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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646234/electroporation-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-and-a-natural-adjuvant-to-intradermal-administration-of-plasmid-dna-in-macaques
#1
Biliana Todorova, Lucille Adam, Slobodan Culina, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Mart Ustav, Thierry Kortulewski, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
In vivo electroporation (EP) is used to enhance the uptake of nucleic acids and its association with DNA vaccination greatly stimulates immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered through the skin. However, the effect of EP on cutaneous cell behavior, the dynamics of immune cell recruitment and local inflammatory factors, have not been fully described. Here, we show that intradermal DNA vaccination combined with EP extends antigen expression to the epidermis and the subcutaneous skin muscle in non-human primates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644441/micrornas-143-and-145-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-modulate-the-expression-of-junction-proteins
#2
Lidia Avalle, Danny Incarnato, Aurora Savino, Marta Gai, Francesca Marino, Sara Pensa, Isaia Barbieri, Michael B Stadler, Paolo Provero, Salvatore Oliviero, Valeria Poli
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is one of the major inducers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial program that has a critical role in promoting carcinoma's metastasis formation. MicroRNAs-143 and -145, which are both TGF-β direct transcriptional targets, are essential for the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) during embryogenesis, a TGF-β-dependent process reminiscent of EMT. Their role in adult tissues is however less well defined and even ambiguous, as their expression was correlated both positively and negatively with tumor progression...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642549/focal-adhesion-kinase-regulates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-and-liver-fibrosis
#3
Xue-Ke Zhao, Lei Yu, Ming-Liang Cheng, Pulin Che, Yin-Ying Lu, Quan Zhang, Mao Mu, Hong Li, Li-Li Zhu, Juan-Juan Zhu, Meng Hu, Po Li, Yue-Dong Liang, Xin-Hua Luo, Yi-Ju Cheng, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Qiang Ding
Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis is important to develop effective therapy. Herein, we show that focal-adhesion-kinse (FAK) plays a key role in promoting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation in vitro and liver fibrosis progression in vivo. FAK activation is associated with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen in fibrotic live tissues. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) induces FAK activation in a time and dose dependent manner. FAK activation precedes the α-SMA expression in HSCs...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637297/a-role-for-progesterone-regulated-sfrp4-expression-in-uterine-leiomyomas
#4
Meaghan A Delaney, Ying-Wooi Wan, Gyoung-Eun Kim, Chad J Creighton, Margaret G Taylor, Ramya Masand, Andrew Park, Cecilia Valdes, William Gibbons, Zhandong Liu, Matthew L Anderson
Context: Despite progesterone's key role in uterine smooth muscle tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which it promotes the growth of uterine leiomyomas remain poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify novel gene products mediating progesterone's effects in uterine leiomyomas. Design: Gene expression profiling was used to identify putative progesterone-regulated genes differentially expressed in uterine leiomyomas, which were then studied in vitro...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637074/-nutrition-in-cancer-effective-in-prevention-and-treatment
#5
Jann Arends
Nutritional effects on cancer occurrence and on treatment outcome in cancer patients may depend on food preferences and on the quantity of foods supplied. However, it has been difficult to reliably show beneficial effects of specific dietary concepts on cancer incidence. On the other hand, obesity as a result of chronic overfeeding has been linked firmly to an increased risk of a number of cancers as well as on cancer recurrence after treatment. Metabolic consequences of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may be responsible for inducing and/or promoting cancer growth and should be antagonized by regular moderate physical activity in healthy subjects and in cancer survivors...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633129/inhibition-effect-of-tacrolimus-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-on-restenosis-after-vascular-intimal-injury
#6
Xu Ma, Chunyu Jiang, Yuehua Li, Lishuai Feng, Jingjing Liu, Jianbo Wang
Excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) and delayed proliferation and migration of endothelial cells(ECs) were the main cause of restenosis after endovascular interventional therapy. Since tacrolimus has proved to be more sensitive to inhibiting VSMCs' proliferation,and platelet-derived growth factor-BB(PDGF-BB) benefitted ECs' and VSMCs' proliferation, this study was aimed to identify combined effect of tacrolimus and PDGF-BB, investigate any mechanisms underneath and demonstrate combined effect of two drugs in vivo...
June 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632904/ngf-and-fgf-2-promote-reinnervation-by-nerve-muscle-endplate-grafting
#7
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to test whether exogenous application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to muscles reinnervated with nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) could promote specific outcomes. METHODS: The right sternomastoid muscle in adult rats was experimentally denervated and immediately reinnervated by implanting a NMEG pedicle from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle. A fibrin sealant containing NGF and FGF-2 was focally applied to the implantation site...
June 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632033/overexpression-of-alk5-induces-human-tenon-s-capsule-fibroblasts-transdifferentiation-and-fibrosis-in-vitro
#8
Shu-Hao Fu, Hui-Ying Wang, Jia-Ying Zhang, Hui-Min Shi, Nan Zhang, Wen Ye, Yi-Qin Xiao
PURPOSE: To investigate the involvement of activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) transdifferentiation and fibrosis. METHODS: (1) Cultured HTFs were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) at different concentrations for different durations, mRNA expression of ALK5 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while protein expression of ALK5, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and extracellular matrix deposition including fibronectin (FN) and collagen I (Col1) was assessed by western blot...
February 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630576/no-effect-of-a-whey-growth-factor-extract-during-resistance-training-on-strength-body-composition-or-hypertrophic-gene-expression-in-resistance-trained-young-men
#9
Michael J Dale, Alison M Coates, Peter R C Howe, Grant R Tomkinson, Matthew T Haren, Andrew Brown, Marissa Caldow, David Cameron-Smith, Jonathan D Buckley
Growth factors can be isolated from bovine milk to form a whey growth factor extract (WGFE). This study examined whether WGFE promoted activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway enabling increased lean tissue mass and strength in resistance trained men. Forty six men with >6 months of resistance training (RT) experience performed 12 weeks of RT. Participants consumed 20 g/day of whey protein and were randomised to receive either 1.6 g WGFE/day (WGFE; n = 22) or 1.6 g cellulose/day (control, CONT; n = 24). The primary outcome was leg press one-repetition maximum (LP1-RM) which was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626027/selective-activation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-renal-proximal-tubule-induces-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#10
Jessica M Overstreet, Yinqiu Wang, Xin Wang, Aolei Niu, Leslie S Gewin, Bing Yao, Raymond C Harris, Ming-Zhi Zhang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and renal fibrosis; however, the causative role of sustained EGFR activation is unclear. Here, we generated a novel kidney fibrotic mouse model of persistent EGFR activation by selectively expressing the EGFR ligand, human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), in renal proximal tubule epithelium. Human HB-EGF expression increased tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of EGFR and the subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways, including ERK and AKT, as well as the profibrotic TGF-β1/SMAD pathway...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625921/binding-of-coronin-1b-to-t%C3%AE-ri-negatively-regulates-the-tgf%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#11
Geun-Young Kim, Hyun-Joung Lim, Hyun-Young Park
Coronin 1B is an actin-binding protein that regulates several actin-dependent cellular processes including migration and endocytosis. However, the role of coronin 1B in the tumor growth factor (TGF)β signaling pathway is largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether coronin 1B affects the TGFβ signaling cascade and found that coronin 1B negatively regulates the TGFβ signaling pathway. Immunoprecipitation and glutathione-S-transferase-pulldown assays revealed that coronin 1B directly associated with TGFβ receptor I (TβRI)...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625845/injury-and-defective-regeneration-of-the-epithelial-basement-membrane-in-corneal-fibrosis-a-paradigm-for-fibrosis-in-other-organs
#12
REVIEW
Steven E Wilson, Gustavo K Marino, Andre A M Torricelli, Carla S Medeiros
Myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis is important in the pathophysiology of diseases in most organs. The cornea, the transparent anterior wall of the eye that functions to focus light on the retina, is commonly affected by fibrosis and provides an optimal model due to its simplicity and accessibility. Severe injuries to the cornea, including infection, surgery, and trauma, may trigger the development of myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the normally transparent connective tissue stroma. Ultrastructural studies have demonstrated that defective epithelial basement membrane (EBM) regeneration after injury underlies the development of myofibroblasts from both bone marrow- and keratocyte-derived precursor cells in the cornea...
June 15, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623008/yucca-schidigera-can-promote-rabbit-growth-fecundity-affect-the-release-of-hormones-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-induce-pathological-changes-in-liver-and-reduce-ovarian-resistance-to-benzene
#13
Martina Földešiová, Andrej Baláži, Ľubica Chrastinová, Juraj Pivko, Jan Kotwica, Abdel Halim Harrath, Peter Chrenek, Alexander V Sirotkin
This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera (YS) extract on the physiological, reproductive, and endocrine indexes of New Zealand White rabbit does. Six-week-old rabbit does were fed a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched with 5 or 20g of Y powder extract per 100-kg feed mixture for 350days. The does were artificially inseminated after induction of superovulation. Weight gain; conception and kindling rate; viability of pups and mothers; histopathological state of liver and muscle; plasma levels of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), and prostaglandin F (PGF); and the release of P4, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), OT, and PGF by isolated ovarian fragments and their response to the addition of benzene were analyzed...
June 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622965/tumour-derived-human-growth-hormone-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-oncology
#14
REVIEW
Jo K Perry, Zheng-Sheng Wu, Hichem C Mertani, Tao Zhu, Peter E Lobie
The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) axis is the key regulator of longitudinal growth, promoting postnatal bone and muscle growth. The available data suggest that GH expression by tumour cells is associated with the aetiology and progression of various cancers such as endometrial, breast, liver, prostate, and colon cancer. Accordingly there has been increased interest in targeting GH-mediated signal transduction in a therapeutic setting. Because GH has endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine actions, therapeutic strategies will need to take into account systemic and local functions...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621938/inhibition-of-proliferation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-cucurbitanes-from-momordica-charantia
#15
Nguyen Quoc Tuan, Do-Hyung Lee, Joonseok Oh, Chung Sub Kim, Kyung-Sun Heo, Chang-Seon Myung, MinKyun Na
The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621563/reduced-mastication-impairs-memory-function
#16
Y Fukushima-Nakayama, Takehito Ono, M Hayashi, M Inoue, H Wake, Takashi Ono, T Nakashima
Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618344/developmental-mechanism-of-muscle-tendon-bone-complex-in-the-fetal-soft-palate
#17
Michiyuki Nara, Kei Kitamura, Masahito Yamamoto, Ryotaro Nagakura, Keisuke Mitomo, Satoru Matsunaga, Shinichi Abe
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate how the palatine aponeurosis, medial pterygoid process (MPP) of the sphenoid bone, and tensor veli palatini (TVP) muscle form the pulley: muscle-tendon-bone complex. DESIGN: Mice at embryonic day (ED) 14-17 were used as sample in this study. Azan staining was performed to observe the morphology, and immunohistochemical staining of desmin was performed to closely observe the development of the myotendinous junction...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607928/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-affect-myogenic-processes-in-c2c12-myoblasts-role-of-gap-junction-mediated-intercellular-communication
#18
Caterina Morabito, Nathalie Steimberg, Francesca Rovetta, Jennifer Boniotti, Simone Guarnieri, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Maria A Mariggiò
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can interact with biological systems. Although they are successfully used as therapeutic agents in physiatrics and rehabilitative practice, they might represent environmental pollutants and pose a risk to human health. Due to the lack of evidence of their mechanism of action, the effects of ELF-EMFs on differentiation processes in skeletal muscle were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to ELF-EMFs generated by a solenoid. The effects of ELF-EMFs on cell viability and on growth and differentiation rates were studied using colorimetric and vital dye assays, cytomorphology, and molecular analysis of MyoD and myogenin expression, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607151/the-transcriptional-co-repressor-tle3-regulates-myogenic-differentiation-by-repressing-the-activity-of-the-myod-transcription-factor
#19
Shoichiro Kokabu, Chihiro Nakatomi, Takuma Matsubara, Yusuke Ono, William N Addison, Jonathan W Lowery, Mariko Urata, Aaron M Hudnall, Suzuro Hitomi, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Tsuyoshi Sato, Kenji Osawa, Tetsuya Yoda, Vicki Rosen, Eijiro Jimi
Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells that provide myonuclei for postnatal muscle growth, maintenance, and repair/regeneration in adults. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent, but they are activated in response to muscle injury, in which case they proliferate extensively and exhibit upregulated expression of the transcription factor MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis. MyoD forms a heterodimer with E proteins through their basic helix-loophelix (bHLH) domain, binds to E boxes in the genome, and thereby activates transcription at muscle-specific promoters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607005/opa1-deficiency-promotes-secretion-of-fgf21-from-muscle-that-prevents-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Renata Oliveira Pereira, Satya M Tadinada, Frederick M Zasadny, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Karla Maria Pereira Pires, Angela Olvera, Jennifer Jeffers, Rhonda Souvenir, Rose Mcglauflin, Alec Seei, Trevor Funari, Hiromi Sesaki, Matthew J Potthoff, Christopher M Adams, Ethan J Anderson, E Dale Abel
Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
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