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horseshoe crab

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203920/pan-arthropod-analysis-reveals-somatic-pirnas-as-an-ancestral-defence-against-transposable-elements
#1
Samuel H Lewis, Kaycee A Quarles, Yujing Yang, Melanie Tanguy, Lise Frézal, Stephen A Smith, Prashant P Sharma, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert, Isabelle Giraud, David H Collins, Phillip D Zamore, Eric A Miska, Peter Sarkies, Francis M Jiggins
In animals, small RNA molecules termed PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposable elements (TEs), protecting the germline from genomic instability and mutation. piRNAs have been detected in the soma in a few animals, but these are believed to be specific adaptations of individual species. Here, we report that somatic piRNAs were probably present in the ancestral arthropod more than 500 million years ago. Analysis of 20 species across the arthropod phylum suggests that somatic piRNAs targeting TEs and messenger RNAs are common among arthropods...
December 4, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187722/-the-plasma-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-a-japanese-contribution-to-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infection
#2
Taminori Obayashi
 In 1985, a (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay based on the discovery of a (1→3)-β-D-glucan-sensitive coagulation factor in the horseshoe crab amebocytes was developed in Japan, as a test aid in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. After many clinical trials, it has now been incorporated in practice guidelines both in Japan and abroad for the diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infection, and is now available worldwide. In Japan, however, two commercial kits that differ widely in sensitivity to (1→3)-β-D-glucan are used; namely, the colorimetric and the turbidimetric assays...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182506/opsins-and-their-expression-patterns-in-the-xiphosuran-limulus-polyphemus
#3
Barbara-Anne Battelle
The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of four extant species of xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. Because of their position in the arthropod family tree and because they exhibit many plesiomorphic characteristics, Xiphosura are considered a proxy for the euchelicerate ancestor and therefore important for understanding the evolution and diversification of chelicerates and arthropods. Limulus polyphemus is the most extensively studied xiphosuran, and its visual system has long been a focus of studies critical for our understanding of basic mechanisms of vision and the evolution of visual systems in arthropods...
August 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075039/exceptional-appendage-and-soft-tissue-preservation-in-a-middle-triassic-horseshoe-crab-from-sw-china
#4
Shixue Hu, Qiyue Zhang, Rodney M Feldmann, Michael J Benton, Carrie E Schweitzer, Jinyuan Huang, Wen Wen, Changyong Zhou, Tao Xie, Tao Lü, Shuigen Hong
Horseshoe crabs are classic "living fossils", supposedly slowly evolving, conservative taxa, with a long fossil record back to the Ordovician. The evolution of their exoskeleton is well documented by fossils, but appendage and soft-tissue preservation is extremely rare. Here we analyse details of appendage and soft-tissue preservation in Yunnanolimulus luopingensis, a Middle Triassic (ca. 244 million years old) horseshoe crab from Yunnan Province, SW China. The remarkable preservation of anatomical details including the chelicerae, five pairs of walking appendages, opisthosomal appendages with book gills, muscles, and fine setae permits comparison with extant horseshoe crabs...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067728/pharmacokinetics-of-enrofloxacin-and-ciprofloxacin-in-atlantic-horseshoe-crabs-limulus-polyphemus-after-single-injection
#5
A Kirby, G A Lewbart, A Hancock-Ronemus, M G Papich
The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and the metabolite ciprofloxacin were studied in horseshoe crabs after a single injection of 5 mg/kg. Twelve Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) of undetermined age were injected with enrofloxacin into the dorsal cardiac sinus. Hemolymph samples were collected by syringe and needle at regular intervals for 120 hr. Samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and compartmental analysis performed on the results. Following injection, the elimination half-life (T½), peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and volume of distribution (VD) for enrofloxacin were 27...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061482/irc2-bf-a-yeast-and-borrelia-responsive-component-of-the-complement-system-from-the-hard-tick-ixodes-ricinus
#6
Veronika Urbanová, Ondřej Hajdušek, Radek Šíma, Zdeněk Franta, Helena Hönig-Mondeková, Lenka Grunclová, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Marie Jalovecká, Petr Kopáček
Ticks possess components of a primordial complement system that presumably play a role in the interaction of the tick immune system with tick-borne pathogens and affect their transmission. Here we characterized a novel complement component, tagged as IrC2/Bf, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, the principal vector of Lyme disease in Europe. IrC2/Bf is a multi-domain molecule composed of 5-7 CCP modules, varied by alternative splicing, followed by a von Willebrand factor A domain and a C-terminal trypsin-like domain...
October 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051673/local-tidal-regime-dictates-plasticity-of-expression-of-locomotor-activity-rhythms-of-american-horseshoe-crabs-limulus-polyphemus
#7
Rebecca L Anderson, Winsor H Watson, Christopher C Chabot
While horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus from regions with two daily tides express endogenous circatidal (~ 12.4 h) activity rhythms, much less is known about locomotor rhythm expression in horseshoe crabs from other tidal regimes. This study investigated whether horseshoe crabs (1) always express activity rhythms consistent with their natural tides, and (2) can alter activity rhythm expression in response to novel tide cycles. Activity rhythms of animals from environments with two daily tides (Gulf of Maine, 43°6' N/70°52' W, and Massachusetts, 41°32' N/70°40'W), one dominant daily tide (Apalachee Bay, Florida, 29°58' N/84°20' W), and microtides (Indian River Lagoon, Florida, 28°5' N/80°35' W) were recorded in 2011-2013 during three artificial tide conditions: no tides, a 12...
April 2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051452/metal-levels-in-blood-of-three-species-of-shorebirds-during-stopover-on-delaware-bay-reflect-levels-in-their-food-horseshoe-crab-eggs
#8
Joanna Burger, Nellie Tsipoura, Michael Gochfeld
Understanding the relationship between metal level in predators and their prey is an important issue, and is usually difficult to determine because animals eat a variety of organisms. However, shorebirds that stop over during spring migration along Delaware Bay (New Jersey) stay for only 2-3 weeks, and eat mainly horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. In this paper, we examine the relationship between metal levels in horseshoe crab eggs, and blood and feather levels of metals in red knot (Calidris canutus rufa; n = 30), sanderling (Calidris alba; n = 20) and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 38) from Delaware Bay...
August 28, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898602/parallel-patterns-of-host-specific-morphology-and-genetic-admixture-in-sister-lineages-of-a-commensal-barnacle
#9
Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Benny K K Chan, John D Zardus, John P Wares
Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic sister lineage of C...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815904/comparative-in-vitro-study-on-cytotoxicity-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-hairpin-peptides
#10
Denis V Kuzmin, Anna A Emelianova, Mariana B Kalashnikova, Pavel V Panteleev, Sergey V Balandin, Ekaterina O Serebrovskaya, Oksana Yu Belogurova-Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V Ovchinnikova
Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system with a wide spectrum of biological activity. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of three recombinant β-hairpin cationic AMPs: arenicin-1 from the polychaeta Arenicola marina, tachyplesin I from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, and gomesin from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. All the three β-hairpin AMPs were overexpressed in E. coli. Different cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of the investigated AMPs in order to evaluate their cytotoxic activity...
August 16, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792490/ancestral-whole-genome-duplication-in-the-marine-chelicerate-horseshoe-crabs
#11
N J Kenny, K W Chan, W Nong, Z Qu, I Maeso, H Y Yip, T F Chan, H S Kwan, P W H Holland, K H Chu, J H L Hui
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/hdy.2015.89.
November 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756775/the-house-spider-genome-reveals-an-ancient-whole-genome-duplication-during-arachnid-evolution
#12
Evelyn E Schwager, Prashant P Sharma, Thomas Clarke, Daniel J Leite, Torsten Wierschin, Matthias Pechmann, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Lauren Esposito, Jesper Bechsgaard, Trine Bilde, Alexandra D Buffry, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Cornelius Eibner, Cassandra G Extavour, Peter Funch, Jessica Garb, Luis B Gonzalez, Vanessa L Gonzalez, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Yi Han, Cheryl Hayashi, Maarten Hilbrant, Daniel S T Hughes, Ralf Janssen, Sandra L Lee, Ignacio Maeso, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Christian L B Paese, Jiaxin Qu, Matthew Ronshaugen, Christoph Schomburg, Anna Schönauer, Angelika Stollewerk, Montserrat Torres-Oliva, Natascha Turetzek, Bram Vanthournout, John H Werren, Carsten Wolff, Kim C Worley, Gregor Bucher, Richard A Gibbs, Jonathan Coddington, Hiroki Oda, Mario Stanke, Nadia A Ayoub, Nikola-Michael Prpic, Jean-François Flot, Nico Posnien, Stephen Richards, Alistair P McGregor
BACKGROUND: The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplication of genes in some chelicerate lineages including two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in horseshoe crabs. To investigate this further, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. RESULTS: We found pervasive duplication of both coding and non-coding genes in this spider, including two clusters of Hox genes...
July 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587859/characterization-and-function-of-a-tachylectin-5-like-immune-molecule-in-penaeus-monodon
#13
Pacharaporn Angthong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Padermsak Jarayabhand, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal
Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502748/cytochrome-p450-diversity-in-the-tree-of-life
#14
David R Nelson
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses...
January 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479611/genetic-variation-and-geographic-differentiation-in-the-marine-triclad-bdelloura-candida-platyhelminthes-tricladida-maricola-ectocommensal-on-the-american-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#15
Ana Riesgo, Emily A Burke, Christopher Laumer, Gonzalo Giribet
Bdelloura candida (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Maricola) is an ectocommensal symbiont on the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, living on the book gills and appendages, where it spends its entire life. Given its limited dispersal capabilities and its inability to live outside of the host, we hypothesized a genetic structure that parallels that of its host. We obtained 84 planarian individuals from 19 horseshoe crabs collected from 10 sites from Massachusetts to Florida. We amplified the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 and conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses, which show a clear and strong genetic break between the populations in the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444421/metal-levels-in-shorebird-feathers-and-blood-during-migration-through-delaware-bay
#16
Nellie Tsipoura, Joanna Burger, Lawrence Niles, Amanda Dey, Michael Gochfeld, Mark Peck, David Mizrahi
We investigated levels of arsenic mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium in Red Knot (Calidris canutus), Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), and Sanderling (Calidris alba) migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey to determine if contaminant levels are likely to be causing negative effects on the populations of these shorebirds, to compare among species, and to explore differences among individuals collected early and late during their migration stopover. We analyzed blood and feathers, both nonlethal ways of exploring contaminants in birds...
May 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416113/early-evolution-of-specialized-termitophily-in-cretaceous-rove-beetles
#17
Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang, Alfred F Newton, K Taro Eldredge, Michael S Engel
Termitophiles, symbionts that live in termite nests, include a wide range of morphologically and behaviorally specialized organisms. Complex adaptive mechanisms permit these animals to integrate into societies and to exploit their controlled physical conditions and plentiful resources, as well as to garner protection inside termite nests. An understanding of the early evolution of termitophily is challenging owing to a scarcity of fossil termitophiles, with all known reliable records occurring from the Miocene (approximately 19 million years ago [mya]) [1-6], and an equivocal termitophile belonging to the largely free-living Mesoporini from the mid-Cretaceous [7]...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415006/accumulation-of-nonessential-trace-elements-ag-as-cd-cr-hg-and-pb-in-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus-early-life-stages
#18
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
During early development, benthic organisms can accumulate nonessential trace elements through aqueous and particulate sources. This study investigated the accumulation of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) pre-spawned eggs, embryos, and developing larvae collected from 5 sites on Long Island, NY and compared these concentrations to that found in sediment, pore water, and overlying water. All investigated elements were detected in embryos and larvae at all sites. Arsenic was found at the highest concentration in each life stage across all 5 sites, followed by Ag, whereas Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations varied between sites...
April 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265565/the-draft-genome-and-transcriptome-of-the-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#19
Stephen D Simpson, Jordan S Ramsdell, Winsor H Watson Iii, Christopher C Chabot
The horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, exhibits robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying those rhythms. In this study, horseshoe crabs were collected during the day and night as well as high and low tides, and their muscle and central nervous system tissues were processed for genome and transcriptome sequencing, respectively. The genome assembly resulted in 7.4 × 10(5) contigs with N50 of 4,736, while the transcriptome assembly resulted in 9.3 × 10(4) contigs and N50 of 3,497...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106765/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-tachyplesin-i-targets-in-u251-gliomaspheres
#20
Xuan Li, Jianguo Dai, Yongjun Tang, Lulu Li, Gang Jin
Tachyplesin I is a cationic peptide isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab and its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in several tumor cells. However, there is limited information providing the global effects and mechanisms of tachyplesin I on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, by using two complementary proteomic strategies (2D-DIGE and dimethyl isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics), we explored the effect of tachyplesin I on the proteome of gliomaspheres, a three-dimensional growth model formed by a GBM cell line U251...
January 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
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