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Immune Colon Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228842/worldwide-malaria-incidence-and-cancer-mortality-are-inversely-associated
#1
Li Qin, Changzhong Chen, Lili Chen, Ran Xue, Ming Ou-Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Siting Zhao, Zhengxiang He, Yu Xia, Jianxing He, Pinghua Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Investigations on the effects of malaria infection on cancer mortality are limited except for the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) in African children. Our previous murine lung cancer model study demonstrated that malaria infection significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. This study aims to assess the possible associations between malaria incidence and human cancer mortality. METHODS: We compiled data on worldwide malaria incidence and age-standardized mortality related to 30 types of cancer in 56 countries for the period 1955-2008, and analyzed their longitudinal correlations by a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM), adjusted for a nonlinear year effect and potential confounders such as country's income levels, life expectancies and geographical locations...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222333/immunoprofiling-as-a-predictor-of-patient-s-response-to-cancer-therapy-promises-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Bethmann, Zipei Feng, Bernard A Fox
Immune cell infiltration is common to many tumors and has been recognized by pathologists for more than 100 years. The application of digital imaging and objective assessment software allowed a concise determination of the type and quantity of immune cells and their location relative to the tumor and, in the case of colon cancer, characterized overall survival better than AJCC TNM staging. Subsequently, expression of PD-L1, by 50% or more tumor cells, identified NSCLC patients with double the response rate to anti-PD-1...
February 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#4
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212885/epinephrine-promotes-cox-2-dependent-immune-suppression-in-myeloid-cells-and-cancer-tissues
#5
Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Nana J Okada, Frank J Jenkins, Kandace McGuire, Priscilla F McAuliffe, Herbert J Zeh, David L Bartlett, Callen Wallace, Simon Watkins, Jill D Henning, Dana H Bovbjerg, Pawel Kalinski
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., due to stress) has been implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, but its cancer-promoting effects have been variable between different studies. Here, we report that although catecholamines, mediators of systemic sympathetic activity, display only weak immunosuppressive impact on their own, their combination with inflammatory signals leads to the induction of COX-2 and multiple COX-2-dependent suppressive factors in human myeloid cells and cancer tissues...
February 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205649/comparative-studies-of-oxaliplatin-based-platinum-iv-complexes-in-different-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-tumor-models
#6
Simone Göschl, Ekaterina Schreiber-Brynzak, Verena Pichler, Klaudia Cseh, Petra Heffeter, Ute Jungwirth, Michael A Jakupec, Walter Berger, Bernhard K Keppler
Using platinum(iv) prodrugs of clinically established platinum(ii) compounds is a strategy to overcome side effects and acquired resistances. We studied four oxaliplatin-derived platinum(iv) complexes with varying axial ligands in various in vitro and in vivo settings. The ability to interfere with DNA (pUC19) in the presence and absence of a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) was investigated in cell-free experiments. Cytotoxicity was compared under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in monolayer cultures and multicellular spheroids of colon carcinoma cell lines...
February 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197388/inhibition-of-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-by-emmprin-multiple-antigenic-peptide-map-vaccination-is-mediated-by-immune-modulation
#7
Elina Simanovich, Vera Brod, Maya M Rahat, Ella Drazdov, Miriam Walter, Jivan Shakya, Michal A Rahat
Previously, we have identified a new epitope in EMMPRIN, a multifunctional protein that mediates tumor cell-macrophage interactions and induces both MMP-9 and VEGF. Here, we synthesized this epitope as an octa-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) to vaccinate mice implanted with subcutaneous syngeneic colon (CT26), prostate (TRAMP-C2) or renal (RENCA) cell line carcinomas. Vaccination inhibited, and sometimes regressed, tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, reaching 94%, 71% and 72% inhibition, respectively, at a 50 μg dose (p < 0...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196986/colorectal-cancer-a-new-innate-immune-sensor-functions-from-inside-the-colonic-epithelium
#8
Tianyan Gao, B Mark Evers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196531/enhancing-circadian-clock-function-in-cancer-cells-inhibits-tumor-growth
#9
Silke Kiessling, Lou Beaulieu-Laroche, Ian D Blum, Dominic Landgraf, David K Welsh, Kai-Florian Storch, Nathalie Labrecque, Nicolas Cermakian
BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks control cell cycle factors, and circadian disruption promotes cancer. To address whether enhancing circadian rhythmicity in tumor cells affects cell cycle progression and reduces proliferation, we compared growth and cell cycle events of B16 melanoma cells and tumors with either a functional or dysfunctional clock. RESULTS: We found that clock genes were suppressed in B16 cells and tumors, but treatments inducing circadian rhythmicity, such as dexamethasone, forskolin and heat shock, triggered rhythmic clock and cell cycle gene expression, which resulted in fewer cells in S phase and more in G1 phase...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191009/defective-il-23-il-17-axis-protects-p47phox-mice-from-colon-cancer
#10
Cornelia Richter, Martina Herrero San Juan, Benno Weigmann, Dominik Bergis, Katrin Dauber, Michael H Muders, Gustavo B Baretton, Josef Martin Pfeilschifter, Halvard Bonig, Sebastian Brenner, Heinfried H Radeke
In the colon, a sophisticated balance between immune reaction and tolerance is absolutely required. Dysfunction may lead to pathologic phenotypes ranging from chronic inflammatory processes to cancer development. Two prominent modulators of colon inflammation are represented by the closely related cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, which initiate adaptive Th1 and Th17 immune responses, respectively. In this study, we investigated the impact of the NADPH oxidase protein p47phox, which negatively regulates IL-12 in dendritic cells, on colon cancer development in a colitis-associated colon cancer model...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187456/inhibition-and-deficiency-of-the-immunoproteasome-subunit-lmp7-suppress-the-development-and-progression-of-colorectal-carcinoma-in-mice
#11
Julia Koerner, Thomas Brunner, Marcus Groettrup
New treatment options and drug targets for colorectal carcinoma are a pressing medical need. Inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by Th1 and Th17 cells like IL-6, TNF, IL-17 and IL-23 promote the development and growth of colorectal cancer (CRC). The immunoproteasome is a proteasome subtype highly expressed in immune cells but also in the intestine. Since the immunoproteasome promotes Th1 and Th17 differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we investigated here whether deficiency or inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 would interfere with CRC development and exacerbation in preventive and therapeutic mouse models...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183254/metastatic-colorectal-cancer-role-of-target-therapies-and-future-perspectives
#12
Anna Nappi, Massimiliano Berretta, Carmela Romano, Salvatore Tafuto, Antonino Cassata, Rossana Casaretti, Lucrezia Silvestro, Chiara De Divitiis, Lara Alessandrini, Francesco Fiorica, Alessandro Ottaiano, Guglielmo Nasti
Today, we are experiencing a real cultural revolution in the therapeutic approach to cancer of the colon - rectum, that, by orphan disease, it is now becoming an important paradigm of scientific innovations and concepts. Survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) has been significantly improved with the introduction of the monoclonal antibodies that have as target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Novel agents such as aflibercept and regorafenib have recently been approved...
February 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179508/two-step-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy-with-engineered-salmonella-typhimurium-secreting-heterologous-flagellin
#13
Jin Hai Zheng, Vu H Nguyen, Sheng-Nan Jiang, Seung-Hwan Park, Wenzhi Tan, Seol Hee Hong, Myung Geun Shin, Ik-Joo Chung, Yeongjin Hong, Hee-Seung Bom, Hyon E Choy, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Jung-Joon Min
We report a method of cancer immunotherapy using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain engineered to secrete Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) in tumor tissues. Engineered FlaB-secreting bacteria effectively suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models and prolonged survival. By using Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-negative colon cancer cell lines, we provided evidence that the FlaB-mediated tumor suppression upon bacterial colonization is associated with TLR5-mediated host reactions in the tumor microenvironment...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166767/microparticles-shed-from-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-provide-a-parallel-survival-pathway-through-immune-evasion
#14
Ritu Jaiswal, Michael S Johnson, Deep Pokharel, S Rajeev Krishnan, Mary Bebawy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161000/-focus-on-the-immunoscore-and-its-potential-clinical-implications
#15
Carine El Sissy, Florence Marliot, Nacilla Haicheur, Amos Kirilovsky, Dragos Scripcariu, Christine Lagorce-Pagès, Jérôme Galon, Franck Pagès
The role of the immune response at the tumor site is now recognized as crucial in the clinical course of patients with cancer. The importance of the immune cell type, their functional orientation, their density and location within the tumor's regions (tumor/invasion margin) has recently been shown and were grouped together under the term "immune contexture". A strong infiltration by cytotoxic and memory T cells in a Th1-polarized tumor microenvironment appears to have a major prognosis impact. A test called Immunoscore taking into account these various parameters has been suggested to measure in a simple, reproducible and robust manner the intra- and peritumoral immune response...
February 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160109/antimetastatic-pectic-polysaccharide-from-decalepis-hamiltonii-galectin-3-inhibition-and-immune-modulation
#16
Sathisha U Venkateshaiah, Mallikarjuna S Eswaraiah, Harish Nayaka M Annaiah, Shylaja M Dharmesh
Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm of major concern because of its high mortality rate and failure of chemotherapy. Previously we have shown that galectin-3, a galactose specific lectin, plays a pivotal role in the initiation of metastasis. It was hypothesized that blocking galectin-3 with galactose rich dietary pectic polymer would inhibit metastasis. The current study analyzes the preventive effect and mode of action of a pectic polymer from Swallow Root (Decalepis hamiltonii) in a preventative study of B16F10 cells lung colonization...
February 3, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155620/nlrp3-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Agampodi Promoda Perera, Dale Kunde, Rajaraman Eri
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of intestinal disorders characterised by chronic relapsing inflammation of the small intestine and colon. IBD manifests as either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. METHODS: Here, we have reviewed current treatment regimen for IBD utilising anti-inflammatory drugs, immune system suppressors and antibiotics or a combination of these. However, these therapeutics lead to a number of adverse effects, remission or significant non-responsiveness creating an urgent need to develop potent drugs with novel mechanisms of action for IBD...
February 1, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151975/colonization-with-enterotoxigenic-bacteroides-fragilis-is-associated-with-early-stage-colorectal-neoplasia
#18
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Alan Aitchison, Liane Dixon, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a toxin-producing bacteria thought to possibly promote colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating the mucosal immune response and inducing epithelial cell changes. Here, we aim to examine the association of colonic mucosal colonization with ETBF and the presence of a range of lesions on the colonic neoplastic spectrum. METHODS: Mucosal tissue from up to four different colonic sites was obtained from a consecutive series of 150 patients referred for colonoscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151483/colon-cancer-cell-treatment-with-rose-bengal-generates-a-protective-immune-response-via-immunogenic-cell-death
#19
Jianzhong Qin, Nicholas Kunda, Guilin Qiao, Jed F Calata, Krunal Pardiwala, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker
Immunotherapeutic approaches to manage patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies are desired; however, mechanisms to incite tumor-specific immune responses remain to be elucidated. Rose bengal (RB) is toxic at low concentrations to malignant cells and may induce damage-associated molecular patterns; therefore, we investigated its potential as an immunomodulator in colon cancer. Murine and human colon cancer lines were treated with RB (10% in saline/PV-10) for cell cycle, cell death, and apoptosis assays...
February 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150214/exploiting-uptake-of-nanoparticles-by-phagocytes-for-cancer-treatment
#20
Mee Rie Sheen, Steven Fiering
Many cancers including ovarian, pancreatic, colon, liver, and stomach cancers are largely confined to the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal tumors are directly accessible by intraperitoneal injections. Previously we demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of nanoparticles and subsequent ingestion by tumor-associated phagocytes can be used to either directly impact tumors or stimulate antitumor immune responses. Here we outline methods to specifically utilize iron oxide nanoparticles with the ID8-Defb29/Vegf-A murine ovarian cancer model and discuss the tendency of phagocytes to ingest nanoparticles and the potential of phagocytes to carry nanoparticles to tumors resulting in direct killing of tumor cells or stimulate antitumor immune responses in peritoneal cancers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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