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Immune Colon Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644156/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-57-year-old-man-with-an-axillary-mass
#1
Palak Desai, Andrew Myers, Brian Boulmay, Fred A Lopez
A 57-year-old man presented to the surgical oncology clinic with a mildly tender mass under his right arm. Four years prior, the patient had a melanoma removed from his right shoulder along with an ipsilateral right axillary sentinel lymph sampling. Computed tomography (CT) scan was negative for metastatic disease at that time. The patient did not undergo completion axillary node dissection and was lost to follow-up. The patient was originally from Australia, did not tan but reported multiple sunburns before age 18...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638724/calcium-electroporation-induces-tumor-eradication-long-lasting-immunity-and-cytokine-responses-in-the-ct26-colon-cancer-mouse-model
#2
Hanne Falk, Patrick F Forde, Marie Lund Bay, Uma Maheswari Mangalanathan, Pernille Hojman, Declan M Soden, Julie Gehl
Electroporation is used in cancer treatment because of its ability to increase local cytotoxicity of e.g. bleomycin (electrochemotherapy) and calcium (calcium electroporation). Calcium electroporation is a novel anticancer treatment that selectively kills cancer cells by necrosis, a cell death pathway that stimulates the immune system due to high release of antigens and "danger signals." In this exploratory study, we aimed to investigate whether calcium electroporation could initiate an anticancer immune response similar to electrochemotherapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637024/tumor-location-impacts-immune-response-in-mouse-models-of-colon-cancer
#3
Xianda Zhao, Lihua Li, Timothy K Starr, Subbaya Subramanian
Existing preclinical models of human colorectal cancer (CRC) that rely on syngeneic subcutaneous grafts are problematic, because of increasing evidence that the immune microenvironment in subcutaneous tissue is significantly different from the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, existing orthotopic models that use a laparotomy for establishing grafts are also problematic, because the surgical procedure results in extensive inflammation, thereby creating a nonphysiologic tumor microenvironment. To facilitate the bench-to-bedside translation of CRC immunotherapy strategies, we developed a novel orthotopic model in mice that uses endoscopy-guided microinjection of syngeneic cancer cells...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627973/profile-of-gene-expression-of-tlr-signaling-pathways-in-colorectal-cancer-tissues
#4
Martyna Bednarczyk, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Teresa Kokot, Edyta Fatyga, Urszula Mazurek
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in transduction of molecular signals in immune process such as induction and regulation of immunity, production of cytokines, and recognition of specific molecular patterns on the surface of microorganisms, but also in cancer development-which was partially proven in previous studies. There is a lack of detailed research on differentiating levels of TLR expression in colorectal cancer at different stages of its advancement, so in our study we want to determine whether there is such a difference of TLRs and TLR-connected protein expression...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623901/biomarker-correlation-network-in-colorectal-carcinoma-by-tumor-anatomic-location
#5
Reiko Nishihara, Kimberly Glass, Kosuke Mima, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Peter Kraft, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Andrew T Chan, John Quackenbush, Shuji Ogino, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma evolves through a multitude of molecular events including somatic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant protein expression, influenced by host immune reactions. One way to interrogate the complex carcinogenic process and interactions between aberrant events is to model a biomarker correlation network. Such a network analysis integrates multidimensional tumor biomarker data to identify key molecular events and pathways that are central to an underlying biological process...
June 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622390/inhibiting-dna-methylation-activates-cancer-testis-antigens-and-expression-of-the-antigen-processing-and-presentation-machinery-in-colon-and-ovarian-cancer-cells
#6
Cornelia Siebenkäs, Katherine B Chiappinelli, Angela A Guzzetta, Anup Sharma, Jana Jeschke, Rajita Vatapalli, Stephen B Baylin, Nita Ahuja
Innovative therapies for solid tumors are urgently needed. Recently, therapies that harness the host immune system to fight cancer cells have successfully treated a subset of patients with solid tumors. These responses have been strong and durable but observed in subsets of patients. Work from our group and others has shown that epigenetic therapy, specifically inhibiting the silencing DNA methylation mark, activates immune signaling in tumor cells and can sensitize to immune therapy in murine models. Here we show that colon and ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit lower expression of transcripts involved in antigen processing and presentation to immune cells compared to normal tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619747/successful-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-a-patient-with-advanced-stage-microsatellite-unstable-biliary-tract-cancer
#7
Elena Czink, Matthias Kloor, Benjamin Goeppert, Stefan Froehling, Sebastian Uhrig, Tim F Weber, Joern Meinel, Christian Sutter, Karl Heinz Weiss, Peter Schirmacher, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Dirk Jaeger, Christoph Springfeld
Cancers acquire multiple somatic mutations that can lead to the generation of immunogenic mutation-induced neoantigens. These neoantigens can be recognized by the host's immune system. However, continuous stimulation of immune cells against tumor antigens can lead to immune cell exhaustion, which allows uncontrolled outgrowth of tumor cells. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a novel approach to overcome immune cell exhaustion and re-activate anti-tumor immune responses. In particular, antibodies blocking the exhaustion-mediating programmed death receptor (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway have shown clinical efficacy...
June 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618861/potentially-probiotic-lactobacillus-strains-with-anti-proliferative-activity-induce-cytokine-chemokine-production-and-neutrophil-recruitment-in-mice
#8
G Saxami, A Karapetsas, P Chondrou, S Vasiliadis, E Lamprianidou, I Kotsianidis, P Ypsilantis, S Botaitis, C Simopoulos, A Galanis
Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 are two Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from fermented table olives. Both strains were found to possess probiotic properties and displayed desirable technological characteristics for application as starters in novel functional food production. In the present study the anti-proliferative and immunostimulatory activities of the two strains were investigated. Firstly, we demonstrated that live L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282 significantly inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617554/the-study-on-specific-umbilical-blood-dc-vaccine-for-beige-nude-mice-loaded-human-colorectal-carcinoma-to-induce-anti-tumor-immunity
#9
Z-X Fu, J-S Han, F Liu, Z-L Zhao, D-B Li, L Shi, J-T Dong, Y Zhou, J-H Cai
OBJECTIVE: This study is to observe the immunosuppression of CD137L transfected umbilical blood Dcs (Dendritic cell) vaccine to tumor development of SCID/ Beige nude mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of umbilical blood in the childbirth pregnant women were collected by density gradient centrifugation. Umbilical cord blood dendritic cells (Dcs) were transfected by specific CD137L via LipofectamineTM method and cells were harvested. Meanwhile, the peripheral blood of volunteers was collected to isolate Dcs, the Dcs were cultured for 5 days and hatched with SW-1116 cells antigen...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606732/constitutive-and-acquired-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-human-cancer
#10
Matteo Bellone, Angela Rita Elia
Cancer immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against regulatory pathways in T lymphocytes has been revolutionizing medical oncology, and the clinical success of monoclonal antibodies targeting either cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or program death-1 (PD-1) in patients affected by melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and head and neck, bladder, renal cell or non-small cell lung cancer is way beyond the most optimistic expectation. However, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has failed to arrest progression in a consistent amount of patients affected by those tumors, and various histological types, including breast, colon and prostate cancer, are less sensitive to this therapeutic approach...
June 2, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606585/cancer-in-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases-cancer-incidence-in-the-united-states-immune-deficiency-network-registry
#11
Paul C Mayor, Kevin H Eng, Kelly L Singel, Scott I Abrams, Kunle Odunsi, Kirsten B Moysich, Ramsay Fuleihan, Elizabeth Garabedian, Patricia Lugar, Hans D Ochs, Francisco A Bonilla, Rebecca H Buckley, Kathleen E Sullivan, Zuhair K Ballas, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Brahm H Segal
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the overall and site-specific incidence of cancer in subjects with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) enrolled in the United States Immune Deficiency Network (USIDNET) registry compared with age-adjusted cancer incidence in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. We hypothesized that subjects with PIDD would have an increased incidence of cancer due to impaired immune function. METHODS: Overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates were evaluated in subjects with PIDD (n = 3,658) enrolled in the USIDNET registry from 2003-2015, and compared with age-adjusted incidence rates in the SEER database...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603527/intratumoral-foxp3-helios-regulatory-t-cells-upregulating-immunosuppressive-molecules-are-expanded-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#12
Azharuddin Sajid Syed Khaja, Salman M Toor, Haytham El Salhat, Bassam R Ali, Eyad Elkord
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can be antitumorigenic or pro-tumorigenic in colorectal cancer (CRC) depending on the presence of different Treg subsets with various immunosuppressive molecules. Some studies reported the phenotypic characteristics of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in CRC, but limited studies have focused on the co-expression of suppressive molecules on immune cells. The aim of this study was to characterize immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), compared to paired adjacent non-tumor colon tissue of CRC patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598238/nlrc3-regulates-cellular-proliferation-and-apoptosis-to-attenuate-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer
#13
Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Qifan Zhu, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns. NLRs regulate diverse biological processes such as inflammatory responses, cell proliferation and death, and gut microbiota to attenuate tumorigenesis. In a recent publication in Nature, we identified NLRC3 as a negative regulator of PI3K-mTOR signaling and characterized its potential tumor suppressor function. Enterocytes lacking NLRC3 cannot control cellular proliferation because they are unable to suppress activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways...
June 9, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596815/next-generation-sequencing-traces-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines-clonally-generated-from-heterogeneous-cancer-tissue
#14
Tetsuya Ishikawa
AIM: To investigate genotype variation among induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that were clonally generated from heterogeneous colon cancer tissues using next-generation sequencing. METHODS: Human iPSC lines were clonally established by selecting independent single colonies expanded from heterogeneous primary cells of S-shaped colon cancer tissues by retroviral gene transfer (OCT3/4, SOX2, and KLF4). The ten iPSC lines, their starting cancer tissues, and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues were analyzed using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis using the human reference genome hg19...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595259/molecular-profiling-of-signet-ring-cell-colorectal-cancer-provides-a-strong-rationale-for-genomic-targeted-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapies
#15
Muhammad A Alvi, Maurice B Loughrey, Philip Dunne, Stephen McQuaid, Richard Turkington, Marc-Aurel Fuchs, Claire McGready, Victoria Bingham, Brendan Pang, Wendy Moore, Perry Maxwell, Mark Lawler, Jacqueline A James, Graeme I Murray, Richard H Wilson, Manuel Salto-Tellez
BACKGROUND: Signet ring cell colorectal cancer (SRCCa) has a bleak prognosis. Employing molecular pathology techniques we investigated the potential of precision medicine in this disease. METHODS: Using test (n=26) and validation (n=18) cohorts, analysis of mutations, DNA methylation and transcriptome was carried out. Microsatellite instability (MSI) status was established and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to test for adaptive immunity (CD3) and the immune checkpoint PDL1...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589725/dual-targeting-nanoparticle-stimulates-the-immune-system-to-inhibit-tumor-growth
#16
Alyssa K Kosmides, John-William Sidhom, Andrew Fraser, Catherine A Bessell, Jonathan P Schneck
We describe the development of a nanoparticle platform that overcomes the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. These nanoparticles are coated with two different antibodies that simultaneously block the inhibitory checkpoint PD-L1 signal and stimulate T cells via the 4-1BB co-stimulatory pathway. These "immunoswitch" particles significantly delay tumor growth and extend survival in multiple in vivo models of murine melanoma and colon cancer in comparison to the use of soluble antibodies or nanoparticles separately conjugated with the inhibitory and stimulating antibodies...
June 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587176/bifunctional-enzyme-jmjd6-contributes-to-multiple-disease-pathogenesis-new-twist-on-the-old-story
#17
REVIEW
Shiva Shankar Vangimalla, Murali Ganesan, Kusum K Kharbanda, Natalia A Osna
Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a non-heme Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenase with arginine demethylase and lysyl hydroxylase activities. Its initial discovery as a dispensable phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) in the cell membrane of macrophages for phagocytosis was squashed by newer studies which revealed its nuclear localization and bifunctional enzymatic activity. Though its interaction with several nuclear and cytoplasmic target proteins has been demonstrated, the exact mechanisms and clinical significance of these various biologic interplays are not yet well established...
June 1, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583547/major-histocompatibilty-complex-restricted-adaptive-immune-responses-to-ct26-colon-cancer-cell-line-in-mixed-allogeneic-chimera
#18
K W Lee, B Choi, Y M Kim, C W Cho, H Park, J I Moon, G-S Choi, J B Park, S J Kim
BACKGROUND: Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. METHODS: We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578522/evaluation-of-the-oncolytic-potential-of-r2b-mukteshwar-vaccine-strain-of-newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-in-a-colon-cancer-cell-line-sw-620
#19
Kishan K Sharma, Irsadullakhan H Kalyani, Jogeswar Mohapatra, Satish D Patel, Dharmesh R Patel, Priti D Vihol, Abhijit Chatterjee, Dinesh R Patel, Bhavesh Vyas
Virotherapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of cancer. Among the candidate oncolytic viruses (OVs), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has emerged as a promising non-engineered OV. In the present communication, we explored the oncolytic potential of R2B Mukteshwar strain of NDV using SW-620 colon cancer cells. SW-620 cells were xenografted in nude mice and after evaluation of the safety profile, 1 x 10(7) plaque forming units (PFU) of NDV were inoculated as virotherapeutic agent via the intratumoral (I/T) and intravenous (I/V) route...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565870/c1qbp-is-upregulated-in-colon-cancer-and-binds-to-apolipoprotein-a-i
#20
Kun Kim, Min-Jeong Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim, Sun-A Ahn, Jong Heon Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Seung-Gu Yeo
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of complement component 1, q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP) in colon cancer cells, and identify proteins that interact with C1QBP. Total proteins were extracted from both the tumor and normal tissues of 22 patients with colon cancer and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to identify proteins that were differentially-expressed in tumor tissues. C1QBP overexpression was induced in 293T cells using a pFLAG-CMV2 expression vector...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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