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Katharine Kripke, Karin Hatzold, Owen Mugurungi, Gertrude Ncube, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Elizabeth Gold, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Natalie Kruse-Levy, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined. METHODS: Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future...
2016: PloS One
Albert W Girotti, Jonathan M Fahey, Witold Korytowski
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a unique site-specific treatment for eradicating a variety of solid tumors, including prostate, lung, bladder, and brain tumors. PDT is a three-component modality involving (i) administration of a photosensitizing agent (PS), (ii) PS photoexcitation by visible or near-infrared light, and (iii) molecular oxygen. Upon photoexcitation, PS gives rise to tumor-damaging reactive oxygen species, most prominently singlet oxygen (1O2). Previous studies revealed that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in various mouse tumor models significantly reduced PDT effectiveness...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jamshed J Dalal, Aarti Digrajkar, Alap Gandhi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Although clopidogrel combined with aspirin is the most commonly used dual drug combination to avert thrombotic events in patients with coronary artery disease, the poor responsiveness to clopidogrel remains a concern. The objective of the current study is to assess the extent of resistance to clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor in a real life set of patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 539 patients, who underwent PCI and were on aspirin and on any of the three drugs, namely, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor, were followed up regularly in the outpatient department...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Arindam Nandi, Devra M Barter, Shankar Prinja, T Jacob John
OBJECTIVE: In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. METHODS: Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
October 19, 2016: Lancet HIV
Andrew A Lover, Roly Gosling, Richard Feachem, Jim Tulloch
The emergence in 2009 of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to the primary therapies currently in use (artemisinin-based combination therapy, ACT) in Southeast Asia threatens to set back decades of global progress in malaria control and elimination. Progress to date through multiple sets of initiatives and partners to contain or eliminate these parasites has been hampered due to a wide range of organizational, financial, and health systems-level challenges. In this commentary, a set of seven specific and concrete actions are proposed to directly address these issues and to accelerate P...
October 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
Susan O Griffin, Liang Wei, Barbara F Gooch, Katherine Weno, Lorena Espinoza
BACKGROUND: Tooth decay is one of the greatest unmet treatment needs among children. Pain and suffering associated with untreated dental disease can lead to problems with eating, speaking, and learning. School-based dental sealant programs (SBSP) deliver a highly effective intervention to prevent tooth decay in children who might not receive regular dental care. SBSPs benefits exceed their costs when they target children at high risk for tooth decay. METHODS: CDC used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 to estimate current prevalences of sealant use and untreated tooth decay among low-income (≤185% of federal poverty level) and higher-income children aged 6-11 years and compared these estimates with 1999-2004 NHANES data...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jessica B McGillen, Sarah-Jane Anderson, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Janis L Dickinson, Poppy McLeod, Robert Bloomfield, Shorna Allred
Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory identifies five moral axes that can influence human motivation to take action on vital problems like climate change. The theory focuses on five moral foundations, including compassion, fairness, purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty; these have been found to differ between liberals and conservatives as well as Democrats and Republicans. Here we show, based on the Cornell National Social Survey (USA), that valuations of compassion and fairness were strong, positive predictors of willingness to act on climate change, whereas purity had a non-significant tendency in the positive direction (p = 0...
2016: PloS One
Inês Mares, Marie L Smith, Mark H Johnson, Atsushi Senju
Direct gaze is a crucial signal in human social communication, which is known to attract visual attention and modulate a wide range of behaviours. The present study investigated whether direct gaze facilitates rapid orienting to faces, which is important for adaptive on-line communication, and its neural correlates. Fifteen participants performed a rapid orienting task, in which they were instructed to saccade to peripherally presented buildings or faces containing direct or averted gaze as quickly as possible...
October 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xiuting Mo, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Xiaoyan Liu, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die of the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Although eye contact and verbal processing appear independent, people frequently avert their eyes from interlocutors during conversation. This suggests that there is interference between these processes. We hypothesized that such interference occurs because both processes share cognitive resources of a domain-general system and explored the influence of eye contact on simultaneous verb generation processes (i.e., retrieval and selection). In the present experiment, viewing a movie of faces with eyes directed toward the viewer delayed verbal generation more than a movie of faces with averted eyes; however, this effect was only present when both retrieval and selection demands were high...
October 14, 2016: Cognition
Elizabeth Wellsandt, Ashutosh Khandha, Kurt Manal, Michael J Axe, Thomas S Buchanan, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury results in altered knee joint mechanics which frequently continue even after ACL reconstruction. The persistence of altered mechanical loading of the knee is of concern due to its likely role in the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Joint contact forces are associated with post-traumatic OA development, but evaluation of factors influencing the magnitude of contact forces after ACL injury is needed to advance current strategies aimed at preventing post-traumatic OA...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Paul A Lehur, Anne S Didnée, Jean-Luc Faucheron, Guillaume Meurette, Philippe Zerbib, Laurent Siproudhis, Béatrice Vinson-Bonnet, Anne Dubois, Christine Casa, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
OBJECTIVE: To compare Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation (DGHAL) with circular stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) in the treatment of grade II/III hemorrhoidal disease (HD). BACKGROUND: DGHAL is a treatment option for symptomatic HD; existing studies report limited risk and satisfactory outcomes. DGHAL has never before been compared with SH in a large-scale multi-institutional randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-three grade II/III HD patients recruited in 22 centers from 2010 to 2013 were randomized to DGHAL (n = 197) or SH (n = 196)...
November 2016: Annals of Surgery
Jiabin Liu, Yongbin Jin, Xiaoyang Fang, Chenxu Chen, Qiong Feng, Xiaowei Liu, Yuzeng Chen, Tao Suo, Feng Zhao, Tianlin Huang, Hongtao Wang, Xi Wang, Youtong Fang, Yujie Wei, Liang Meng, Jian Lu, Wei Yang
Strength and ductility are mutually exclusive if they are manifested as consequence of the coupling between strengthening and toughening mechanisms. One notable example is dislocation strengthening in metals, which invariably leads to reduced ductility. However, this trend is averted in metastable austenitic steels. A one-step thermal mechanical treatment (TMT), i.e. hot rolling, can effectively enhance the yielding strength of the metastable austenitic steel from 322 ± 18 MPa to 675 ± 15 MPa, while retaining both the formability and hardenability...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew A R Stokes, Glenn D Guest, Perista Mamadi, Westin Seta, Noel Yaubihi, Grace Karawiga, Billy Naidi, David A K Watters
BACKGROUND: Timely access to emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) and anaesthesia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents premature death, minimises lifelong disability and reduces their economic impact on families and communities. Papua New Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region, and provides much of its surgical care at a district hospital level. We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Saara Khalid, Jason C Deska, Kurt Hugenberg
Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze...
October 13, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Venkatesh L Murthy, Siddique A Abbasi, Juned Siddique, Laura A Colangelo, Jared Reis, Bharath A Venkatesh, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Sarah M Camhi, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Sarah de Ferranti, Saumya Das, Jane Freedman, Mercedes R Carnethon, Cora E Lewis, Joao A C Lima, Ravi V Shah
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence suggesting that early metabolic dysfunction impacts cardiovascular disease risk, current guidelines focus on risk assessments later in life, missing early transitions in metabolic risk that may represent opportunities for averting the development of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 4420 young adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we defined a "metabolic" risk score based on components of the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel's definition of metabolic syndrome...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Oluwasola Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas, Charles Anawo Ameh
BACKGROUND: Many Kenyan adolescents die following pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal health services (MHS) utilisation is key to averting such poor outcomes. Our objectives were to understand the characteristics of adolescent mothers in Kenya, describe their MHS utilisation pattern and explore factors that influence this pattern. METHODS: We collected demographic and MHS utilisation data of all 301 adolescent mothers aged 15-19 years included in the Kenya Demographic Health Survey 2008/2009 (KDHS)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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