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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095801/providing-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-during-pregnancy-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-maternal-p-falciparum-parasitaemia-and-reproductive-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Minyanga Nkhoma, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey, Austrida Gondwe, John Mbotwa, Stephen Rogerson, Steve M Taylor, Kenneth Maleta
BACKGROUND: Maternal infections are associated with maternal and foetal adverse outcomes. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the occurrence of infections by improving maternal immunity. We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. METHODS: Pregnant Malawian women enrolled in the iLiNS-DYAD trial receiving daily supplementation with SQ-LNS, multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron & folic acid (IFA) from <20 gestation weeks (gw) were assessed for P...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095511/epidemiology-and-molecular-typing-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-naturally-infected-hound-dogs-and-associated-triatomine-vectors-in-texas-usa
#2
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Karen F Snowden, Brandon Dominguez, Lewis Dinges, Sandy Rodgers, Glennon Mays, Sarah A Hamer
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease throughout the Americas. Few population-level studies have examined the epidemiology of canine infection and strain types of T. cruzi that infect canines in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of T. cruzi infection in working hound dogs in south central Texas, including analysis of triatomine vectors collected within kennel environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Paired IFA and Chagas Stat-Pak serological testing showed an overall seroprevalence of 57...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095182/effect-of-intermittent-aeration-on-microbial-diversity-in-an-intermittently-aerated-ifas-reactor-treating-municipal-wastewater-a-field-study
#3
Akansha Bhatia, Nitin Kumar Singh, Timsi Bhando, Ranjana Pathania, Absar Ahmad Kazmi
In the present study, the effect of three intermittent aeration (IA) cycles on treatment performance and microbial diversity was investigated in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that IA strategies were able to achieve efficient removal of organics and nitrogen ranging between 90 and 95% and 70 and 80%, respectively, however the phosphorus removal was found to be inversely proportional to the duration of aeration off time in each IA cycle...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088177/a-novel-quantitative-pcr-detects-babesia-infection-in-patients-not-identified-by-currently-available-non-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests
#4
Lavoisier Akoolo, Samantha Schlachter, Rasel Khan, Laura Alter, Albert D Rojtman, Kristine Gedroic, Purnima Bhanot, Nikhat Parveen
BACKGROUND: Ticks transmit Babesia microti, the causative agents of babesiosis in North America and Europe. Babesiosis is now endemic in Northeastern USA and affects people of all ages. Babesia species infect erythrocytes and can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Whole blood and blood products, which are not tested for Babesia, can cause transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) resulting in severe consequences in the immuno-compromised patients. The purpose of this study was epidemiological evaluation of babesiosis in a tick-infested state...
January 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086810/genotypic-characterization-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-from-patients-in-two-geographical-locations-in-sri-lanka
#5
Ranjan Premaratna, Lucas S Blanton, Dilhar N Samaraweera, G Nalika N de Silva, Nilmini T G A Chandrasena, David H Walker, H J de Silva
BACKGROUND: To date more than 20 antigenically distinct strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) reported within the tsutsugamushi triangle that cause an undifferentiated acute febrile illness in humans. Genotypic characterization of OT in different geographic regions or within the same country, is important in order to establish effective diagnostics, clinical management and to develop effective vaccines. Genetic and antigenic characterization of OT causing human disease in OT-endemic regions is not known for Sri Lanka...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076690/effect-of-intermittent-aeration-strategies-on-treatment-performance-and-microbial-community-of-an-ifas-reactor-treating-municipal-wastewater
#6
Nitin Kumar Singh, Akansha Bhatia, Absar Ahmad Kazmi
This study investigated the effect of various intermittent aeration (IA) cycles, characterized by the ratio of non-aeration to aeration time, on organics and nutrient removal, and microbial communities in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. Average effluent BOD, COD, TSS, TN and TP values were noted as 20, 50, 30, 12 and 1.5 mgL(-1), respectively in continuous aeration mode. A total of four operational conditions (run 1, continuous aeration; run 2, 150/30 min aeration on/off time; run 3, 120/60 min aeration on/off time; run 4, 90/60 min aeration on/off time) were investigated in IFAS reactor assessment...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068185/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-coxiella-burnetii-in-korean-native-cattle-dairy-cattle-and-dogs-in-south-korea
#7
Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Doo Kim, Hyung Gwan Jang, Seung-Joon Lee, Mi Yeoun Park, Tae-Wook Hahn
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis...
January 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062126/cross-reactivity-of-immune-responses-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#8
Ignacio Correas, Fernando A Osorio, David Steffen, Asit K Pattnaik, Hiep L X Vu
Because porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exhibits extensive genetic variation among field isolates, characterizing the extent of cross reactivity of immune responses, and most importantly cell-mediated immunity (CMI), could help in the development of broadly cross-protective vaccines. We infected 12 PRRSV-naïve pigs with PRRSV strain FL12 and determined the number of interferon (IFN)-γ secreting cells (SC) by ELISpot assay using ten type 2 and one type 1 PRRSV isolates as recall antigens...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060928/synanthropic-mammals-as-potential-hosts-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-panama
#9
Sergio E Bermúdez, Nicole Gottdenker, Aparna Krishnvajhala, Amy Fox, Hannah K Wilder, Kadir González, Diorene Smith, Marielena López, Milixa Perea, Chystrie Rigg, Santiago Montilla, José E Calzada, Azael Saldaña, Carlos M Caballero, Job E Lopez
Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060812/a-novel-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1c-molecular-variant-in-an-indigenous-individual-from-new-caledonia-melanesia
#10
Olivier Cassar, Françoise Charavay, Frédéric Touzain, Patricia Jeannin, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Sylvie Laumond, Eliane Chungue, Paul M V Martin, Antoine Gessain
BACKGROUND: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and in Indigenous populations from Central Australia. Molecular studies revealed that these Australo-Melanesian strains constitute the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. New Caledonia is a French overseas territory located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. HTLV-1 situation is poorly documented in New Caledonia and the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection remains unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057055/functional-characterization-of-plasmodium-berghei-psop25-during-ookinete-development-and-as-a-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine-candidate
#11
Wenqi Zheng, Fei Liu, Yiwen He, Qingyang Liu, Gregory B Humphreys, Takafumi Tsuboi, Qi Fan, Enjie Luo, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ookinete surface proteins as post-fertilization target antigens are potential malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidates. Putative secreted ookinete protein 25 (PSOP25) is a highly conserved ookinete surface protein, and has been shown to be a promising novel TBV target. Here, we further investigated the TBV activities of the full-length recombinant PSOP25 (rPSOP25) protein in Plasmodium berghei, and characterized the potential functions of PSOP25 during the P...
January 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056811/evaluation-of-a-broad-ranging-and-convenient-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-using-the-lysate-of-infected-cells-with-five-serotypes-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-a-causative-agent-of-scrub-typhus
#12
Motohiko Ogawa, Masaaki Satoh, Masayuki Saijo, Shuji Ando
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a mite-borne rickettsiosis caused by infection of Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is endemic to several Asia-Pacific Rim countries, including Japan. Although micro-indirect immunofluorescent assay (micro-IFA) is the standard method for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is considered to be more objective, by providing digitized results as opposed to being subject to the judgment of the evaluator as in micro-IFA...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056014/prevalence-of-chagas-disease-in-a-u-s-population-of-latin-american-immigrants-with-conduction-abnormalities-on-electrocardiogram
#13
Mahmoud I Traina, Salvador Hernandez, Daniel R Sanchez, Jalal Dufani, Mohsin Salih, Adieb M Abuhamidah, Wilman Olmedo, Jason S Bradfield, Colin J Forsyth, Sheba K Meymandi
Chagas disease (CD) affects over six million people and is a leading cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Given recent migration trends, there is a large population at risk in the United States (US). Early stage cardiac involvement from CD usually presents with conduction abnormalities on electrocardiogram (ECG) including right bundle branch block (RBBB), left anterior or posterior fascicular block (LAFB or LPFB, respectively), and rarely, left bundle branch block (LBBB). Identification of disease at this stage may lead to early treatment and potentially delay the progression to impaired systolic function...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053555/antinuclear-antibody-prevalence-in-a-general-pediatric-cohort-from-mexico-city-discordance-between-immunofluorescence-and-multiplex-assays
#14
Emily C Somers, Seetha U Monrad, Jeffrey S Warren, Maritsa Solano, Lourdes Schnaas, Mauricio Hernandez-Avila, Martha Maria Tellez-Rojo, Howard Hu
OBJECTIVE: To characterize antinuclear antibody (ANA) prevalence according to distinct assay methodologies in a pediatric cohort from Mexico City, and to further examine associations with age and sex. METHODS: Serum ANA were measured by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and multiplex immunoassay in 114 children aged 9-17 years. IFA was considered positive at a cutoff titer of ≥1:80. Agreement between assay methods was assessed by kappa statistic. Sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the multiplex were computed with IFA as the reference standard...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035112/the-incidence-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-babesia-microti-coinfections-among-foresters-and-farmers-in-eastern-poland
#15
Anna Pañczuk, Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Maria Kozioł-Montewka, Dorota Plewik
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in Europe and the USA. However, a great variety of pathogens are transmitted by ticks, which results in mixed infections, with Lyme borreliosis. The aim of the present study was to show the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti coinfections among the population of foresters and farmers, as these people, due to their profession, are particularly exposed to tick contact...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030333/serosurvey-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-sport-horses-from-paraiba-state-northeastern-brazil
#16
Jonatas C Almeida, Odilon Vidotto, Edlainne P Ferreira, Luana P S Ribeiro, Anna C B Mongruel, Thállitha S W J Vieira, Roberta L Freire, Rinaldo A Mota, Rafael F C Vieira
Although the infection by Toxoplasma gondii in horses is usually asymptomatic, it may be characterized by the presence of tissue cysts and maintenance of detectable antibody titers. The aim of this study was to detect anti-T.gondii antibodies and to determine risk factors associated in sport horses from Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. A total of 138 apparently healthy sport horses of different age and gender were sampled. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in 16/138 (11.6%; 95% CI: 6.77-18...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029424/the-utility-of-a-country-specific-bartonella-henselae-antigen-in-an-igm-indirect-fluorescent-antibody-assay-for-the-improved-diagnosis-of-cat-scratch-disease
#17
Hidehiro Tsuneoka, Masashi Yanagihara, Ayano Tanimoto, Nobuko Tokuda, Ken-Ichiro Otsuyama, Junzo Nojima, Kiyoshi Ichihara
Bartonella henselae strains genetically differ among nations. The utility of Japanese-specific YH-01 strain was investigated in developing indirect fluorescence antibody assay (IFA) for IgM in comparison with conventional IFA employing Houston-1 strain by testing 100 Japanese patients suspected of cat scratch disease. The country-specific IFA greatly improved the accuracy of diagnosis.
October 11, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027525/an-integrated-ambbr-and-ifas-sbr-process-for-municipal-wastewater-treatment-towards-enhanced-energy-recovery-reduced-energy-consumption-and-sludge-production
#18
Jun Gu, Guangjing Xu, Yu Liu
The conventional activated sludge (CAS) process has been widely employed for wastewater treatment for more than one hundred years. Recently, more and more concerns have been raised on the CAS process due to its high energy consumption and production of huge amount of waste activated sludge, which are inevitably linked to the issue of environmental sustainability and global climate change. Facing to such emerging and challenging situation, this study reported a novel A-B process in which an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) served a lead A-stage for COD capture towards biogas production and an integrated fixed-biofilm and activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (IFAS-SBR) was employed as B-stage for biological nitrogen removal...
December 19, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012315/comparison-of-biomass-from-integrated-fixed-film-activated-sludge-ifas-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-mbbr-and-membrane-bioreactor-mbr-treating-recalcitrant-organics-importance-of-attached-biomass
#19
Chunkai Huang, Yijing Shi, Jinkai Xue, Yanyan Zhang, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Yang Liu
This study compared microbial characteristics and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) treatment performance of five types of microbial biomass (MBBR-biofilm, IFAS-biofilm, IFAS-floc, MBR-aerobic-floc, and MBR-anoxic-floc) cultivated from three types of bioreactors (MBBR, IFAS, and MBR) in batch experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, acid extractable fraction (AEF), and naphthenic acids (NAs) removals efficiencies were distinctly different between suspended and attached bacterial aggregates and between aerobic and anoxic suspended flocs...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995346/the-role-of-deep-breathing-on-stress
#20
Valentina Perciavalle, Marta Blandini, Paola Fecarotta, Andrea Buscemi, Donatella Di Corrado, Luana Bertolo, Fulvia Fichera, Marinella Coco
The objective of this study was to verify, in a sample of university students, whether a relaxing technique called deep breathing (stress Intervention Functional IFA) is capable to improve the mood and to reduce the levels of stress. Thirty-eight adult healthy subjects (aged between 18 and 28 years) volunteered the study. They were randomly divided in two groups, the Experimental Group (N = 19) and the Control Group (N = 19). The subjects of the Experimental Group were submitted, once per week, to 10 treatment's sessions of Anti-stress Protocol, each lasting 90 min, whereas subjects of the Control Group sat ten times for 90 min, once per week, without practicing any treatment...
December 19, 2016: Neurological Sciences
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