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horseshoe crab

Anikó Borbás, Mihály Herczeg, Erika Mező, Nikolett Molnár, Sim-Kun Ng, Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang, Yuan-Chuan Lee
To evaluate molecular interaction of recombinant Horseshoe Crab Plasma Lectin (rHPL) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 multivalent rhamnobioside derivatives were designed. Eight rhamnoclusters displaying three or four alpha(1-3)-rhamnobiosides attached to different central cores such as methyl gallate, pentaerythritol and N-Boc Tris through either an ethylene glycol or a tetraethylene glycol linker were assembled by two consecutive azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reactions. The synthetic method embraced preparation of two alpha(1-3)-rhamnobiosides of different linker-arms and their conjugation, with stoichiometric or substoichiometric amounts, to the propargyl ether functionalized tri- or tetravalent scaffolds...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Alexander Lipsky, Janak Raj Joshi, Nir Carmi, Iris Yedidia
The genus Ornithogalum includes several ornamental species that suffer substantial losses from bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacteria. The absence of effective control measures for use against soft rot bacteria led to the initiation of a project in which a small antimicrobial peptide from an Asian horseshoe crab, tachyplesin (tpnI), was introduced into two commercial cultivars: O. dubium and O. thyrsoides. Disease severity and bacterial colonization were examined in transgenic lines expressing this peptide...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Haiwei Xie, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitously found in living organisms and are an important component in innate immune response. Tachyplesin I is a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus. Previous studies have shown that the 17-residue peptide exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. However, the efficiencies and defense mechanisms of the Tachyplesin I against fish viruses are still unknown...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher C Chabot, Nicole C Ramberg-Pihl, Winsor H Watson
While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24...
2016: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
Bryan Raveen Nelson, Behara Satyanarayana, Julia Hwei Zhong Moh, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Anil Chatterji, Faizah Shaharom
Tanjung Selongor and Pantai Balok (State Pahang) are the only two places known for spawning activity of the Malaysian horseshoe crab - Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1785) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. While the former beach has been disturbed by several anthropogenic activities that ultimately brought an end to the spawning activity of T. gigas, the status of the latter remains uncertain. In the present study, the spawning behavior of T. gigas at Pantai Balok (Sites I-III) was observed over a period of thirty six months, in three phases, between 2009 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
Stefan Fennrich, Ulrike Hennig, Leila Toliashvili, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Sandra Stoppelkamp
In the quality assurance of medical products, tests for sterility are essential. For parenteral pharmaceuticals, avoiding the presence of pyrogens is crucial. These fever-inducing substances (endotoxins and non-endotoxins) are not eliminated by standard sterilisation processes, and are biologically active once in the bloodstream, causing risks to human health, ranging from mild reactions (e.g. fever) to septic shock and death. Therefore, for injectable formulations, pyrogen testing is mandatory. Over the years, various pyrogen testing methods have been introduced, namely: in the 1940s, the rabbit pyrogen test, which is an in vivo test that measures the fever reaction as an endpoint; in the 1970s, the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, which is an in vitro test (with the haemolymph of the horseshoe crab) that specifically detects endotoxin; and in 2010, the Monocyte-Activation Test (MAT), which is a non-animal based in vitro pyrogen test that represents a full replacement of the rabbit test...
July 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Thibaut Brunet, Detlev Arendt
Our skeletons evolved from cartilaginous tissue, but it remains a mystery how cartilage itself first arose in evolution. Characterization of cartilage in cuttlefish and horseshoe crabs reveals surprising commonalities with chordate chondrocytes, suggesting a common evolutionary origin.
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Barbara-Anne Battelle
The eyes and photoreceptors of the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus have been studied since the 1930s, and this work has been critical for understanding basic mechanisms of vision. One of the attractions of Limulus as a preparation for studies of vision is that it has three different types of eyes-a pair of later compound, image-forming eyes and two types of simple eyes, a pair of median ocelli, and three pair of larval eyes. Each eye type is tractable for experimentation. Limulus also has extraocular photoreceptors in its segmental ganglia and tail...
July 21, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Kevin N Chesmore, Winsor H Watson, Christopher C Chabot
While the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, has robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, virtually nothing is known about the molecular basis of these rhythms in this species or any other chelicerate. In this study, next generation sequencing was used to assemble transcriptomic reads and then putative homologs of known core and accessory circadian genes were identified in these databases. Homologous transcripts were discovered for one circadian clock input gene, five core genes, 22 accessory genes, and two possible output pathways...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Daniel J Leite, Maria Ninova, Maarten Hilbrant, Saad Arif, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Matthew Ronshaugen, Alistair P McGregor
MicroRNAs are small (∼22 nt) noncoding RNAs that repress translation and therefore regulate the production of proteins from specific target mRNAs. microRNAs have been found to function in diverse aspects of gene regulation within animal development and many other processes. Among invertebrates, both conserved and novel, lineage specific, microRNAs have been extensively studied predominantly in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila melanogaster However little is known about microRNA repertoires in other arthropod lineages such as the chelicerates...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Kayla Guinn, Alinde Fojtik, Nick Davis-Fields, Rebecca L Poulson, Scott Krauss, Robert G Webster, David E Stallknecht
Gulls are the known reservoir for H13 and H16 influenza A viruses (IAV) but also host a diversity of other IAV subtypes. Gulls also share habitats with both ducks and shorebirds, increasing the potential for cross-species IAV transmission. We serologically tested laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla) collected at Delaware Bay during May when they were in direct contact with IAV-infected shorebirds; both species feed on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs on beaches during this month. From 2010 to 2014, antibody prevalence as determined by competitive blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ranged from 25%-72%...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
Barbara-Anne Battelle, Joseph F Ryan, Karen E Kempler, Spencer R Saraf, Catherine E Marten, Wesley C Warren, Patrick J Minx, Michael J Montague, Pamela J Green, Skye A Schmidt, Lucinda Fulton, Nipam H Patel, Meredith E Protas, Richard K Wilson, Megan L Porter
Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and more broadly among arthropods...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Christine Nga-Wing Lee, Brian Morton
A survey of juvenile Asian horseshoe crabs in 2002 on the mudflats along Hong Kong's north-western shoreline abutting Deep Bay identified two species, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, and assessed their population characteristics. Since the 2002 survey, there have been significant habitat changes to this natal site for the two species. By employing the same, but expanded, sampling protocol, a further survey was, therefore, conducted twelve years later in 2014. A general population decline was recorded for T...
July 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jan A Veenstra
Allatostatin C is the arthropod homolog of vertebrate somatostatin. The gene went through a local gene triplification leading to the existence of three genes coding such peptides, allatostatins C, CC and CCC. All three genes are still present in several chelicerates, such as the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, several spiders and the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii, the myriapod Strigamia maritima, as well as at least two insect species, Locusta migratoria and Athalia rosae, a sawfly. All three peptides have well conserved primary structures and peptides can easily be classified as either allatostatin C, CC or CCC...
May 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Can Zhang, Wen-jun Liu, Lu Ao, Yun Shi, Dai-zhi An, Zhi-ping Liu
A survey of endotoxin activity in groundwater from 14 self-contained wells in PLA units stationed in Beijing was conducted by the kinetic-turbid assay of Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL). Bacteriological parameters, including total cell counts detected by flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), standard plate counts and total coliforms were analyzed. Additionally, suspended particles, turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV₂₅₄ were investigated. Total endotoxin activities ranged from 0...
December 2015: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Toshifumi Wada, Takahiro Mitsushio, Shinya Inoue, Hiroko Koike, Ryo Kawabe
The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is critically endangered in Japan due to rapidly decreasing numbers resulting from the loss of tidal flats and sandy beaches, and the deterioration of coastal environments. We monitored the year-round migratory patterns and residency of this species in a coastal embayment at Tsuyazaki, Japan, using acoustic telemetry. Total 20 adult crabs (15 males and 5 females) were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked during two periods (2006-2008; n = 10 and 2007-2009; n = 10)...
2016: PloS One
Linsheng Song, Chao Bian, Yongju Luo, Lingling Wang, Xinxin You, Jia Li, Ying Qiu, Xingyu Ma, Zhifei Zhu, Liang Ma, Zhaogen Wang, Ying Lei, Jun Qiang, Hongxia Li, Juhua Yu, Alex Wong, Junmin Xu, Qiong Shi, Pao Xu
BACKGROUND: The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one of the most studied and economically important crustaceans in China. Its transition from a swimming to a crawling method of movement during early development, anadromous migration during growth, and catadromous migration during breeding have been attractive features for research. However, knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes is still very limited. FINDINGS: A total of 258...
2016: GigaScience
Mingliang Chen, Chenying Wang, Wei Wang, Gubiao Ji, Bin Hu, Mi Du, Guosheng Liu, Zengpeng Li, Weiyi Wang, Xiangzhi Lin, Weibing Zheng, Jianming Chen
The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is a unique marine species and a potential model for marine invertebrate. Limited genomic and transcriptional data are currently available to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the embryonic development of T. tridentatus. Here, we reported for the first time the de novo transcriptome assembly for T. tridentatus at embryonic developmental stage using Illumina RNA-seq platform. Approximate 38 million reads were obtained and further assembled into 133,212 unigenes...
2016: PloS One
John M Sahrmann, Amy Niedbalski, Louise Bradshaw, Rebecca Johnson, Sharon L Deem
Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) institutions provide a variety of benefits to visitors. However, one area that has received little study is the direct human health benefits from zoo and aquarium visits. With the increase in stress related non-infectious diseases in industrialized countries, understanding the extent of these benefits is important. We studied the effects on visitor stress of an experience at a touch tank exhibit featuring stingrays, sharks, and horseshoe crabs. Stress was measured by physiological and psychological parameters...
January 2016: Zoo Biology
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