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horseshoe crab

Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang, Alfred F Newton, K Taro Eldredge, Michael S Engel
Termitophiles, symbionts that live in termite nests, include a wide range of morphologically and behaviorally specialized organisms. Complex adaptive mechanisms permit these animals to integrate into societies and to exploit their controlled physical conditions and plentiful resources, as well as to garner protection inside termite nests. An understanding of the early evolution of termitophily is challenging owing to a scarcity of fossil termitophiles, with all known reliable records occurring from the Miocene (approximately 19 million years ago [mya]) [1-6], and an equivocal termitophile belonging to the largely free-living Mesoporini from the mid-Cretaceous [7]...
March 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
During early development, benthic organisms can accumulate nonessential trace elements through aqueous and particulate sources. This study investigated the accumulation of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) pre-spawned eggs, embryos, and developing larvae collected from 5 sites on Long Island, NY and compared these concentrations to that found in sediment, pore water, and overlying water. All investigated elements were detected in embryos and larvae at all sites. Arsenic was found at the highest concentration in each life stage across all 5 sites, followed by Ag, whereas Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations varied between sites...
April 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Stephen D Simpson, Jordan S Ramsdell, Winsor H Watson Iii, Christopher C Chabot
The horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, exhibits robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying those rhythms. In this study, horseshoe crabs were collected during the day and night as well as high and low tides, and their muscle and central nervous system tissues were processed for genome and transcriptome sequencing, respectively. The genome assembly resulted in 7.4 × 10(5) contigs with N50 of 4,736, while the transcriptome assembly resulted in 9.3 × 10(4) contigs and N50 of 3,497...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
Xuan Li, Jianguo Dai, Yongjun Tang, Lulu Li, Gang Jin
Tachyplesin I is a cationic peptide isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab and its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in several tumor cells. However, there is limited information providing the global effects and mechanisms of tachyplesin I on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, by using two complementary proteomic strategies (2D-DIGE and dimethyl isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics), we explored the effect of tachyplesin I on the proteome of gliomaspheres, a three-dimensional growth model formed by a GBM cell line U251...
January 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
Patrick L McGeer, Moonhee Lee, Edith G McGeer
Complement is the backbone of our innate immune system. It is of ancient evolutionary origin, being traced back to horseshoe crabs 350 million years ago. It consists today of more than 25 proteins which must work together like clockwork to distinguish friend from foe. Self-attack by the complement system can occur whenever it fails to do so. This failure has been reported to occur in an estimated 22 human diseases. A significant number of these are chronic degenerative neurological disorders. In some, there is overwhelming evidence that complement self-attack causes the disease...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
February 2017: Innate Immunity
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology
Peter Funch, Tobias Wang, Cino Pertoldi, Ane Bruun Middelbo
The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus typically spawns in the upper intertidal zone, where the developing embryos are exposed to large variations in abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity, salinity, and oxygen, which affect the rate of development. It has been shown that embryonic development is slowed at both high and low salinities and temperatures, and that late embryos close to hatching tolerate periodic hypoxia. In this study we investigated the influence of hypoxia on both early and late embryonic development in L...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
Prapaporn Utarabhand, Wanida Rittidach, Onnicha Rattanaporn, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Jerry L Hedrick
A sialic acid-specific lectin was purified from the hemolymph of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by repetitive affinity fetuin-agarose column chromatography. The purified F. merguiensis lectin (called FmL) consisted of two distinct 30.9 and 32kDa subunits with identical N-terminal amino acid sequences of ten residues. FmL was also composed of sugar moieties; glucosamine, glucose, mannose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid but not N-glycolyl neuraminic acid. It was postulated to be a glycoprotein as it was positively stained by glycoprotein staining kit and detected by some bionylated plant lectins...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Mihály Herczeg, Erika Mező, Nikolett Molnár, Sim-Kun Ng, Yuan-Chuan Lee, Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang, Anikó Borbás
To evaluate the molecular interaction of recombinant horseshoe crab plasma lectin (rHPL) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, multivalent rhamnobioside derivatives were designed. Eight rhamnoclusters with three or four α(1-3)-rhamnobiosides attached to different central cores, such as methyl gallate, pentaerythritol, and N-Boc Tris, through either an ethylene glycol or a tetraethylene glycol linker, were assembled in two consecutive azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reactions. The synthetic method embraced the preparation of two α(1-3)-rhamnobiosides with different linker arms and their conjugation, in stoichiometric or substoichiometric amounts, to propargyl ether-functionalized tri- or tetravalent scaffolds...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Alexander Lipsky, Janak Raj Joshi, Nir Carmi, Iris Yedidia
The genus Ornithogalum includes several ornamental species that suffer substantial losses from bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacteria. The absence of effective control measures for use against soft rot bacteria led to the initiation of a project in which a small antimicrobial peptide from an Asian horseshoe crab, tachyplesin (tpnI), was introduced into two commercial cultivars: O. dubium and O. thyrsoides. Disease severity and bacterial colonization were examined in transgenic lines expressing this peptide...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Haiwei Xie, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitously found in living organisms and are an important component in innate immune response. Tachyplesin I is a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus. Previous studies have shown that the 17-residue peptide exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. However, the efficiencies and defense mechanisms of the Tachyplesin I against fish viruses are still unknown...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher C Chabot, Nicole C Ramberg-Pihl, Winsor H Watson
While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24...
2016: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
Bryan Raveen Nelson, Behara Satyanarayana, Julia Hwei Zhong Moh, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Anil Chatterji, Faizah Shaharom
Tanjung Selongor and Pantai Balok (State Pahang) are the only two places known for spawning activity of the Malaysian horseshoe crab - Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1785) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. While the former beach has been disturbed by several anthropogenic activities that ultimately brought an end to the spawning activity of T. gigas, the status of the latter remains uncertain. In the present study, the spawning behavior of T. gigas at Pantai Balok (Sites I-III) was observed over a period of thirty six months, in three phases, between 2009 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
Stefan Fennrich, Ulrike Hennig, Leila Toliashvili, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Sandra Stoppelkamp
In the quality assurance of medical products, tests for sterility are essential. For parenteral pharmaceuticals, avoiding the presence of pyrogens is crucial. These fever-inducing substances (endotoxins and non-endotoxins) are not eliminated by standard sterilisation processes, and are biologically active once in the bloodstream, causing risks to human health, ranging from mild reactions (e.g. fever) to septic shock and death. Therefore, for injectable formulations, pyrogen testing is mandatory. Over the years, various pyrogen testing methods have been introduced, namely: in the 1940s, the rabbit pyrogen test, which is an in vivo test that measures the fever reaction as an endpoint; in the 1970s, the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, which is an in vitro test (with the haemolymph of the horseshoe crab) that specifically detects endotoxin; and in 2010, the Monocyte-Activation Test (MAT), which is a non-animal based in vitro pyrogen test that represents a full replacement of the rabbit test...
July 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Thibaut Brunet, Detlev Arendt
Our skeletons evolved from cartilaginous tissue, but it remains a mystery how cartilage itself first arose in evolution. Characterization of cartilage in cuttlefish and horseshoe crabs reveals surprising commonalities with chordate chondrocytes, suggesting a common evolutionary origin.
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Barbara-Anne Battelle
The eyes and photoreceptors of the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus have been studied since the 1930s, and this work has been critical for understanding basic mechanisms of vision. One of the attractions of Limulus as a preparation for studies of vision is that it has three different types of eyes-a pair of later compound, image-forming eyes and two types of simple eyes, a pair of median ocelli, and three pair of larval eyes. Each eye type is tractable for experimentation. Limulus also has extraocular photoreceptors in its segmental ganglia and tail...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Kevin N Chesmore, Winsor H Watson, Christopher C Chabot
While the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, has robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, virtually nothing is known about the molecular basis of these rhythms in this species or any other chelicerate. In this study, next generation sequencing was used to assemble transcriptomic reads and then putative homologs of known core and accessory circadian genes were identified in these databases. Homologous transcripts were discovered for one circadian clock input gene, five core genes, 22 accessory genes, and two possible output pathways...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Daniel J Leite, Maria Ninova, Maarten Hilbrant, Saad Arif, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Matthew Ronshaugen, Alistair P McGregor
MicroRNAs are small (∼22 nt) noncoding RNAs that repress translation and therefore regulate the production of proteins from specific target mRNAs. microRNAs have been found to function in diverse aspects of gene regulation within animal development and many other processes. Among invertebrates, both conserved and novel, lineage specific, microRNAs have been extensively studied predominantly in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila melanogaster However little is known about microRNA repertoires in other arthropod lineages such as the chelicerates...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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