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dbs viral load

Shannon A Ross, Amina Ahmed, April L Palmer, Marian G Michaels, Pablo J Sánchez, Audra Stewart, David I Bernstein, Kristina Feja, Karen B Fowler, Suresh B Boppana
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of dried blood spot (DBS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in identifying infants with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection-associated sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). STUDY DESIGN: Newborns at 7 US hospitals between March 2007 and March 2012 were screened for CMV by saliva rapid culture and/or PCR. Infected infants were monitored for SNHL during the first 4 years of life to determine sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of DBS PCR for identifying CMV-associated SNHL...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Geane Lopes Flores, Helena Medina Cruz, Vanessa Alves Marques, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Denise Vigo Potsch, Silvia Beatriz May, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Marcia Maria Amendola Pires, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Priscila Pollo-Flores, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá Esberard, Claudia Ivantes, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
The use of saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) could increase access to HCV diagnosis for high-risk populations, such as HIV-infected individuals, but the performance of these assays has not been well established in this group. This study aims to evaluate HIV status, particularly TCD4(+) cell count and viral load, in the performance of anti-HCV testing using DBS and saliva. A total of 961 individuals classified as HCV + , HIV+ or HIV/HCV + , as well as negative controls, donated serum, DBS and saliva samples for anti-HCV testing using a commercial enzyme immunoassay...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Mary E Schmitz, Simon Agolory, Muthoni Junghae, Laura N Broyles, Muthusi Kimeu, Joseph Ombayo, Mamo Umuro, Irene Mukui, Kennedy Alwenya, Moses Baraza, Kenneth Ndiege, Samuel Mwalili, Emilia Rivadeneira, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Chunfu Yang, Clement Zeh
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends viral load (VL) as the preferred method for diagnosing antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure; however, operational challenges have hampered the implementation of VL monitoring in most resource-limited settings. This study evaluated the accuracy of dried blood spot (DBS) VL testing under field conditions as a practical alternative to plasma in determining virologic failure (VF). METHODS: From May to December 2013, paired plasma and DBS specimens were collected from 416 adults and 377 children on ART ≥6 months at 12 clinics in Kenya...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Natasha Gous, Lesley Scott, Leigh Berrie, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Expansion of HIV viral load (VL) testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid) was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites)...
2016: PloS One
Pieter Pannus, Maarten Claus, Maria Mercedes Perez Gonzalez, Nathan Ford, Katrien Fransen
The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Nadeem Yaqoob, Joakim Overbo, Hanna Aberra, Hailemichael Desalegn, Nega Berhe, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) quantification is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis B, both to determine treatment eligibility and in the monitoring of treatment effect. This test, however, is rarely available in resource-limited settings due to high costs and stringent requirements for shipment and storage of plasma. Dried Blood Spots (DBS) can be a convenient alternative to plasma, but its use for HBV monitoring has not been investigated under real-life conditions in Africa...
2016: PloS One
Fabien Taieb, Tran Hong Tram, Hien Thi Ho, Van Anh Pham, Lan Nguyen, Ban Hien Pham, Linh An Tong, Edouard Tuaillon, Eric Delaporte, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Duc Duong Bui, NhanThi Do, Yoann Madec
Background.  Although it is the best method to detect early therapeutic failure, viral load (VL) monitoring is still not widely available in many resource-limited settings because of difficulties in specimen transfer, personnel shortage, and insufficient laboratory infrastructures. Dried blood spot (DBS) use, which was introduced in the latest World Health Organization recommendations, can overcome these difficulties. This evaluation aimed at validating VL measurement in DBS, in a laboratory without previous DBS experience and in routine testing conditions...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Brunna Lemos Crespo Marques, Márcia Paschoal do Espírito-Santo, Vanessa Alves Marques, Juliana Custódio Miguel, Elisangela Ferreira da Silva, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) could be an excellent alternative for HCV diagnosis, since it is less invasive and can be stored and transported without refrigeration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to optimize quantitative and qualitative methods for HCV detection in DBS. STUDY DESIGN: DBS and serum samples were collected from 99 subjects (59 anti-HCV/HCV RNA positive and 40 seronegative samples). Seven extraction methods and different PCR parameters were evaluated in DBS samples in the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) developed to amplify the 5' noncoding region of HCV...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Pierre de Truchis, Minh Patrick Lê, Mamane Daou, Boubacar Madougou, Yacouba Nouhou, Sahada Moussa Saley, Achirou Sani, Eric Adehossi, Elisabeth Rouveix, Mamadou Saidou, Gilles Peytavin, Constance Delaugerre
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of viral success in HIV-infected patients on first-line ART by the assessment of dried blood spot (DBS) viral load (VL) and to assess the performance of DBS sampling for VL measurement, genotypic resistance and antiretroviral concentration determinations. METHODS: HIV-infected patients treated for >1 year with first-line ART in Niamey, Niger were included. VL based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (limit of quantification <800 copies/mL) was measured on DBS capillary samples...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sheri A Lippman, Starley B Shade, Alison M El Ayadi, Jennifer M Gilvydis, Jessica S Grignon, Teri Liegler, Jessica Morris, Evasen Naidoo, Lisa M Prach, Adrian Puren, Scott Barnhart
BACKGROUND: Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. METHODS: We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sheila N Balinda, Pascale Ondoa, Ekwaro A Obuku, Aletta Kliphuis, Isaac Egau, Michelle Bronze, Lordwin Kasambula, Rob Schuurman, Nicole Spieker, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Cissy Kityo
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends regular viral load (VL) monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for timely detection of virological failure, prevention of acquired HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and avoiding unnecessary switching to second-line ART. However, the cost and complexity of routine VL testing remains prohibitive in most resource limited settings (RLS). We evaluated a simple, low-cost, qualitative viral-failure assay (VFA) on dried blood spots (DBS) in three clinical settings in Uganda...
2016: PloS One
Fulvio Erba, Davide Brambilla, Susanna Ceffa, Fausto Ciccacci, Richard Luhanga, Zita Sidumo, Leonardo Palombi, Sandro Mancinelli, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Mauro Andreotti, Marina Giuliano
BACKGROUND: The use of dried blood spots (DBS) for HIV-1 viral load quantification can greatly improve access to viral monitoring for HIV-infected patients receiving treatment in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and validate HIV viral load measurement from DBS in sub-Saharan Africa, with a reliable, all-automated, standard commercial assay such as the Abbott m2000. METHODS: A total of 277 DBS were collected in different health centres in Malawi and Mozambique and analysed for viral load determination using the Abbott m2000 assay with the corresponding plasma samples as gold standard...
December 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
O Ndiaye, J Gozlan, H Diop-Ndiaye, A S Sall, S Chapelain, A Leprêtre, M Maynart, M Gueye, G Lo, M Thiam, I Ba, K Lacombe, P M Girard, S Mboup, C T Kane
The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Senegal among Drug User (DUs), using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) as RNA source for molecular assays. Heroin and/or cocaine users (n = 506) were recruited in Dakar from April to July 2011, using a Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. DBS preparation consisted of five drops of whole blood from finger applied to a Whatman paper card. HCV infection was screened by the detection of anti-HCV antibodies, using a rapid immune-chromatographic test...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
François Boillot, Laetitia Serrano, Jeremie Muwonga, Jean Pierre Kabuayi, Alain Kambale, Fidèle Mutaka, Paula I Fujiwara, Josef Decosas, Martine Peeters, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories. METHODS: DBS samples from adults on ART were collected in 13 decentralized PHC facilities in the Nord-Kivu province and shipped during program quarterly supervision to a reference laboratory 2000 km away, where VL was quantified with a commercial assay (m2000rt, Abbott)...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Michael J Vinikoor, Samuel Zürcher, Kalo Musukuma, Obert Kachuwaire, Andri Rauch, Benjamin H Chi, Meri Gorgievski, Marcel Zwahlen, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND: Access to hepatitis B viral load (VL) testing is poor in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to economic and logistical reasons. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the feasibility of testing dried blood spots (DBS) for hepatitis B virus (HBV) VL in a laboratory in Lusaka, Zambia, and to compare HBV VLs between DBS and plasma samples. STUDY DESIGN: Paired plasma and DBS samples from HIV-HBV co-infected Zambian adults were analyzed for HBV VL using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test (Version 2...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Patricia Alvarez, Leticia Martín, Luis Prieto, Jacinta Obiang, Antonio Vargas, Pedro Avedillo, Pablo Rojo, Carolina Fernández McPhee, Agustín Benito, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
OBJECTIVES: Viral load (VL) testing is used for early HIV diagnosis in infants (EID) and for detecting early therapeutic failure events, but can be affected by HIV genetic variability. Dried blood samples (DBS) increase VL access and EID in remote settings and when low blood volume is available. METHODS: This study compares VL values using Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 kPCR assay (kPCR) and Roche CAP/CTM Quantitative test v2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0) in 176 DBS carrying different HIV-1 variants collected from 69 Equatoguinean mothers and their infants with known HIV-1 status (71 infected, 105 uninfected)...
September 2015: Journal of Infection
Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Calum Davey, Tarisai Chirenje, Phyllis Mushati, Sibongile Mtetwa, Jeffrey Dirawo, Boniface Mudenge, Andrew Phillips, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: In the context of a community-randomized trial of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention and treatment among sex workers in Zimbabwe (the SAPPH-IRe trial), we will measure the proportion of women with HIV viral load (VL) above 1000 copies/mL ("VL>1000") as our primary endpoint. We sought to characterize VL assay performance by comparing results from finger prick dried blood spots (DBS) collected in the field with plasma samples, to determine whether finger prick DBS is an acceptable sample for VL quantification in the setting...
2015: PloS One
Sarah E Rutstein, Mina C Hosseinipour, Deborah Kamwendo, Alice Soko, Memory Mkandawire, Andrea K Biddle, William C Miller, Morris Weinberger, Stephanie B Wheeler, Abdoulaye Sarr, Sundeep Gupta, Frank Chimbwandira, Reuben Mwenda, Steve Kamiza, Irving Hoffman, Ronald Mataya
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of dried blood spots (DBS) use for viral load (VL) monitoring, describing patient outcomes and programmatic challenges that are relevant for DBS implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We recruited adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients from five district hospitals in Malawi. Eligibility reflected anticipated Ministry of Health VL monitoring criteria. Testing was conducted at a central laboratory...
2015: PloS One
Sivapragashini Danaviah, Tulio de Oliveira, Ruth Bland, Johannes Viljoen, Sureshnee Pillay, Edouard Tuaillon, Philippe Van de Perre, Marie-Louise Newell
Exposure of the infant's gut to cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 trafficking in breast milk (BM) remains a primary cause of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). The mammary gland represents a unique environment for HIV-1 replication and host-virus interplay. We aimed to explore the origin of the virus transmitted during breastfeeding, and the link with quasi-species found in acellular and cellular fractions of breast-milk (BM) and in maternal plasma. The C2-V5 region of the env gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from the RNA and DNA of BM, the RNA from the mother's plasma (PLA) and the DNA from infant's dried blood spot (DBS) in 11 post-natal mother-infant pairs...
2015: PloS One
Xiaoning Wu, Megan Crask, Hector Ramirez, Trevor Landas, Tri D Do, Christiane Honisch, Stephen Will, Paul D Baum
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) improve access to HIV viral load (VL) testing, but yield increased VL measurements compared to the plasma reference method because of cell-associated viral nucleic acid. In clinical settings, DBS methods may falsely categorize many patients as failing therapy. OBJECTIVES: Description of a simple method, free virus elution (FVE), to preferentially elute plasma-associated virus from DBS samples with phosphate-buffered saline, and an initial HIV VL performance comparison with standard DBS elution methods...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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