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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138903/the-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#1
REVIEW
Imran Jivraj, Madhura Tamhankar
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis affecting medium and large vessels with potentially sight and life-threatening complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are imperative in order to prevent vision loss and progression of the disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are inflammatory markers which are elevated in the majority of patients and support the diagnosis of GCA among patients who present with typical symptoms. GCA is confirmed with superficial temporal artery biopsy which demonstrates characteristic pathological findings...
January 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116918/standard-and-biological-treatment-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-guidelines-and-current-approaches
#2
Francesco Muratore, Nicolò Pipitone, Carlo Salvarani
Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are the two major forms of idiopathic large vessel vasculitis. High doses of glucocorticoids are effective in inducing remission in both conditions, but relapses and recurrences are common, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid treatment with the risk of the related adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, we will review the standard and biological treatment strategies in large vessel vasculitis, and we will focus on the current approaches to these diseases. Expert commentary: The results of treatment trials with conventional immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclophosphamide have overall been disappointing...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116728/isolation-and-culture-of-endothelial-cells-from-large-vessels
#3
Augusto C Montezano, Karla B Neves, Rheure A M Lopes, Francisco Rios
The endothelium, which is at the interface between circulating blood and the vascular wall, comprises a simple squamous layer of cells that lines the inner surface of all blood vessels. Endothelial cells are highly metabolically active and play an important role in many physiological functions, including control of vasomotor tone, blood cell trafficking, vascular permeability, and maintenance of vascular integrity (Mensah, Vascul Pharmacol 46(5):310-314, 2007; Yetik-Anacak and Catravas, Vascul Pharmacol 45(5):268-276, 2006)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115719/immunoinhibitory-checkpoint-deficiency-in-medium-and-large-vessel-vasculitis
#4
Hui Zhang, Ryu Watanabe, Gerald J Berry, Augusto Vaglio, Yaping Joyce Liao, Kenneth J Warrington, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) causes autoimmune inflammation of the aorta and its large branches, resulting in aortic arch syndrome, blindness, and stroke. CD4(+) T cells and macrophages form organized granulomatous lesions in the walls of affected arteries, destroy the tunica media, and induce ischemic organ damage through rapid intimal hyperplasia and luminal occlusion. Pathogenic mechanisms remain insufficiently understood; specifically, it is unknown whether the unopposed activation of the immune system is because of deficiency of immunoinhibitory checkpoints...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109928/fdg-uptake-by-prosthetic-arterial-grafts-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-is-not%C3%A2-specific-for-active-disease
#5
Taryn Youngstein, Enrico Tombetti, Jaita Mukherjee, Tara D Barwick, Adil Al-Nahhas, Emyr Humphreys, Julian Nash, Jacqueline Andrews, Elena Incerti, Elisabetta Tombolini, Annalaura Salerno, Silvia Sartorelli, Giuseppe A Ramirez, Maurizio Papa, Maria Grazia Sabbadini, Luigi Gianolli, Francesco De Cobelli, Federico Fallanca, Elena Baldissera, Angelo A Manfredi, Maria Picchio, Justin C Mason
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the incidence and clinical significance of arterial graft-associated uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). BACKGROUND: The role of (18)F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) in the management of LVV remains to be defined. Although [(18)F]FDG uptake at arterial graft sites raises concerns regarding active arteritis or infection, its clinical significance in LVV has never been formally studied...
January 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101023/pyoderma-gangrenosum-and-erythema-nodosum-revealing-takayasu-s-arteritis
#6
Jonas Loetscher, Susanna Fistarol, Ulrich A Walker
We report a Caucasian female who presented with simultaneous erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum due to underlying Takayasu's arteritis. Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic large vessel vasculitis of unknown cause. The disease has a worldwide distribution but is most commonly seen in Asian populations. There is a strong predilection for young females. The clinical presentation is variable, but mostly derives from stenosis or occlusion of affected arteries, resulting in claudication and ischemia. Skin manifestations are observed in up to 28% of patients with Takayasu's arteritis, with erythema nodosum reported more frequently in Caucasians...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094068/-large-vessel-vasculitis-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome-a-rare-association
#7
J Galland, H Kawski, J-F Guichard, F Maurier
INTRODUCTION: The vasculitis can be the consequence of malignancy: most often hematologic rather than solid tumors. The association between large vessels vasculitis and myelodysplastic syndrome is rare. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old man experienced asthenia, fever, polyarthritis and inflammatory syndrome. Haematological investigations found a type 2 refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB-2) with discovery of severe anemia (Hb: 7,8g/dl) and thrombopenia (platelets: 40,000/mm(3))...
January 13, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087351/central-nervous-system-vasculitis-in-adults-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Lívia Almeida Dutra, Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza, Gabriela Grinberg-Dias, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Simone Appenzeller
Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is a challenging diagnosis due to broad clinical manifestations and variable specificity and sensitivity of laboratory and imaging diagnostic tools. Differential diagnosis includes reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), secondary vasculitis of the CNS and other noninflammatory vasculopathies. Brain biopsy is essential for definitive diagnosis and to exclude mimickers. Recent data show that data large-vessel PCNSV present worse prognosis when compared to small-vessel PCNSV...
February 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073870/successful-treatment-of-takayasu-arteritis-with-rituximab-as-a-first-line-immunosuppressant
#9
Mortimer B O'Connor, Neil O'Donovan, Ursula Bond, Mark J Phelan
Takayasu arteritis is a rare large vessel vasculitis which has traditionally been treated with high-dose steroids. There have been a small number of publications where biological agents have been used to manage refractory cases. To the authors knowledge, there are no publications using biological agents in combination with steroids as a first-line treatment in Takayasu arteritis. In this publication, we document the case of Takayasu arteritis, in a 39-year-old woman, where rituximab was used in combination with steroids as a first-line agent in the setting of poorly controlled bipolar affective disorder...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064210/characteristics-of-autoantibodies-targeting-14-3-3-proteins-and-their-association-with-clinical-features-in-newly-diagnosed-giant-cell-arteritis
#10
Anne Kistner, Marc B Bigler, Kathrin Glatz, Simon B Egli, Fabian S Baldin, Florian A Marquardsen, Matthias Mehling, Katharina M Rentsch, Daniel Staub, Markus Aschwanden, Mike Recher, Thomas Daikeler, Christoph T Berger
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies are useful biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring treatment in some autoimmune diseases. Antibodies against isoforms of 14-3-3 protein have been proposed as biomarkers for the presence of aortic aneurysm in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). Here, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role and potential immunopathological involvement of anti-14-3-3 antibodies in newly diagnosed LVV patients. METHODS: Antibodies against three isoforms of 14-3-3 (γ, ε and ζ) were measured in 90 subjects: 48 GCA and 3 Takayasu's arteritis (TA) patients, and 39 controls (non-inflammatory and inflammatory diseases), using a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay and immunoprecipitation studies...
January 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011738/coronary-artery-and-supra-aortic-vessel-revascularization-without-aortic-clamping-for-takayasu-arteritis
#11
Hiroaki Osada, Naoki Kanemitsu, Kaori Kato, Kazuo Yamanaka
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare idiopathic large-vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its major branches. Coronary artery disease and its surgical management in patients with TA is also a rare clinical entity. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman with TA and 3-vessel coronary artery disease in whom we performed off-pump coronary artery bypass graft concomitant with supra-aortic vessel revascularization.
December 22, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993917/visceral-artery-aneurysms-an-atypical-presentation-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#12
Brendan Litt, Benedetto Mussari, Gabrielle Gauvin, David Alcoloumbre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988436/a-scoping-review-of-the-use-of-non-biologic-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-in-the-management-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#13
REVIEW
Durga Prasanna Misra, Aman Sharma, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Vir Singh Negi
Takayasu's arteritis (TA) and Giant cell arteritis (GCA) comprise the large vessel vasculitides (LVV). Patients with LVV are treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), both conventional (cDMARDs) and biologic (bDMARDs). We undertook a scoping review to assess the effectiveness of cDMARDs in TA and GCA. We could identify 11 studies in TA and 18 studies in GCA. There were only 3 randomized controlled trials on methotrexate, one on hydroxychloroquine and two on cyclosporine in GCA, the others being case series (including all studies on TA)...
February 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974103/disease-activity-and-vascular-involvement-in-retroperitoneal-fibrosis-first-experience-with-fully-integrated-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-compared-to-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters
#14
Klaus Thuermel, Ingo Einspieler, Sabine Wolfram, Philipp Moog, Reinhard Meier, Markus Schwaiger, Uwe Heemann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of fully integrated [18F]-FDG PET/MRI in the assessment of retroperitoneal fibrosis with regard to disease activity, extent and vascular involvement compared to clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: Seventeen [18F]-FDG PET/MRI examinations were performed in fourteen patients. Qualitative (visual 4-point scale) and quantitative PET parameters (maximum standardised uptake value, SUVmax; target-background ratio, TBR) as well as RF thickness and volume were correlated to clinical and inflammatory parameters and compared between therapy-naïve patients and patients under immunosuppression...
December 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940585/adult-primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-isolated-small-vessel-vasculitis-represents-distinct-disease-pattern
#15
Hubert de Boysson, Grégoire Boulouis, Achille Aouba, Boris Bienvenu, Loïc Guillevin, Mathieu Zuber, Emmanuel Touzé, Olivier Naggara, Christian Pagnoux
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify whether presentations and outcomes in adult patients with isolated small-vessel primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS) would differ from other patients with large/medium-vessel involvement. METHODS: In the French PACNS cohort, we compared the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with isolated small-vessel disease (normal CT, MR and/or conventional angiograms, brain biopsy positive for vasculitis) with other patients who had large/medium-vessel involvement (vessel abnormalities on CT, MR or conventional angiograms)...
December 10, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938815/acrally-distributed-dermatoses-vascular-dermatoses-purpura-and-vasculitis
#16
Jana Kazandjieva, Dimitar Antonov, Jivko Kamarashev, Nikolai Tsankov
Purpuric lesions appear in acral distribution in a variety of conditions and often provide clues to the clinical diagnosis. Purpuric means "hemorrhagic"-that is, the lesions do not blanch from pressure. This review focuses on dermatoses that produce hemorrhagic lesions in acral distribution from the large groups of the vasculitic diseases and their mimics. Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis is confined to the skin, involves mainly postcapillary venules, and has the hallmark manifestation of palpable purpura...
January 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931962/imaging-of-vasculitis-state-of-the-art
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Muratore, Nicolò Pipitone, Carlo Salvarani, Wolfgang A Schmidt
The increasing availability and improvement of imaging techniques are making a profound impact in the evaluation and management of patients with vasculitis, particularly for those with large vessel vasculitis, and will most likely play an ever more important role in the future. Deep, large vessels can be examined by CT or MRI, while ultrasound is the method of choice for the evaluation of superficial vessels (such as temporal, carotid, and axillary arteries). PET is very sensitive in detecting large vessel inflammation, but it does not delineate the vessel wall...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930381/chronic-localized-fibrosing-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-associated-with-lymphedema-intralymphatic-and-intravascular-lymphocytosis-and-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-a-case-report-of-unilateral-erythema-elevatum-diutinum
#18
Juliana Atallah, Juan C Garces, Enrique Loayza, John A Carlson
One of the pathogenic causes of cutaneous inflammatory pseudotumors is chronic localized fibrosing leukocytoclastic vasculitis (CLFLCV), a vasculitic reaction pattern seen in granuloma faciale (GF), a localized vasculitis, and erythema elevatum diutinum (EED), a generalized vasculitis. Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are at risk for a diverse spectrum of cutaneous neutrophilic dermatoses such as EED. Herein, we report a 74-year-old man who presented with a large ulcerative, fungating tumor affecting the right flexor ankle caused by CLFLCV...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867673/central-retinal-artery-occlusion-in-takayasu-s-arteritis-as-the-first-presentation-of-the-disease
#19
Hande Guclu, Vuslat Pelitli Gurlu, Sadık Altan Ozal, Orkut Guclu
Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory granulomatous vasculitis which affects large and medium arterial vessels. The disease involves especially subclavian arteries and aortic branches but it can consist of any arteries. The major pathology is granulomatous panarteritis with intima proliferation and defects of the elastic lamina of the vessels. We present a case of central retinal artery occlusion in TA as the first presentation of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first case that demonstrates central retinal artery occlusion as an initial manifestation in TA...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864582/-skin-diseases-due-to-systemic-vasculitides-and-vasculopathies
#20
REVIEW
S Volc, J C Maier, M Röcken
Vasculitis and vasculopathy are two distinct disease entities. Each entity comprises a large number of heterogeneous diseases, which can occur alone or associated with autoimmune, infectious or neoplastic diseases. The terms vasculitis and vasculopathy are often falsely used synonymously. A vasculitis initially causes inflammation of the vessel walls that may result in a secondary occlusion. In contrast, a vasculopathy is a primary occlusion of the vascular lumen, which is followed by inflammation after ischemia and ulceration...
December 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
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