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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502748/cytochrome-p450-diversity-in-the-tree-of-life
#1
David R Nelson
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479611/genetic-variation-and-geographic-differentiation-in-the-marine-triclad-bdelloura-candida-platyhelminthes-tricladida-maricola-ectocommensal-on-the-american-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#2
Ana Riesgo, Emily A Burke, Christopher Laumer, Gonzalo Giribet
Bdelloura candida (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Maricola) is an ectocommensal symbiont on the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, living on the book gills and appendages, where it spends its entire life. Given its limited dispersal capabilities and its inability to live outside of the host, we hypothesized a genetic structure that parallels that of its host. We obtained 84 planarian individuals from 19 horseshoe crabs collected from 10 sites from Massachusetts to Florida. We amplified the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 and conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses, which show a clear and strong genetic break between the populations in the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444421/metal-levels-in-shorebird-feathers-and-blood-during-migration-through-delaware-bay
#3
Nellie Tsipoura, Joanna Burger, Lawrence Niles, Amanda Dey, Michael Gochfeld, Mark Peck, David Mizrahi
We investigated levels of arsenic mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium in Red Knot (Calidris canutus), Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), and Sanderling (Calidris alba) migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey to determine if contaminant levels are likely to be causing negative effects on the populations of these shorebirds, to compare among species, and to explore differences among individuals collected early and late during their migration stopover. We analyzed blood and feathers, both nonlethal ways of exploring contaminants in birds...
May 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416113/early-evolution-of-specialized-termitophily-in-cretaceous-rove-beetles
#4
Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang, Alfred F Newton, K Taro Eldredge, Michael S Engel
Termitophiles, symbionts that live in termite nests, include a wide range of morphologically and behaviorally specialized organisms. Complex adaptive mechanisms permit these animals to integrate into societies and to exploit their controlled physical conditions and plentiful resources, as well as to garner protection inside termite nests. An understanding of the early evolution of termitophily is challenging owing to a scarcity of fossil termitophiles, with all known reliable records occurring from the Miocene (approximately 19 million years ago [mya]) [1-6], and an equivocal termitophile belonging to the largely free-living Mesoporini from the mid-Cretaceous [7]...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415006/accumulation-of-nonessential-trace-elements-ag-as-cd-cr-hg-and-pb-in-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus-early-life-stages
#5
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
During early development, benthic organisms can accumulate nonessential trace elements through aqueous and particulate sources. This study investigated the accumulation of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) pre-spawned eggs, embryos, and developing larvae collected from 5 sites on Long Island, NY and compared these concentrations to that found in sediment, pore water, and overlying water. All investigated elements were detected in embryos and larvae at all sites. Arsenic was found at the highest concentration in each life stage across all 5 sites, followed by Ag, whereas Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations varied between sites...
April 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265565/the-draft-genome-and-transcriptome-of-the-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#6
Stephen D Simpson, Jordan S Ramsdell, Winsor H Watson Iii, Christopher C Chabot
The horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, exhibits robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying those rhythms. In this study, horseshoe crabs were collected during the day and night as well as high and low tides, and their muscle and central nervous system tissues were processed for genome and transcriptome sequencing, respectively. The genome assembly resulted in 7.4 × 10(5) contigs with N50 of 4,736, while the transcriptome assembly resulted in 9.3 × 10(4) contigs and N50 of 3,497...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106765/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-tachyplesin-i-targets-in-u251-gliomaspheres
#7
Xuan Li, Jianguo Dai, Yongjun Tang, Lulu Li, Gang Jin
Tachyplesin I is a cationic peptide isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab and its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in several tumor cells. However, there is limited information providing the global effects and mechanisms of tachyplesin I on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Here, by using two complementary proteomic strategies (2D-DIGE and dimethyl isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics), we explored the effect of tachyplesin I on the proteome of gliomaspheres, a three-dimensional growth model formed by a GBM cell line U251...
January 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104543/a-review-of-human-diseases-caused-or-exacerbated-by-aberrant-complement-activation
#8
REVIEW
Patrick L McGeer, Moonhee Lee, Edith G McGeer
Complement is the backbone of our innate immune system. It is of ancient evolutionary origin, being traced back to horseshoe crabs 350 million years ago. It consists today of more than 25 proteins which must work together like clockwork to distinguish friend from foe. Self-attack by the complement system can occur whenever it fails to do so. This failure has been reported to occur in an estimated 22 human diseases. A significant number of these are chronic degenerative neurological disorders. In some, there is overwhelming evidence that complement self-attack causes the disease...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913792/genetic-engineering-approach-to-develop-next-generation-reagents-for-endotoxin-quantification
#9
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
February 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866343/maternal-transfer-of-trace-elements-in-the-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#10
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820903/low-oxygen-levels-slow-embryonic-development-of-limulus-polyphemus
#11
Peter Funch, Tobias Wang, Cino Pertoldi, Ane Bruun Middelbo
The American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus typically spawns in the upper intertidal zone, where the developing embryos are exposed to large variations in abiotic factors such as temperature, humidity, salinity, and oxygen, which affect the rate of development. It has been shown that embryonic development is slowed at both high and low salinities and temperatures, and that late embryos close to hatching tolerate periodic hypoxia. In this study we investigated the influence of hypoxia on both early and late embryonic development in L...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793716/sialic-acid-specific-lectin-participates-in-an-immune-response-and-ovarian-development-of-the-banana-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis
#12
Prapaporn Utarabhand, Wanida Rittidach, Onnicha Rattanaporn, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Jerry L Hedrick
A sialic acid-specific lectin was purified from the hemolymph of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by repetitive affinity fetuin-agarose column chromatography. The purified F. merguiensis lectin (called FmL) consisted of two distinct 30.9 and 32kDa subunits with identical N-terminal amino acid sequences of ten residues. FmL was also composed of sugar moieties; glucosamine, glucose, mannose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid but not N-glycolyl neuraminic acid. It was postulated to be a glycoprotein as it was positively stained by glycoprotein staining kit and detected by some bionylated plant lectins...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685372/inhibitory-effect-of-multivalent-rhamnobiosides-on-recombinant-horseshoe-crab-plasma-lectin-interactions-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#13
Mihály Herczeg, Erika Mező, Nikolett Molnár, Sim-Kun Ng, Yuan-Chuan Lee, Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang, Anikó Borbás
To evaluate the molecular interaction of recombinant horseshoe crab plasma lectin (rHPL) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, multivalent rhamnobioside derivatives were designed. Eight rhamnoclusters with three or four α(1-3)-rhamnobiosides attached to different central cores, such as methyl gallate, pentaerythritol, and N-Boc Tris, through either an ethylene glycol or a tetraethylene glycol linker, were assembled in two consecutive azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reactions. The synthetic method embraced the preparation of two α(1-3)-rhamnobiosides with different linker arms and their conjugation, in stoichiometric or substoichiometric amounts, to propargyl ether-functionalized tri- or tetravalent scaffolds...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639550/expression-levels-of-antimicrobial-peptide-tachyplesin-i-in-transgenic-ornithogalum-lines-affect-the-resistance-to-pectobacterium-infection
#14
Alexander Lipsky, Janak Raj Joshi, Nir Carmi, Iris Yedidia
The genus Ornithogalum includes several ornamental species that suffer substantial losses from bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacteria. The absence of effective control measures for use against soft rot bacteria led to the initiation of a project in which a small antimicrobial peptide from an Asian horseshoe crab, tachyplesin (tpnI), was introduced into two commercial cultivars: O. dubium and O. thyrsoides. Disease severity and bacterial colonization were examined in transgenic lines expressing this peptide...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633674/antiviral-function-of-tachyplesin-i-against-iridovirus-and-nodavirus
#15
Haiwei Xie, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitously found in living organisms and are an important component in innate immune response. Tachyplesin I is a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus. Previous studies have shown that the 17-residue peptide exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. However, the efficiencies and defense mechanisms of the Tachyplesin I against fish viruses are still unknown...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567320/environmental-exposure-of-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus-early-life-stages-to-essential-trace-elements
#16
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559270/circalunidian-clocks-control-tidal-rhythms-of-locomotion-in-the-american-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#17
Christopher C Chabot, Nicole C Ramberg-Pihl, Winsor H Watson
While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24...
2016: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547542/the-final-spawning-ground-of-tachypleus-gigas-m%C3%A3-ller-1785-on-the-east-peninsular-malaysia-is-at-risk-a-call-for-action
#18
Bryan Raveen Nelson, Behara Satyanarayana, Julia Hwei Zhong Moh, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Anil Chatterji, Faizah Shaharom
Tanjung Selongor and Pantai Balok (State Pahang) are the only two places known for spawning activity of the Malaysian horseshoe crab - Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1785) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. While the former beach has been disturbed by several anthropogenic activities that ultimately brought an end to the spawning activity of T. gigas, the status of the latter remains uncertain. In the present study, the spawning behavior of T. gigas at Pantai Balok (Sites I-III) was observed over a period of thirty six months, in three phases, between 2009 and 2013...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494624/more-than-70-years-of-pyrogen-detection-current-state-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Stefan Fennrich, Ulrike Hennig, Leila Toliashvili, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Sandra Stoppelkamp
In the quality assurance of medical products, tests for sterility are essential. For parenteral pharmaceuticals, avoiding the presence of pyrogens is crucial. These fever-inducing substances (endotoxins and non-endotoxins) are not eliminated by standard sterilisation processes, and are biologically active once in the bloodstream, causing risks to human health, ranging from mild reactions (e.g. fever) to septic shock and death. Therefore, for injectable formulations, pyrogen testing is mandatory. Over the years, various pyrogen testing methods have been introduced, namely: in the 1940s, the rabbit pyrogen test, which is an in vivo test that measures the fever reaction as an endpoint; in the 1970s, the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, which is an in vitro test (with the haemolymph of the horseshoe crab) that specifically detects endotoxin; and in 2010, the Monocyte-Activation Test (MAT), which is a non-animal based in vitro pyrogen test that represents a full replacement of the rabbit test...
July 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458918/animal-evolution-the-hard-problem-of-cartilage-origins
#20
Thibaut Brunet, Detlev Arendt
Our skeletons evolved from cartilaginous tissue, but it remains a mystery how cartilage itself first arose in evolution. Characterization of cartilage in cuttlefish and horseshoe crabs reveals surprising commonalities with chordate chondrocytes, suggesting a common evolutionary origin.
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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