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Cardiovascular disease after aromatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100398/cardiovascular-disease-after-aromatase-inhibitor-use
#1
Reina Haque, Jiaxiao Shi, Joanne E Schottinger, Joanie Chung, Chantal Avila, Britta Amundsen, Xiaoqing Xu, Ana Barac, Rowan T Chlebowski
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of death in older patients with breast cancer. However, limited information exists on the long-term effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI) use on CVD risk in breast cancer survivors. To this point, no other population-based studies have been able to adjust for CVD risk factors or cardiovascular medications. Objective: To determine the long-term influence of adjuvant endocrine therapies on CVD in a cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors in analyses that accounted for major CVD risk factors, medication use, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy...
April 21, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017249/aromatase-inhibitors-alone-or-sequentially-combined-with-tamoxifen-in-postmenopausal-early-breast-cancer-compared-with-tamoxifen-or-placebo-meta-analyses-on-efficacy-and-adverse-events-based-on-randomized-clinical-trials
#2
REVIEW
Lisa Rydén, Marianne Heibert Arnlind, Sigurd Vitols, Malin Höistad, Johan Ahlgren
Tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI) are adjuvant therapy options for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. This systematic review of seven randomized controlled studies comparing TAM and AI, and one study comparing extended therapy with an AI with placebo after about 5 years of tamoxifen, aims to assess long-term clinical efficacy and adverse events. The literature review was performed according to the principles of the Cochrane Collaboration. The search included common databases up to 2013-01-14...
April 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25023195/the-role-of-hormones-and-aromatase-inhibitors-on-breast-tumor-growth-and-general-health-in-a-postmenopausal-mouse-model
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Arunkumar Arumugam, Elaine A Lissner, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women in the United States. Approximately 70% of breast cancers are diagnosed in postmenopausal women. Major clinical trials and experimental studies showed that aromatase inhibitors are effective against postmenopausal breast cancer. Despite their effectiveness in reducing tumor recurrence, aromatase inhibitors have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and increase osteoporosis and bone fractures. Our study is aimed at investigating the role of natural steroid hormones on serum cardiovascular and bone resorption markers in an established mouse model mimicking postmenopausal breast cancer...
2014: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24570215/determinants-of-newly-diagnosed-comorbidities-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#4
Nadia Obi, Daniela Gornyk, Judith Heinz, Alina Vrieling, Petra Seibold, Jenny Chang-Claude, Dieter Flesch-Janys
PURPOSE: Comorbid conditions have become increasingly relevant for breast cancer care given the large numbers of long-term survivors. Our aim was to identify potential determinants associated with the development of comorbidities after breast cancer. METHODS: Self-reported comorbidities and lifestyle were assessed at recruitment and after a median follow up of 69.4 months from diagnosis in a population-based cohort of breast cancer cases aged 50 to 74 years at diagnosis (MARIEplus study)...
September 2014: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24074784/postmenopausal-women-with-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-balancing-benefit-and-toxicity-from-aromatase-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
James N Ingle
Extensive clinical trial experience is available for aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in postmenopausal women upon which to evaluate the balance of potential benefit and toxicities. A meta-analysis revealed an advantage for AIs over tamoxifen in the monotherapy setting for recurrence but not breast cancer mortality, and an advantage in both of these parameters for switching to an AI after several years of tamoxifen. Importantly, no indication of a deleterious effect of AIs was identified in terms of death without recurrence in these meta-analyses...
August 2013: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23552495/protective-role-of-testosterone-in-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Andrea Soljancic, Arnaldo Lopez Ruiz, Kiran Chandrashekar, Rodrigo Maranon, Ruisheng Liu, Jane F Reckelhoff, Luis A Juncos
Men are at greater risk for renal injury and dysfunction after acute ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) than are women. Studies in animals suggest that the reason for the sex difference in renal injury and dysfunction after I/R is the protective effect of estrogens in females. However, a reduction in testosterone in men is thought to play an important role in mediating cardiovascular and renal disease, in general. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that I/R of the kidney reduces serum testosterone, and that contributes to renal dysfunction and injury...
June 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22990754/higher-endogenous-estrogen-levels-in-70-year-old-women-and-men-an-endogenous-response-to-counteract-developing-atherosclerosis
#7
Tord Naessen, Jonas Bergquist, Lars Lind, Mark M Kushnir
OBJECTIVE: Reported associations between endogenous steroid hormone levels and cardiovascular disease in the older population have been contradictory. We evaluated plasma steroid concentrations in terms of the dimensions of the common carotid artery wall layers as a measure of the extent of atherosclerosis. METHODS: A subgroup of 70-year-old participants (32 women and 50 men) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study was investigated...
December 2012: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22611175/health-and-fertility-in-world-health-organization-group-2-anovulatory-women
#8
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Disruption of ovulation occurs in different types of clinical infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided a classification of ovulation disorders. This review focuses on WHO group 2 anovulation. METHODS: Searches were performed in Medline/PubMed and EMBASE. Each subject summary was presented to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Workshop Group, where omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion...
September 2012: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22077502/putting-the-cardiovascular-safety-of-aromatase-inhibitors-in-patients-with-early-breast-cancer-into-perspective-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Younus, Michelle Kissner, Lester Reich, Nicola Wallis
In the adjuvant setting, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane are recommended at some point during treatment, either in the upfront, switch after tamoxifen or extended treatment setting after tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. AIs have demonstrated superior disease-free survival and overall benefit-to-risk profiles compared with tamoxifen. Potential adverse events, including cardiovascular (CV) side effects, should be considered in the long-term management of patients undergoing treatment with AIs...
December 1, 2011: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22066939/extremes-of-an-aromatase-index-predict-increased-25-year-risk-of-cardiovascular-mortality-in-older-women
#10
Gail A Laughlin, Joachim H Ix, Kevin Cummins, Matthew A Allison, Lori B Daniels
BACKGROUND: Peripheral conversion of androgens to oestrogens via aromatase is the primary source of oestrogen in postmenopausal women and may play a role in cardiovascular health. DESIGN: Prospective. PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: The association of an index of aromatase activity (AROM), the serum oestrone-to-androstenedione ratio, with 25-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was examined in 819 postmenopausal non-oestrogen using women (mean age at baseline = 72)...
September 2012: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21916579/current-role-and-safety-profile-of-aromatase-inhibitors-in-early-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Federica Tomao, Gianpaolo Spinelli, Patrizia Vici, Giovanni Codacci Pisanelli, Gianluca Cascialli, Luigi Frati, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici, Silverio Tomao
The current adjuvant therapy for breast cancer is in a continous progress; standard therapeutic strategies include the use of chemotherapy, molecular targeted drugs and hormonal agents, according to well-established prognostic and predictive factors. Among the hormonal drugs, for a long period tamoxifen has been the gold standard of adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. In the last years an expanding use of aromatase inhibitors occurred in this subset of patients, because the third-generation class of these agents (anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane) showed to be more effective and safe than tamoxifen and are now recommended as the preferred hormonal approach to postmenopausal hormone-sensitive patients, according to national and international guidelines...
August 2011: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21503010/switching-to-letrozole-versus-continued-tamoxifen-therapy-in-treatment-of-postmenopausal-women-with-early-breast-cancer
#12
Niveen A Abo-Touk, Hanem A Sakr, Atif Abd El-Lattef
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of breast cancer therapy. Over time, resistance to tamoxifen may develop. The aromatase inhibitors have proven to be a powerful drug for use in hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. The switching strategy was designed to combine the apparent superior efficacy of aromatase inhibitors with tamoxifen favourable effects. METHODS: This study was performed on 120 postmenopausal women with histologically confirmed, hormone receptor-positive, operable invasive breast carcinoma who remained free of disease after 2 years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy...
March 2010: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21422412/long-term-benefits-of-5-years-of-tamoxifen-10-year-follow-up-of-a-large-randomized-trial-in-women-at-least-50-years-of-age-with-early-breast-cancer
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Allan Hackshaw, Michael Roughton, Sharon Forsyth, Kathryn Monson, Krystyna Reczko, Richard Sainsbury, Michael Baum
PURPOSE: The Cancer Research UK "Over 50s" trial compared 5 and 2 years of tamoxifen in women with early breast cancer. Results are reported after median follow-up of 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1987 and 1997, 3,449 patients age 50 to 81 years with operable breast cancer who had been taking 20 mg of tamoxifen for 2 years were randomly assigned to either stop or continue for an additional 3 years, if they were alive and recurrence free. Data on recurrences, new tumors, deaths, and cardiovascular events were obtained (April 2010)...
May 1, 2011: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20148360/genetic-variation-in-sex-steroid-receptors-and-synthesizing-enzymes-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-women
#14
Jennifer Lin, Robert Y L Zee, Kuang-Yu Liu, Shumin M Zhang, I-Min Lee, JoAnn E Manson, Edward Giovannucci, Julie E Buring, Nancy R Cook
OBJECTIVES: Several lines of evidence have suggested that female hormones may lower the risk for developing colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms by which sex hormones affect colorectal cancer development remain unknown. We sought to determine whether the association may be under genetic control by evaluating genetic variation in estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2), progesterone receptor (PGR), aromatase cytochrome 450 enzyme (CYP19A1), and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene (HSD17B2)...
June 2010: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20133065/adjuvant-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-outcomes-and-safety
#15
REVIEW
Wolfgang Janni, Philip Hepp
Adjuvant therapy with the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane has largely replaced the use of tamoxifen (TAM) as standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. Treatment strategies investigated in large, randomized, well-controlled clinical studies include the use of an AI as an upfront replacement for TAM, as an alternative to continued treatment with TAM, and in the extended adjuvant setting after at least 5 years of TAM...
May 2010: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20041117/tissue-specific-increases-in-11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-in-normal-weight-postmenopausal-women
#16
Therése Andersson, Kotryna Simonyte, Ruth Andrew, Magnus Strand, Jonas Burén, Brian R Walker, Cecilia Mattsson, Tommy Olsson
With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity...
2009: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19531217/extended-adjuvant-hormonal-therapy-with-exemestane-has-no-detrimental-effect-on-the-lipid-profile-of-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-patients-final-results-of-the-atena-lipid-substudy
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christos Markopoulos, Urania Dafni, John Misitzis, Vasilios Zobolas, Evagelos Tzoracoleftherakis, Dimitrios Koukouras, Grigorios Xepapadakis, John Papadiamantis, Basileios Venizelos, Zoh Antonopoulou, Helen Gogas
INTRODUCTION: Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors may potentially alter the lipid profile of postmenopausal patients and thus increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this study, a subprotocol of the ATENA (Adjuvant post-Tamoxifen Exemestane versus Nothing Applied) trial, we compared the effect of the steroidal aromatase inactivator exemestane on the lipid profile of postmenopausal patients with operable breast cancer, in the adjuvant setting, with that of observation alone after completion of 5 to 7 years of primary treatment with tamoxifen...
2009: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19401957/does-postmenopausal-estrogen-use-confer-neuroprotection
#18
REVIEW
Tammy L Loucks, Sarah L Berga
Sex steroids modulate brain function at all developmental stages of life. This article focuses on the role of sex steroids after menopause with the intent of addressing the question whether or to what extent sex steroids, particularly estrogenic agents, are neuroprotective for the aging brain of women. The rationale for delving into this complicated topic is that the information and perspective so acquired will aid physicians in counseling surgically and naturally menopausal women about their therapeutic options...
May 2009: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19241985/treatment-of-established-breast-cancer-in-post-menopausal-women-role-of-aromatase-inhibitors
#19
REVIEW
S Samphao, J M Eremin, M El-Sheemy, O Eremin
Endocrine therapy plays a crucial and historically important role in the treatment ofwomen with hormone-responsive breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the standard endocrine treatment for advanced and early-stage breast cancer for almost three decades. However, patients receiving tamoxifen may either fail to respond or develop disease recurrence following completion of therapy. The aromatase inhibitors (Als) have become the new and alternative modalities of endocrine treatment for post-menopausal women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, as a result of promising data from randomised trials in metastatic and locally advanced breast cancers...
February 2009: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19060594/safety-of-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-postmenopausal-women-with-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Haifaa Abdulhaq, Charles Geyer
The use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone-sensitive breast cancer is increasing, as these drugs are more effective than tamoxifen alone in improving disease-free survival in breast cancer patients-whether used in lieu of tamoxifen as upfront therapy or after tamoxifen treatment periods of 2 years or longer. AIs differ from tamoxifen in their mechanism of action, effectively suppressing estrogen levels in postmenopausal women to near-undetectable levels. AI-associated adverse events largely mimic menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, losses in bone mineral density, gynecologic symptoms, and arthralgias...
December 2008: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
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