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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165789/medicaid-cost-savings-of-a-preventive-home-visit-program-for-disabled-older-adults
#1
Sarah L Szanton, Y Natalia Alfonso, Bruce Leff, Jack Guralnik, Jennifer L Wolff, Ian Stockwell, Laura N Gitlin, David Bishai
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about cost savings of programs that reduce disability in older adults. The objective was to determine whether the Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE) program saves Medicaid more money than it costs to provide. DESIGN: Single-arm clinical trial (N = 204) with a comparison group of individuals (N = 2,013) dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare matched on baseline geographic and demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and healthcare use...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164172/hallucinations-are-real-to-patients-with-dementia
#2
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, J V Lewis, R Copeland, A Depelteau, T Kendall-Wilson, K Whalen
In this case study, we present a patient with preexistent posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis who has been recently diagnosed with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. He is experiencing vivid hallucinations. What went wrong between him and his wife as a result of these hallucinations is presented. Alternative actions that could have been used are suggested. Objectives: At the end of this case study, readers will know the following:The characteristic clinical features of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163398/phytohormones-and-beneficial-microbes-essential-components-for-plants-to-balance-stress-and-fitness
#3
REVIEW
Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Stephan J Wirth, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed F Abd Allah, Abeer Hashem
Plants are subjected to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, extreme temperature, salinity, and heavy metals. Abiotic stresses have negative impact on the physiology and morphology of plants through defects in the genetic regulation of cellular pathways. Plants employ several tolerance mechanisms and pathways to avert the effects of stresses that are triggered whenever alterations in metabolism are encountered. Phytohormones are among the most important growth regulators; they are known for having a prominent impact on plant metabolism, and additionally, they play a vital role in the stimulation of plant defense response mechanisms against stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#4
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161259/the-us-president-s-malaria-initiative-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-and-mortality-a-modelling-study
#5
Peter Winskill, Hannah C Slater, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani, Patrick G T Walker
BACKGROUND: Although significant progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission globally in recent years, a large number of people remain at risk and hence the gains made are fragile. Funding lags well behind amounts needed to protect all those at risk and ongoing contributions from major donors, such as the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), are vital to maintain progress and pursue further reductions in burden. We use a mathematical modelling approach to estimate the impact of PMI investments to date in reducing malaria burden and to explore the potential negative impact on malaria burden should a proposed 44% reduction in PMI funding occur...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158206/pulmonary-rehabilitation-with-balance-training-for-fall-reduction-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Marla K Beauchamp, Dina Brooks, Cindy Ellerton, Annemarie Lee, Jennifer Alison, Pat G Camp, Gail Dechman, Kimberley Haines, Samantha L Harrison, Anne E Holland, Alda Marques, Rahim Moineddin, Elizabeth H Skinner, Lissa Spencer, Michael K Stickland, Feng Xie, Roger S Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A growing body of evidence shows that individuals with COPD have important deficits in balance control that may be associated with an increased risk of falls. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a key therapeutic intervention for individuals with COPD; however, current international guidelines do not include balance training and fall prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effects of PR with balance training compared to PR with no balance training on the 12-month rate of falls in individuals with COPD...
November 20, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153656/tune-to-touch-affective-touch-enhances-learning-of-face-identity-in-4-month-old-infants
#7
Letizia Della Longa, Teodora Gliga, Teresa Farroni
Touch provides more than sensory input for discrimination of what is on the skin. From early in development it has a rewarding and motivational value, which may reflect an evolutionary mechanism that promotes learning and affiliative bonding. In the present study we investigated whether affective touch helps infants tune to social signals, such as faces. Four-month-old infants were habituated to an individual face with averted gaze, which typically does not engage infants to the same extent as direct gaze does...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148147/altered-n170-and-mood-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder-an-electrophysiological-study-of-configural-face-processing
#8
Ivy F Tso, Tyler B Grove, Savanna A Mueller, Lisa O'Donnell, Jinsoo Chun, Melvin G McInnis, Patricia J Deldin
OBJECTIVES: Altered social behavior during mood episodes in bipolar disorder often has detrimental and long-lasting interpersonal consequences. Abnormal face processing may play a role in linking brain functions to clinical symptoms and behavior. This study aimed to understand configural face processing in bipolar disorder as a function of basic communicative attributes of the face and mood symptoms using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder (BP) and 43 healthy controls (HC) viewed face stimuli varying in emotion (neutral or fearful), head orientation (forward or deviated), and gaze direction (direct or averted) while ERPs were recorded...
November 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148082/insights-into-flood-coping-appraisals-of-protection-motivation-theory-empirical-evidence-from-germany-and-france
#9
Philip Bubeck, W J Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Annegret H Thieken
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145300/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-neonatal-screening-of-critical-congenital-heart-defects-in-china
#10
Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Gerard R Martin, Fuhai Li, Akinori Moriichi, Bin Wu, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry screening is a highly accurate tool for the early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in newborn infants. As the technique is simple, noninvasive, and inexpensive, it has potentially significant benefits for developing countries. The aim of this study is to provide information for future clinical and health policy decisions by assessing the cost-effectiveness of CCHD screening in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a cohort model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening all Chinese newborns annually using 3 possible screening options compared to no intervention: pulse oximetry alone, clinical assessment alone, and pulse oximetry as an adjunct to clinical assessment...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143899/headache-in-resource-limited-settings
#11
REVIEW
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the unmet need of headache burden and management in resource-limited settings. It provides a general overview of the nuances and peculiarities of headache disorders in resource-limited settings. The review delivers perspectives and explanations for the emerging burden of both primary and secondary headache disorders. Important discussion on demographic and epidemiologic transition pertinent to low-resource settings is included. A critical analysis of headache disorders is made within the context of growing burden non-communicable disorders in low-resource countries...
November 16, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143618/using-the-missed-opportunity-tool-as-an-application-of-the-lives-saved-tool-list-for-intervention-prioritization
#12
Yvonne Tam, Luwei Pearson
BACKGROUND: The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. METHODS: The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142755/time-versus-energy-minimization-migration-strategy-varies-with-body-size-and-season-in-long-distance-migratory-shorebirds
#13
Meijuan Zhao, Maureen Christie, Jonathan Coleman, Chris Hassell, Ken Gosbell, Simeon Lisovski, Clive Minton, Marcel Klaassen
Background: Migrants have been hypothesised to use different migration strategies between seasons: a time-minimization strategy during their pre-breeding migration towards the breeding grounds and an energy-minimization strategy during their post-breeding migration towards the wintering grounds. Besides season, we propose body size as a key factor in shaping migratory behaviour. Specifically, given that body size is expected to correlate negatively with maximum migration speed and that large birds tend to use more time to complete their annual life-history events (such as moult, breeding and migration), we hypothesise that large-sized species are time stressed all year round...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138657/community-health-worker-interventions-are-key-to-optimal-infant-immunization-coverage-evidence-from-a-pretest-posttest-experiment-in-mwingi-kenya
#14
Japheth Mativo Nzioki, James Ouma, James Hebert Ombaka, Rosebella Ongutu Onyango
Introduction: Immunization is a powerful and cost-effective health intervention which averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. Kenya has a high infant and under five mortality and morbidity rates. Increasing routine child immunization coverage is one way of reducing child morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have emerged as critical human resources for health in developing countries. The Community Strategy (CS) is one of the CHW led interventions promoting Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in Kenya...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137500/mentor-mothers-program-improved-child-health-outcomes-at-a-relatively-low-cost-in-south-africa
#15
Adriane Wynn, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Arleen A Leibowitz, Thomas Weichle, Ingrid le Roux, Mark Tomlinson
In light of South Africa's high prenatal HIV prevalence and infant mortality rate, a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate an intervention called Philani+, which used community health workers (known as Mentor Mothers) to deliver pre- and postnatal home visits in Cape Town, South Africa, to improve maternal and child health. We assessed the costs and benefits of this intervention and made comparisons with other scenarios that depicted increased capacity and provision of nurse-delivered care...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135576/assisted-partner-notification-services-are-cost-effective-for-decreasing-hiv-burden-in-western-kenya-a-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#16
Monisha Sharma, Jennifer A Smith, Carey Farquhar, Roger Ying, Peter Cherutich, Matthew Golden, Beatrice Wamuti, David Bukusi, Hans Spiegel, Ruanne V Barnabas
BACKGROUND: Assisted partner services (aPS) or provider notification for sexual partners of persons diagnosed HIV-positive can increase HIV testing and linkage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and is a high yield strategy to identify HIV-positive persons. However, its cost-effectiveness is not well-evaluated. METHODS: Using effectiveness and cost data from an aPS trial in Kenya, we parameterized an individual-based, dynamic HIV transmission model. We estimated costs for both a program scenario and a task-shifting scenario using community health workers to conduct the intervention...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132342/a-low-cost-uterine-balloon-tamponade-for-management-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-modeling-the-potential-impact-on-maternal-mortality-and-morbidity-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Tara Herrick, Mercy Mvundura, Thomas F Burke, Elizabeth Abu-Haydar
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal deaths worldwide. This study sought to quantify the potential health impact (morbidity and mortality reductions) that a low-cost uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) could have on women suffering from uncontrolled PPH due to uterine atony in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology (MANDATE) model was used to estimate maternal deaths, surgeries averted, and cases of severe anemia prevented through UBT use among women with PPH who receive a uterotonic drug but fail this therapy in a health facility...
November 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131956/site-specific-deuteration-of-polyunsaturated-alkenes
#18
A V Smarun, M Petković, M S Shchepinov, D Vidović
Selective deuteration of drugs and biologically relevant molecules is becoming increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Site-selective isotopic reinforcement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at their bis-allylic sites has been identified as a unique approach in preventing oxidative damage in these molecules, which had been linked to neuronal and retinal diseases, atherosclerosis, and aging. Typical methods for preparation of site-selectively deuterated PUFAs require rather long, laborious, and expensive syntheses...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129451/cost-effectiveness-of-maternal-gbs-immunization-in-low-income-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Louise B Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Jennifer R Verani, Anushua Sinha
BACKGROUND: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. METHODS: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128408/adding-folic-acid-to-corn-masa-flour-partnering-to-improve-pregnancy-outcomes-and-reduce-health-disparities
#20
REVIEW
Alina L Flores, Amy M Cordero, Michael Dunn, Joseph E Sniezek, Miguel A Arce, Krista S Crider, Sarah Tinker, Cynthia Pellegrini, Rita Carreón, Jose Estrada, Sara Struwe, Coleen Boyle
Although strides have been made in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), Hispanic women remain more likely to have a baby born with an NTD and less likely to know the benefits of, or consume, folic acid than women of other race/ethnic groups. In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that all enriched cereal grain products be fortified with folic acid; however, corn masa flour (CMF), used to make many corn products that are a diet staple of many Hispanic groups, was not included under this regulation...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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