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Promote muscle growth

Jing Wu, Wei-Wei Tao, Dan-Yang Chong, Shan-Shan Lai, Chuang Wang, Qi Liu, Tong-Yu Zhang, Bin Xue, Chao-Jun Li
Postprandial insulin desensitization plays a critical role in maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis by avoiding the excessive absorption of blood glucose; however, the detailed mechanisms that underlie how the major player, skeletal muscle, desensitizes insulin action remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that early growth response gene-1 ( Egr-1) is activated by insulin in skeletal muscle and provides feedback inhibition that regulates insulin sensitivity after a meal. The inhibition of the transcriptional activity of Egr-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (InsR) and Akt, thus increasing glucose uptake in L6 myotubes after insulin stimulation, whereas overexpression of Egr-1 decreased insulin sensitivity...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Liang Liang, Ming Zeng, Haixia Pan, Hao Liu, Yangke He
Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is aberrantly expressed in a number of tumors. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the gene and protein levels of NNMT were significantly increased in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, upregulation of NNMT significantly increased the expression of mesenchymal markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin and fibronectin, but decreased the levels of epithelial cadherin. Since transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 may serve a key function in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the effects of NNMT on the expression of TGF-β1 were investigated in BGC-823 cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Katharina Wulf, Michael Teske, Claudia Matschegewski, Daniela Arbeiter, Dalibor Bajer, Thomas Eickner, Klaus-Peter Schmitz, Niels Grabow
The successive incorporation of several drugs into the polymeric bulk of implants mostly results in loss of considerable quantity of one drug, and/or the loss in quality of the coating and also in changes of drug release time points. A dual drug delivery system (DDDS) based on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) copolymers combining the effective inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation while simultaneously promoting re-endothelialization was successfully developed. To overcome possible antagonistic drug interactions and the limitation of the polymeric bulk material as release system for dual drugs, a novel concept which combines the bulk and surface drug immobilization for a DDDS was investigated...
March 12, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Huakang Tu, Colin P Dinney, Yuanqing Ye, H Barton Grossman, Seth P Lerner, Xifeng Wu
Background: Patients with cancer are highly concerned about food choices and dietary supplements that may affect their treatment outcomes. Excess folic acid (synthetic folate) from supplements or fortification can lead to accumulation of unmetabolized folic acid in the systemic circulation and urine and may promote cancer growth, especially among those with neoplastic alterations. Objective: We investigated the prospective association between synthetic compared with natural folate intake and clinical outcomes in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), which is a highly recurrent disease...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Irina Kramerova, Jorge A Torres, Ascia Eskin, Stanley F Nelson, Melissa J Spencer
Mutations in CAPN3 cause autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A. Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a calcium dependent protease residing in the myofibrillar, cytosolic and triad fractions of skeletal muscle. At the triad, it colocalizes with calcium calmodulin kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ). CAPN3 knock out mice (C3KO) show reduced triad integrity and blunted CaMKIIβ signaling, which correlates with impaired transcriptional activation of myofibrillar and oxidative metabolism genes in response to running exercise...
March 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
M Graupp, B Rinner, M T Frisch, G Weiss, J Fuchs, M Sundl, A El-Heliebi, G Moser, L P Kamolz, M Karbiener, M Gugatschka
BACKGROUND: Vocal fold (VF) scarring remains a therapeutic dilemma and challenge in modern laryngology. To facilitate corresponding research, we aimed to establish an in vitro fibrogenesis model employing human VF fibroblasts (hVFF) and the principles of macromolecular crowding (MMC). METHODS: Fibrogenesis was promoted by addition of transforming growth factor-β1 to standard medium and medium containing inert macromolecules (MMC). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Botox type A were tested for their antifibrotic properties in various doses...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Junfei Wang, Alen Faiz, Qi Ge, Cornelis J Vermeulen, Joanne Van der Velden, Kenneth J Snibson, Rob van de Velde, Sonia Sawant, Dikaia Xenaki, Brian Oliver, Wim Timens, Nick Ten Hacken, Maarten van den Berge, Alan James, John G Elliot, Liang Dong, Janette K Burgess, Anthony W Ashton
Neovascularization, increased basal membrane thickness and increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) bulk are hallmarks of airway remodelling in asthma. In this study, we examined connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) dysregulation in human lung tissue and animal models of allergic airway disease. Immunohistochemistry revealed that ASM cells from patients with severe asthma (A) exhibited high expression of CTGF, compared to mild and non-asthmatic (NA) tissues. This finding was replicated in a sheep model of allergic airways disease...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Yanjiao Li, Li Li, Zhengjiang Qian, Boya Lin, Jidong Chen, Yixuan Luo, Junle Qu, J Usha Raj, Deming Gou
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor BB, a potent mitogen of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), has been implicated in pulmonary arterial remodeling, which is a key pathogenic feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Previous microRNA profiling in platelet-derived growth factor BB-treated PASMCs found a significantly downregulated microRNA, miR-1281, but it has not been associated with any cellular function, and we investigated the possibility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay proved that downregulation of miR-1281 was a conserved phenomenon in human and rat PASMCs...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Takayuki Uchida, Yoshihiro Sakashita, Kanako Kitahata, Yui Yamashita, Chisato Tomida, Yuki Kimori, Akio Komatsu, Katsuya Hirasaka, Ayako Ohno, Reiko Nakao, Atsushi Higashitani, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Toru Shimazu, Takeshi Kobayashi, Yuushi Okumura, Inho Choi, Motoko Oarada, Edward M Mills, Shigetada Teshima-Kondo, Shin'ichi Takeda, Eiji Tanaka, Keiji Tanaka, Masahiro Sokabe, Takeshi Nikawa
Unloading-mediated muscle atrophy is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We previously demonstrated that elevated ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) resulted in the loss of muscle volume [Nakao R. et al. Mol Cell Biol, 29: 4798-4811, 2009]. However, the pathological role of ROS production associated with unloading-mediated muscle atrophy still remains unknown. Here, we showed the ROS-mediated signal transduction caused by microgravity or its simulation contributes to Cbl-b expression...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Takayoshi Sasako, Kohjiro Ueki
Among the tissues involved in the motor system, skeletal muscle plays an important role in systemic metabolism and is the largest organ in terms of glucose uptake. Insulin promotes anabolism of nutrients in skeletal muscle, as in other insulin-targeted organs, and maintains muscle volume, in cooperation with insulin-like growth factor-1. In humans, along with aging, insulin resistance is induced in skeletal muscle, which could lead to systemic insulin resistance, and circulating IGF-1 levels are lowered. These changes contribute to the development of sarcopenia, in which function and volume of skeletal muscle are impaired, and modulation of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling could be promising in treatment of sarcopenia...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Zong-Kang Zhang, Jie Li, Daogang Guan, Chao Liang, Zhenjian Zhuo, Jin Liu, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Bao-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle atrophy induced by either aging (sarcopenia) or mechanical unloading is associated with serious health consequences. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated as important regulators in numerous physiological and pathological processes. METHODS: Microarray analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed lncRNAs in skeletal muscle between adult and aged mice. The most decreased lncRNA in aged skeletal muscle was identified...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Hisashi Kato, Shinya Masuda, Tomotaka Ohira, Luna Ohira, Hisashi Takakura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Tetsuya Izawa
β-Guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) feeding inhibits growth-associated gain of body mass. It remains unknown, however, whether and how β-GPA feeding affects growth-associated increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. We examined the effects of 4- and 8-week β-GPA feeding on serum myostatin levels and expression of genes and proteins related to adipogenesis, lipolysis, and liposynthesis in epididymal WAT (eWAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in 3-week-old, juvenile male mice. Body, eWAT, and muscle weights were significantly lower in β-GPA-fed mice than in controls after feeding...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Bolin Cai, Manting Ma, Biao Chen, Zhenhui Li, Bahareldin Ali Abdalla, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
The proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of myoblasts are essential processes in skeletal muscle development. During this developmental process, microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles. In our previous RNA-seq study (accession number GSE62971), we found that miR-16-5p was differentially expressed between fast and slow growth in chicken. In this study, we report that miR-16-5p could inhibit myoblast proliferation, promote myoblast apoptosis, and repress myoblast differentiation by directly binding to the 3' UTR of SESN1, which is also differentially expressed...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Hebatullah Laban, Andreas Weigert, Joana Zink, Amro Elgheznawy, Christoph Schürmann, Lea Günther, Randa Abdel Malik, Sabrina Bothur, Susanne Wingert, Rolf Bremer, Michael A Rieger, Bernhard Brüne, Ralf P Brandes, Ingrid Fleming, Peter M Benz
In ischemic vascular diseases, leukocyte recruitment and polarization are crucial for revascularization and tissue repair. We investigated the role of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in vascular repair. After hindlimb ischemia induction, blood flow recovery, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and leukocyte infiltration into ischemic muscles in VASP-/- mice were accelerated. VASP deficiency also elevated the polarization of the macrophages through increased signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling, which augmented the release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors to promote leukocyte recruitment and vascular repair...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Nathan Cho, Shadi E Razipour, Megan L McCain
Cardiac fibroblasts and their activated derivatives, myofibroblasts, play a critical role in wound healing after myocardial injury and often contribute to long-term pathological outcomes, such as excessive fibrosis. Thus, defining the microenvironmental factors that regulate the phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts could lead to new therapeutic strategies. Both chemical and biomechanical cues have previously been shown to induce myofibroblast differentiation in many organs and species. For example, transforming growth factor beta 1, a cytokine secreted by neutrophils, and rigid extracellular matrix environments have both been shown to promote differentiation...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
T D Tremaine, A A Fouladi-Nashta
The vascular changes associated with endometrial maturation in preparation for embryo implantation depend on numerous growth factors, known to regulate key angiogenic events. Primarily, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family promotes vascular growth, whilst the angiopoietins maintain blood vessel integrity. The aim was to analyse protein levels of VEGFA ligand and receptors, Angiopoietin-1 and 2 (ANG1/2) and endothelial cell receptor tyrosine kinase (TIE-2) in the ovine endometrium in the follicular and luteal phases of the oestrus cycle and in response to ovarian steroids...
March 5, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Yong Li, Qiu-Hua Yu, Ying Chu, Wei-Min Wu, Jian-Xiang Song, Xiao-Bo Zhu, Qiang Wang
Hypertension is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease that leads to cardiac remodeling. A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) is a scaffolding protein that has multiple functions in various biological events, including the regulation of vessel integrity and differentiation of neural barriers in blood. However, the role of AKAP12 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In the present study, Ang II infusion reduced AKAP12 expressions in the hearts of wild-type (WT) mice, and AKAP12 knockout (KO) enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Madeline N Hayes, Karin McCarthy, Alexander Jin, Mariana L Oliveira, Sowmya Iyer, Sara P Garcia, Sivasish Sindiri, Berkley Gryder, Zainab Motala, G Petur Nielsen, Jean-Paul Borg, Matt van de Rijn, David Malkin, Javed Khan, Myron S Ignatius, David M Langenau
Tumor growth and relapse are driven by tumor propagating cells (TPCs). However, mechanisms regulating TPC fate choices, maintenance, and self-renewal are not fully understood. Here, we show that Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2), a core regulator of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway, affects TPC self-renewal in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)-a pediatric cancer of muscle. VANGL2 is expressed in a majority of human RMS and within early mononuclear progenitor cells. VANGL2 depletion inhibited cell proliferation, reduced TPC numbers, and induced differentiation of human RMS in vitro and in mouse xenografts...
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Yufeng Zhang, Kang Nian Yap, Tony D Williams, David L Swanson
Skeletal muscle remodeling is an important component of phenotypic flexibility in birds and impacts organismal metabolism and performance, which could potentially influence fitness. One regulator of skeletal muscle remodeling is myostatin, an autocrine/paracrine muscle growth inhibitor that may be down-regulated under conditions promoting heavier muscle masses. In this study, we employed protocols requiring hovering while foraging to increase foraging costs and modify phenotypes of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Yajuan Huang, Haishen Wen, Meizhao Zhang, Nan Hu, Yufeng Si, Siping Li, Feng He
Many genes related to muscle growth determine the proliferation of myoblasts, initiate myoblast differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. MyoD is a myogenic determination factor and contributes to myoblast determination, and IGF-I regulates muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. MyoD interacted with IGF-I in regulating muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. The aim of our study was to assess DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns of MyoD and IGF-I during different developmental stages of Japanese flounder, and to examine the relationship between MyoD and IGF-I gene...
February 24, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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