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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#1
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789988/growth-performance-blood-parameters-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-traits-in-potchefstroom-koekoek-chickens-fed-lippia-javanica-leaf-meal
#2
T B Matshogo, V Mlambo, U Marume, N Sebola
Lippia javanica leaves may have nutraceutical bioactivity and thus could be a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diets. To test this hypothesis, a feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of Lippia javanica leaf meal (LJ) on growth performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality of indigenous Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) chickens. The leaf meal was used to dilute a commercial chicken grower diet at a rate of 25 or 50 g/kg diet...
May 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784874/select-%C3%AE-arrestins-control-cell-surface-abundance-of-the-mammalian-kir2-1-potassium-channel-in-a-yeast-model
#3
Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inwardly rectifying channel Kir2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782610/castration-induces-satellite-cell-activation-that-contributes-to-skeletal-muscle-maintenance
#4
Alanna Klose, Wenxuan Liu, Nicole D Paris, Sophie Forman, John J Krolewski, Kent L Nastiuk, Joe V Chakkalakal
Background: Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is a side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer patients. Resident stem cells of skeletal muscle, satellite cells (SCs), are an essential source of progenitors for the growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Decreased androgen signaling and deficits in the number and function of SCs are features of aging. Although androgen signaling is known to regulate skeletal muscle, the cellular basis for ADT-induced exacerbation of sarcopenia is unknown...
2018: JCSM rapid communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780359/the-mitotic-and-metabolic-effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-in-the-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#5
Tingting Wang, Xuan Wang, Huihui Zhou, Haowen Jiang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin , was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#6
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772187/platelet-rich-plasma-releasate-promotes-regeneration-and-decreases-inflammation-and-apoptosis-of-injured-skeletal-muscle
#7
Wen-Chung Tsai, Tung-Yang Yu, Gwo-Jyh Chang, Li-Ping Lin, Miao-Sui Lin, Jong-Hwei S Pang
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors that may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. Based on the authors' previous study, PRP releasate can promote proliferation and migration of skeletal muscle cells in vitro, so animal studies are performed to support the use of PRP to treat muscle injury in vivo. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of PRP releasate on regeneration of injured muscle, as well as its effect on inflammatory reaction and cell apoptosis, in the early stages of the muscle-healing process...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768404/tissue-specific-activities-of-the-fat1-cadherin-cooperate-to-control-neuromuscular-morphogenesis
#8
Françoise Helmbacher
Muscle morphogenesis is tightly coupled with that of motor neurons (MNs). Both MNs and muscle progenitors simultaneously explore the surrounding tissues while exchanging reciprocal signals to tune their behaviors. We previously identified the Fat1 cadherin as a regulator of muscle morphogenesis and showed that it is required in the myogenic lineage to control the polarity of progenitor migration. To expand our knowledge on how Fat1 exerts its tissue-morphogenesis regulator activity, we dissected its functions by tissue-specific genetic ablation...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767079/gluconeogenesis-during-starvation-and-refeeding-phase-is-affected-by-previous-dietary-carbohydrates-levels-and-a-glucose-stimuli-during-early-life-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#9
Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765446/inhibitory-effect-of-pdgf-bb-and-serum-stimulated-responses-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-by-hinokitiol-via-up-regulation-of-p21-and-p53
#10
Jiun-Yi Li, Chun-Ping Liu, Wei-Cheng Shiao, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Yi-Shin Li, Nen-Chung Chang, Shih-Yi Huang, Cheng-Ying Hsieh
Introduction: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a major role in the progression of vascular diseases. In the present study, we established the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of hinokitiol, a tropolone derivative found in Chamaecyparis taiwanensis , Cupressaceae, in relation to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and serum-dependent VSMC proliferation. Material and methods: Primary cultured rat VSMCs were pre-treated with hinokitiol and then stimulated by PDGF-BB (10 ng/ml) or serum (10% fetal bovine serum)...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761409/the-roles-of-matrix-stiffness-and-%C3%A3-catenin-signaling-in-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-aortic-valve-endothelial-cells
#11
Aileen Zhong, Zahra Mirzaei, Craig A Simmons
Valve stiffening is a hallmark of aortic valve stenosis caused by excess extracellular matrix accumulation by myofibroblasts. We aimed to elucidate whether matrix stiffness regulates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of adult valvular endothelial cells (VECs) to myofibroblasts as a mechanism to further promote valve fibrosis. In addition, we specifically examined the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of myofibroblasts during EndMT, as Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in EndMT during heart development, is reactivated in valve disease, and is required for mechanically-regulated myofibrogenesis of valve interstitial cells...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752408/interleukin-6-mediated-trans-signaling-inhibits-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#12
Miyuki Inoue-Mochita, Toshihiro Inoue, Sachi Kojima, Akiko Futakuchi, Tomokazu Fujimoto, Saori Sato-Ohira, Utako Tsutsumi, Hidenobu Tanihara
Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness, and TGF-β2 has been found to be elevated in the aqueous humor of eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). TGF-β2 in aqueous humor causes the glaucoma-related fibrosis of human trabecular meshwork (HTM), suggesting an important role of TGF-β in POAG pathogenesis. Here, we sought to elucidate the effects of IL-6 trans-signaling on TGF-β signaling in HTM cells. Using a multiplex immunoassay, POAG patients decreased IL-6 levels and increased soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels compared with the controls...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749440/vitamin-k%C3%A2-dependent-proteins-involved-in-bone-and-cardiovascular-health-review
#13
Lianpu Wen, Jiepeng Chen, Lili Duan, Shuzhuang Li
In postmenopausal women and elderly men, bone density decreases with age and vascular calcification is aggravated. This condition is closely associated with vitamin K2 deficiency. A total of 17 different vitamin K‑dependent proteins have been identified to date. Vitamin K‑dependent proteins are located within the bone, heart and blood vessels. For instance, carboxylated osteocalcin is beneficial for bone and aids the deposition of calcium into the bone matrix. Carboxylated matrix Gla protein effectively protects blood vessels and may prevent calcification within the vascular wall...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748515/growth-hormone-receptor-mutations-related-to-individual-dwarfism
#14
REVIEW
Shudai Lin, Congjun Li, Charles Li, Xiquan Zhang
Growth hormone (GH) promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs) at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH⁻GHR⁻IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH⁻GHR⁻IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743679/control-of-cardiac-jelly-dynamics-by-notch1-and-nrg1-defines-the-building-plan-for-trabeculation
#15
Gonzalo Del Monte-Nieto, Mirana Ramialison, Arne A S Adam, Bingruo Wu, Alla Aharonov, Gabriele D'Uva, Lauren M Bourke, Mara E Pitulescu, Hanying Chen, José Luis de la Pompa, Weinian Shou, Ralf H Adams, Sarah K Harten, Eldad Tzahor, Bin Zhou, Richard P Harvey
In vertebrate hearts, the ventricular trabecular myocardium develops as a sponge-like network of cardiomyocytes that is critical for contraction and conduction, ventricular septation, papillary muscle formation and wall thickening through the process of compaction 1 . Defective trabeculation leads to embryonic lethality2-4 or non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) 5 . There are divergent views on when and how trabeculation is initiated in different species. In zebrafish, trabecular cardiomyocytes extrude from compact myocardium 6 , whereas in chicks, chamber wall thickening occurs before overt trabeculation 7 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738289/tgf%C3%AE-3-msx1-and-mmp3-as-candidates-for-nscl%C3%A2-p-in-an-indian-population
#16
Priyanka Kumari, Subodh Kumar Singh, Rajiva Raman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of transforming growth factor β3 ( TGFβ3), muscle segment homeobox 1 ( MSX1), Metalloproteinases 3 ( MMP3), and MMP9 genes as candidates for nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate in an Indian population. DESIGN: Case-control association study, mutational screening, and functional evaluation of obtained mutations. SETTING: Mutational screening of the developmental genes, TGFβ3 and MSX1, along with functional evaluation and association of promoter region SNPs-one each in MMP3 and MMP9...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737479/locomotor-treadmill-training-promotes-soleus-trophism-by-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-in-paraplegic-rats
#17
Caroline Cunha do Espírito Santo, Daniela Dal Secco, Anamaria Meireles, Gabriel Ribeiro de Freitas, Franciane Bobinski, Mauricio Peña Cunha, Ana Lúcia Severo Rodrigues, Alessandra Swarowsky, Adair Roberto Soares Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Assisted-treadmill training, may be helpful in promoting muscle mass preservation after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). However, biological mechanism involved in this process is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of locomotor treadmill training on muscle trophism mediated by protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in paraplegic rats. Adult female Wistar rats underwent an incomplete thoracic SCI induced by compression using an aneurysm clip...
May 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735075/effect-of-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-inclusion-in-the-diet-for-fattening-lambs-on-animal-performance-ruminal-characteristics-and-meat-quality
#18
Carolina Blanco, Raúl Bodas, Lara Morán, Javier Mateo, Sonia Andrés, F Javier Giráldez
Thirty male merino lambs were fed with a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) alone or supplemented with hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones at two different doses (1.5 and 3.0 g hop cones/kg pelleted TMR, respectively), to study the effects of this dietary source of antioxidants on animal performance, ruminal parameters and meat quality attributes. The results showed that dietary supplementation with hop cones decreased lambs' growth rate (P < 0.05) due to a shift in ruminal fermentation, towards a more acetic and less propionic acid production (P < 0...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734378/correction-caveolin-3-promotes-glycometabolism-growth-and-proliferation-in-muscle-cells
#19
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189004.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725265/ctgf-contributes-to-the-development-of-posterior-capsule-opacification-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#20
Bo Ma, Ruihua Jing, Jie Liu, Lan Yang, Jingming Li, Li Qin, Lijun Cui, Cheng Pei
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a crucial factor that plays a major role in the process of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). However, the effects of CTGF on the proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells (LECs) and on the mechanism of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and extracellular matrix (ECM) in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) as well as the effects of shRNA-mediated CTGF knockdown on the development of PCO in rats remain unclear. In the present study, we found that CTGF promoted EMT, proliferation, migration and the expression of p-ERK1/2 protein in HLECs but exerted little effect on the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK1/2 proteins...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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