness was considered as predictor of suicide ideation concurrently, after the fourth and the tenth therapy session and posttreatment - controlling for baseline symptom distress, suicide ideation, number of therapy sessions and age...
October 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sarah M Ryan, Marlene V Strege, Ella L Oar, Thomas H Ollendick
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One-Session Treatment (OST) for specific phobias has been shown to be effective in reducing phobia severity; however, the effect of different types of co-occurring anxiety disorders on OST outcomes is unknown. The present study examined (1) the effects of co-occurring generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), or another non-targeted specific phobia (OSP) on the efficacy of OST for specific phobias, and (2) the effects of OST on these co-occurring disorders following treatment...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lori Riddle-Walker, David Veale, Cynthia Chapman, Frank Ogle, Donna Rosko, Sadia Najmi, Lana M Walker, Pete Maceachern, Thomas Hicks
: This is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate a protocol for cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for a Specific Phobia of Vomiting (SPOV) compared with a wait list and to use assessment scales that are specific for a SPOV. METHOD: 24 participants (23 women and 1 man) were randomly allocated to either 12 sessions of CBT or a wait list. RESULTS: At the end of the treatment, CBT was significantly more efficacious than the wait list with a large effect size (Cohen's d=1...
October 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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