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Immune Colon Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545241/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice
#1
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV)...
May 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544821/predictive-model-for-high-frequency-microsatellite-instability-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-over-50%C3%A2-years-of-age
#2
Kenji Fujiyoshi, Tatsuro Yamaguchi, Miho Kakuta, Akemi Takahashi, Yoshiko Arai, Mina Yamada, Gou Yamamoto, Sachiko Ohde, Misato Takao, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Soichiro Natsume, Shinsuke Kazama, Yusuke Nishizawa, Yoji Nishimura, Yoshito Akagi, Hirohiko Sakamoto, Kiwamu Akagi
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important biomarker for screening for Lynch syndrome, and also of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this study is to create a predictive model to determine which elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) should undergo MSI and/or immunohistochemistry testing on the basis of clinicopathological data. We analyzed a test cohort of CRC patients aged ≥50 years (n = 2219) by multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of high-frequency MSI (MSI-H)...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538392/maculopapular-rash-after-intravitreal-injection-of-an-antivascular-endothelial-growth-factor-aflibercept-for-treating-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-case-report
#3
Norihiro Nagai, Mari Ibuki, Hajime Shinoda, Kaori Kameyama, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
RATIONALE: Aflibercept, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug, is used for treatment of colon cancer as well as retinal diseases, including wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is injected into the vitreous cavity of eyes for treatment of AMD. Although vascular suppression-including cardiovascular events-and local infection related to the injection procedure are well-known potential adverse events, pathological immune responses after intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) injection have not been described...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537884/a-cancer-vaccine-based-on-fluorine-modified-sialyl-tn-induces-robust-immune-responses-in-a-murine-model
#4
Chengcheng Song, Xiu-Jing Zheng, Chang-Cheng Liu, Yifa Zhou, Xin-Shan Ye
Development of an effective vaccine to target tumor associated carbohydrate antigens, aberrantly expressed on the cell surface of various carcinomas, is an appealing approach toward cancer immunotherapy. However, a major problem of carbohydrate antigens is their poor immunogenicity. Immunization with modified-carbohydrate antigens could improve the immunogenicity and induce cross reaction with the native carbohydrate antigens. In this study, we investigated the antitumor ability of three fluoro-substituted sialyl-Tn (STn) analogues (2, 3, 4) coupled to KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) and studied the mechanism of tumor immunotherapy of the vaccines in a murine model of colon cancer...
May 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535011/tumor-growth-limited-to-subcutaneous-site-vs-tumor-growth-in-pulmonary-site-exhibit-differential-effects-on-systemic-immunities
#5
Junko Masuda, Eiji Takayama, Warren Strober, Ayano Satoh, Yuji Morimoto, Yasuko Honjo, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Shin-Ichi Tokuno, Toshiaki Ishizuka, Takahiro Nakata, Akifumi Mizutani, Naoki Umemura, Atsushi Kitani, Ivan J Fuss, Tsukasa Shigehiro, Harumi Kawaki, Masako Mizuno-Kamiya, Nobuo Kondoh, Masaharu Seno
To evaluate systemic immunity associated with tumor growth limited to a subcutaneous site versus growth proceeding at multiple tumor sites, we established syngeneic mouse subcutaneous and pulmonary tumor models by local subcutaneous and intravenous injection of colon carcinoma CT26 cells. We found that splenic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) levels were significantly increased in the subcutaneous tumor model but not in the pulmonary tumor model. Furthermore, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells were significantly decreased in the subcutaneous tumor model and were largely unchanged in the pulmonary tumor model...
May 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533942/hla-a24-ligandome-analysis-of-colon-and-lung-cancer-cells-identifies-a-novel-cancer-testis-antigen-and-a-neoantigen-that-elicits-specific-and-strong-ctl-responses
#6
Vitaly Kochin, Takayuki Kanaseki, Serina Tokita, Sho Miyamoto, Yosuke Shionoya, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Daichi Morooka, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Tomohide Tsukahara, Kazue Watanabe, Shingo Toji, Yasuo Kokai, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
This study focused on HLA-A24 and comprehensively analyzed the ligandome of colon and lung cancer cells without the use of MHC-binding in silico prediction algorithms. Affinity purification using the antibody specific to HLA-A24 followed by LC-MS/MS sequencing was used to detect peptides, which harbored the known characteristics of HLA-A24 peptides in terms of length and anchor motifs. Ligandome analysis demonstrated the natural presentation of two different types of novel tumor-associated antigens. The ligandome contained a peptide derived from SUV39H2, a gene found to be expressed in a variety of cancers but not in normal tissues (except for the testis)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533435/enzymatic-inactivation-of-endogenous-igg-by-ides-enhances%C3%A2-therapeutic-antibody-efficacy
#7
Sofia Järnum, Anna Runström, Robert Bockermann, Lena Winstedt, Max Crispin, Christian Kjellman
Endogenous plasma IgG sets an immunological threshold that dictates the activity of tumor-directed therapeutic antibodies. Saturation of cellular antibody receptors by endogenous antibody limits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Here we show how enzymatic cleavage of IgG using the bacterial enzyme IdeS can be utilized to empty both high and low affinity Fcγ-receptors and clear the entire endogenous antibody pool. Using in vitro models, tumor animal models as well as ex vivo analysis of sera collected during a previous clinical trial with IdeS, we show how clearing of competing plasma antibody levels with IdeS unblocks cellular antibody receptors...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529575/japanese-kampo-medicine-ninjin-yoeito-synergistically-enhances-tumor-vaccine-effects-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#8
Shun Takaku, Masumi Shimizu, Hidemi Takahashi
Although Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has been widely applied to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail, particularly regarding their role in tumor immunology. The present study investigated the antitumor effects of the Japanese Kampo medicine, ninjin'yoeito (NYT; Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang in Chinese), which was orally administered with or without an irradiated tumor cell vaccine to a subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma tumor model...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525888/combination-of-desi2-and-ip10-gene-therapy-significantly-improves-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-carcinoma
#9
Chao Lin, HuaYing Yan, Jun Yang, Lei Li, Mei Tang, Xinyu Zhao, Chunlai Nie, Na Luo, Yuquan Wei, Zhu Yuan
DESI2 (also known as PNAS-4) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene activated during the early response to DNA damage. We previously reported that overexpression of DESI2 induces S phase arrest and apoptosis by activating checkpoint kinases. The present study was designed to test whether combination of DESI2 and IP10 could improve the therapy efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant plasmid co-expressing DESI2 and IP10 was encapsulated with DOTAP/Cholesterol nanoparticle. Immunocompetent mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma and LL2 lung cancer were treated with the complex...
May 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522905/strategies-used-by-helicobacter-pylori-to-establish-persistent-infection
#10
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host's entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522594/sphingomyelin-synthase-2-deficiency-inhibits-the-induction-of-murine-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#11
Toshio Ohnishi, Chieko Hashizume, Makoto Taniguchi, Hidehiro Furumoto, Jia Han, Rongfen Gao, Shinichi Kinami, Takeo Kosaka, Toshiro Okazaki
Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is the synthetic enzyme of sphingomyelin (SM), which regulates membrane fluidity and microdomain structure. SMS2 plays a role in LPS-induced lung injury and inflammation; however, its role in inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis is unclear. We investigated the effect of SMS2 deficiency on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine colitis and found inhibition of DSS-induced inflammation in SMS2-deficient (SMS2(-/-)) mice. DSS treatment induced a significant increase in ceramide levels, with a decrease of SM levels in SMS2(-/-) colon tissue, and demonstrated attenuation of the elevation of both inflammation-related gene expression and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leukocyte infiltration, and MAPK and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521477/t-cell-immunity-induced-by-a-bivalent-salmonella-based-ceacam6-and-4-1bbl-vaccines-in-a-rat-colorectal-cancer-model
#12
Chunhui Jin, Xiaoqing Duan, Yingying Liu, Jianhong Zhu, Ke Zhang, Yuanting Zhang, Tingting Xia, Yajun Fei, Jianxin Ye
The present study investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of recombinant non-specific cross-reacting antigen (CEACAM6) and 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) Salmonella-based vaccines, and the effect that these vaccinations have on memory T cells and T helper (Th) cell polarization. Colon tumors were induced in rats via 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) injections. Rats were then treated with injections of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium carrying pIRES-CEACAM6, pIRES-4-1BBL or pIRES-CEACAM6-4-1BBL. In total, 4 vaccine injections, one every other week, were administered during the 8 weeks subsequent to the DMH injection...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507600/insights-into-the-role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-colon-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Sofia Oke, Alberto Martin
The intestinal microbiota consists of a dynamic organization of bacteria, viruses, archaea, and fungal species essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and protecting the host against pathogenic invasion. When dysregulated, the intestinal microbiota can contribute to colorectal cancer development. Though the microbiota is multifaceted in its ability to induce colorectal cancer, this review will focus on the capability of the microbiota to induce colorectal cancer through the modulation of immune function and the production of microbial-derived metabolites...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504299/what-we-know-about-stage-ii-and-iii-colon-cancer-it-s-still-not-enough
#14
Alberto Puccini, Martin D Berger, Wu Zhang, Heinz-Josef Lenz
The introduction of oxaliplatin as adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer in 2004 has been the last practice changing progress in adjuvant treatment for patients with early colon cancer. Since then, many prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been studied, but only DNA mismatch repair status has been validated as having an important prognostic value. Accordingly, TNM and clinical-pathological patterns, such as pT4 lesions and lymph node sampling <12 nodes, are the main factors that guide physicians' choice regarding adjuvant treatment...
May 15, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498395/microrna-1299-is-a-negative-regulator-of-stat3-in-colon-cancer
#15
Yong Wang, Zhi Lu, Ningning Wang, Man Zhang, Xiandong Zeng, Wei Zhao
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) is a family of transcription factors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metastasis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. STAT3 is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor that belongs to STATs. STAT3 has been reported be regulates genes involved with cellular growth, proliferation and metastasis. Worldwide, colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 is essential for colon cancer progression to advanced malignancy...
April 26, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484466/the-st2-il-33-axis-in-immune-cells-during-inflammatory-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Brad Griesenauer, Sophie Paczesny
Il1rl1 (also known as ST2) is a member of the IL-1 superfamily, and its only known ligand is IL-33. ST2 exists in two forms as splice variants: a soluble form (sST2), which acts as a decoy receptor, sequesters free IL-33, and does not signal, and a membrane-bound form (ST2), which activates the MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway to enhance mast cell, Th2, regulatory T cell (Treg), and innate lymphoid cell type 2 functions. sST2 levels are increased in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease, acute cardiac and small bowel transplant allograft rejection, colon and gastric cancers, gut mucosal damage during viral infection, pulmonary disease, heart disease, and graft-versus-host disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481406/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-cancer-development-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Aadra P Bhatt, Matthew R Redinbo, Scott J Bultman
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The human body harbors enormous numbers of microbiota that influence cancer susceptibility, in part through their prodigious metabolic capacity and their profound influence on immune cell function. Microbial pathogens drive tumorigenesis in 15% to 20% of cancer cases. Even larger numbers of malignancies are associated with an altered composition of commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) based on microbiome studies using metagenomic sequencing. Although association studies cannot distinguish whether changes in microbiota are causes or effects of cancer, a causative role is supported by rigorously controlled preclinical studies using gnotobiotic mouse models colonized with one or more specific bacteria...
May 8, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481246/hepatoprotective-effect-of-carboxymethyl-pachyman-in-fluorouracil-treated-ct26-bearing-mice
#18
Canhong Wang, Xiaowei Huo, Li Gao, Guibo Sun, Cao Li
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the chemotherapeutic agent of first choice for the treatment ofcolorectal cancer, however, treatment-related liver toxicity remains a major concern. Thereby, it is desirable to search for novel therapeutic approaches that can effectively enhance curative effects and reduce the toxic side effects of 5-FU. Carboxymethyl Pachyman (CMP) exhibits strong antitumor properties, but the antitumor and hepatoprotective effects of CMP and the molecular mechanisms behind these activities, are however poorly explored...
May 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480327/humanized-mice-with-subcutaneous-human-solid-tumors-for-immune-response-analysis-of-vaccinia-virus-mediated-oncolysis
#19
Desislava Tsoneva, Boris Minev, Alexa Frentzen, Qian Zhang, Anja K Wege, Aladar A Szalay
Oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) therapy is an alternative cancer treatment modality that mediates targeted tumor destruction through a tumor-selective replication and an induction of anti-tumor immunity. We developed a humanized tumor mouse model with subcutaneous human tumors to analyze the interactions of VACV with the developing tumors and human immune system. A successful systemic reconstitution with human immune cells including functional T cells as well as development of tumors infiltrated with human T and natural killer (NK) cells was observed...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471197/-circulating-myeloid-suppressor-cells-and-their-role-in-tumour-immunology
#20
K Pilatova, E Budinská, B Bensciková, R Nenutil, R Šefr, L Fedorová, B Hanáková, V Brychtová, L Zdražilová Dubská
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogenic population of multipotent progenitors of myeloid lineage. For their immunosuppressive effect, MDSC are responsible for tumour escape from the host immune surveillance. Furthermore, MDSCs support tumour by promotion of angiogenesis and metastasis. Membrane markers of human MDSCs are myeloid markers CD11b and CD13, these cells are HLA-Drlow/- and expression of CD15 or CD14 differentiate them into granulocytic (Gr-MDSCs) and monocytic (Mo-MDSCs), resp...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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