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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754641/the-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-syndrome-rarely-easy-always-challenging
#1
REVIEW
Aimee R Hayes, Ashley B Grossman
Despite modern imaging techniques, differentiating ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome from pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, Cushing's disease, is especially difficult when well-differentiated carcinoids are the source of ACTH secretion, particularly pulmonary carcinoid tumors. ACTH-secreting pulmonary carcinoids, like the corticotroph adenomas causing Cushing's disease, are often small and difficult to detect, and patients present with a gradual onset of the classical signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome, indistinguishable from the presentation of Cushing's disease...
June 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731953/adrenal-insufficiency-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-rare-phenomenon
#2
Sébastien Préville-Ratelle, Adèle Coriati, Aurélie Ménard, Isabelle Bourdeau, François Tremblay, Yves Berthiaume
Background: The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is unknown. The frequent use of glucocorticoids (inhaled or systemic) may induce the long-term suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Methods: We reviewed the results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests done over a 10-year period to evaluate adrenal function in 69 CF patients of the CHUM CF clinic. Clinical characteristics of AI patients were compared to adrenal-sufficient (AS) patients...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717932/gestational-hypoxia-and-developmental-plasticity
#3
Charles A Ducsay, Ravi Goyal, William J Pearce, Sean Wilson, Xiang-Qun Hu, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Hypoxia during gestation impacts both the mother and fetal development through interactions with an individual's genetic traits acquired over multiple generations by natural selection and changes in gene expression patterns by altering the epigenetic code...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713692/multimodal-regulation-of-circadian-glucocorticoid-rhythm-by-central-and-adrenal-clocks
#4
Gi Hoon Son, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Sooyoung Chung, Kyungjin Kim
Adrenal glucocorticoids (GCs) control a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiovascular and pulmonary activities, immune and inflammatory responses, and various brain functions. During stress responses, GCs are secreted through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, whereas circulating GC levels in unstressed states follow a robust circadian oscillation with a peak around the onset of the active period of a day. A recent advance in chronobiological research has revealed that multiple regulatory mechanisms, along with classical neuroendocrine regulation, underlie this GC circadian rhythm...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712743/impact-of-pituitary-gonadal-axis-hormones-on-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-men
#5
Wen-Hui Wu, Ping Yuan, Si-Jin Zhang, Xin Jiang, Cheng Wu, Yuan Li, Shao-Fei Liu, Qian-Qian Liu, Jing-Hui Li, Bigyan Pudasaini, Qing-Hua Hu, Jocelyn Dupuis, Zhi-Cheng Jing
The association of sex hormone (estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone) with cardiopulmonary disease has already attracted great attention, especially in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the impact of sex hormones and their pituitary stimulators (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) on PAH in men remains unclear. We conducted a prospective cohort study recruiting 95 patients with idiopathic PAH from 2008 to 2014 and following up for a median of 65 months for death. Compared with control, abnormal plasma levels of sex hormones were more common in patients with PAH...
April 30, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661611/nasal-polyposis-or-chronic-olfactory-rhinitis
#6
R Jankowski, C Rumeau, P Gallet, D T Nguyen
The concept of chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps is founded on the structural and functional unicity of the pituitary mucosa and its united response to environmental aggression by allergens, viruses, bacteria, pollution, etc. The present review sets this concept against the evo-devo three-nose theory, in which nasal polyposis is distinguished as specific to the olfactory nose and in particular to the non-olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid, which is considered to be not a sinus but rather the skull-base bone harboring the olfactory mucosa...
April 13, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#7
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540066/a-systematic-review-of-biological-mechanisms-of-fatigue-in-chronic-illness
#8
Lea Ann Matura, Susan Malone, Rosario Jaime-Lara, Barbara Riegel
Fatigue, a commonly reported symptom, is defined as an overwhelming, debilitating, and sustained sense of exhaustion that decreases the ability to function and carry out daily activities. To date, cancer researchers have been in the forefront in investigating the possible biological mechanisms of fatigue, identifying inflammation, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and activation of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe fatigue and what is known about the biological mechanisms described in cancer in five chronic, noninfectious illnesses: heart failure, multiple sclerosis, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471911/the-neuro-endocrine-immune-relationship-in-pulmonary-and-pleural-tuberculosis-a-better-local-profile-in-pleural-fluid
#9
L D'Attilio, A Díaz, R D V Fernández, B Bongiovanni, N Santucci, G Dídoli, S Lioi, W Gardeñez, J L Naninni, A Del Rey, H Besedovsky, O Bottasso, M L Bay
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem worldwide. In TB, the immune and central nervous systems modulate each other. The two main components of this network are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). OBJECTIVE: To elucidate neuro-endocrine-immune (NEI) interactions in pulmonary (PTB) or pleural (PLTB) TB, we analysed the relationship among compounds from these systems. METHODS: We quantified levels of catecholamines, hormones and cytokines in plasma from patients with PTB (n = 46) or PLTB (n = 12) and controls (n = 32), and in the pleural fluid from PLTB patients...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363098/infants-born-preterm-stress-and-neurodevelopment-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-might-music-have-an-impact
#10
REVIEW
Dane E Anderson, Aniruddh D Patel
AIM: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) provides life-saving medical care for an increasing number of newborn infants each year. NICU care, while lifesaving, does have attendant consequences which can include repeated activation of the stress response and reduced maternal interaction, with possible negative long-term impacts on brain development. Here we present a neuroscientific framework for considering the impact of music on neurodevelopment in the NICU of infants born preterm and evaluate current literature on the use of music with this population to determine what is most reliably known of the physiological effects of music interventions...
March 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343557/dicer1-and-associated-conditions-identification-of-at-risk-individuals-and-recommended-surveillance-strategies
#11
Kris Ann P Schultz, Gretchen M Williams, Junne Kamihara, Douglas R Stewart, Anne K Harris, Andrew J Bauer, Joyce Turner, Rachana Shah, Katherine Schneider, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Ann Garrity Carr, Laura A Harney, Shari Baldinger, A Lindsay Frazier, Daniel Orbach, Dominik T Schneider, David Malkin, Louis P Dehner, Yoav H Messinger, Ashley Hill
Pathogenic germline DICER1 variants cause a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome with a variety of manifestations. In addition to conferring increased cancer risks for pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, individuals with pathogenic germline DICER1 variants may also develop lung cysts, cystic nephroma, renal sarcoma and Wilms tumor, nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid, nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and brain tumors including pineoblastoma and pituitary blastoma...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247675/adrenergic-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-reduce-ozone-induced-lung-injury-and-inflammation
#12
Andres R Henriquez, Samantha J Snow, Mette C Schladweiler, Colette N Miller, Janice A Dye, Allen D Ledbetter, Judy E Richards, Kevin Mauge-Lewis, Marie A McGee, Urmila P Kodavanti
Recent studies showed that the circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone-induced pulmonary effects through the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Hence, we examined the role of adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptor inhibition in ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male 12-week old Wistar-Kyoto rats were pretreated daily for 7days with propranolol (PROP; a non-selective β adrenergic receptor [AR] antagonist, 10mg/kg, i...
January 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239034/succinate-dehydrogenase-sdh-deficient-neoplasia
#13
REVIEW
Anthony J Gill
The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is a key respiratory enzyme composed of four subunits: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Remarkably, immunohistochemistry for SDHB becomes negative whenever there is bi-alleic inactivation of any component of SDH, which is very rare in the absence of syndromic disease. Therefore, loss of SDHB immunohistochemistry serves as a marker of syndromic disease, usually germline mutation of one of the SDH subunits. Tumours which show loss of SDHB expression are termed succinate dehydrogenase-deficient...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198444/endocrine-and-metabolic-assessment-in-adults-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#14
L Montefusco, S Harari, D Elia, A Rossi, C Specchia, O Torre, G Adda, M Arosio
CONTEXT: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of most common complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) but prevalence of anterior pituitary deficiencies and metabolic alterations have not been clearly defined yet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate prevalence of endocrine and metabolic manifestations in a cohort of patients affected by Pulmonary LCH. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study on 18 adults (7 M/11 F, 42±12years) studied for complete basal and dynamic endocrine lab tests and glucose metabolism...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158903/severe-cushing-s-syndrome-and-bilateral-pulmonary-nodules-beyond-ectopic-acth
#15
Carlos Tavares Bello, Emma van der Poest Clement, Richard Feelders
Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease that results from prolonged exposure to supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids. Severe and rapidly progressive cases are often, but not exclusively, attributable to ectopic ACTH secretion. Extreme hypercortisolism usually has florid metabolic consequences and is associated with an increased infectious and thrombotic risk. The authors report on a case of a 51-year-old male that presented with severe Cushing's syndrome secondary to an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma, whose diagnostic workup was affected by concurrent subclinical multifocal pulmonary infectious nodules...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113155/poems-syndrome-presentation-with-progressive-weakness-in-upper-and-lower-limbs-a-case-report
#16
Chuang-Jie Cao, Cheng-Yun Dou, Ke-Hua Zhou, Jin-Bo Liu, Hong Lai
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare variant of plasma cell disorders with multiple systemic manifestations. A 50-year-old female patient presented with progressive weakness in her upper and lower limbs; tingling, numbness and burning in her feet; polyneuropathy (demyelinating in the majority of cases of POEMS syndrome); monoclonal plasma cell disorder (typicallyλ-restricted in cases of POEMS syndrome); sclerotic lesions on the spine and pelvis; organomegaly, including hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy; edema; pleural effusion; adrenal, thyroidal, pituitary, gonadal and pancreatic endocrinopathy; skin changes, including hyperpigmentation, dry skin and hypertrichosis; thrombocytosis; pulmonary hypertension; low vitamin B12 and weight loss...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070772/coexisting-thymic-and-pulmonary-carcinoid-tumors-associated-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type1
#17
Makoto Motoishi, Kanna Horimoto, Kazuki Hayashi, Satoru Sawai, Koki Moriyoshi
An anterior mediastinal tumor was detected in a 45-year-old female during a medical checkup. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the anterior mediastinal tumor and a pulmonary tumor in the right lower lobe. Furthermore, tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, and pituitary gland were also detected. She was clinically diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type1 (MEN1). The patient underwent extended thymectomy combined with mediastinal lymph node dissection and wedge resection of the lung including the right pulmonary lesion via a median sternotomy...
October 26, 2017: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032078/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-monthly-pasireotide-in-cushing-s-disease-a-12-month-clinical-trial
#18
André Lacroix, Feng Gu, Wilson Gallardo, Rosario Pivonello, Yerong Yu, Przemysław Witek, Marco Boscaro, Roberto Salvatori, Masanobu Yamada, Libuse Tauchmanova, Michael Roughton, Shoba Ravichandran, Stephan Petersenn, Beverly M K Biller, John Newell-Price
BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease is a rare debilitating endocrine disorder for which few prospective interventional studies have been done. We report results of the first phase 3 trial assessing long-acting intramuscular pasireotide in patients with Cushing's disease. METHODS: In this phase 3 clinical trial we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with persistent, recurrent, or de-novo (non-surgical candidates) Cushing's disease who had a mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) concentration (from three 24 h samples) of 1·5-5·0 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), a normal or greater than normal morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration, and a pituitary source of Cushing's syndrome, from 57 sites across 19 countries...
January 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944115/demographics-and-incidence-of-histologically-confirmed-intracranial-tumors-a-five-year-two-center-prospective-study
#19
George S Stoyanov, Deyan L Dzhenkov, Martina Kitanova, Peter Ghenev, Anton B Tonchev
Introduction Intracranial tumors (ICTs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose an immediate threat to patients' lives, no matter their local or metastatic origin, benign or malignant nature. These lesions have severe clinical courses and need to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, with pathological verification being the pivotal moment in the process of determining curative modalities. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of histologically confirmed ICTs in Eastern Bulgaria, based on their type (primary, metastatic, and non-volume occupying lesions (NVOL)), their respective subtypes, and incidence in a descriptive manner...
July 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870031/-the-clinical-characteristics-of-346-patients-with-igg4-related-disease
#20
P P Zhang, J Z Zhao, M Wang, R E Feng, X W Liu, X M Lai, X J Li, J G Zeng, H J Shi, H D Zhu, W Xue, H Zhang, Y Y Chen, L Y Fei, X F Peng, F C Zeng, Y M Zhang, W Zhang
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD)so as to improve the understanding of IgG4-RD in China. Methods: IgG4-RD patients were recruited from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2011 and January 2016. All patients were followed-up for more than 6 months. The demographic characteristics, symptoms, organ involvements, laboratory examinations and treatment efficacy were evaluated and analyzed. Results: A total of 346 patients were finally enrolled, including 230 males (66...
September 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
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