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Young adult perspections

Lesley Uttley, Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Pfizer) of tofacitinib (TOF; Xeljanz® ) to submit evidence of the drug's clinical and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Li-Na Zhang, Yongping Song, Delong Liu
The prognosis of adults with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains dismal even at this day and age. With salvage chemotherapy, only 29% (range 18 to 44%) of the patients with R/R ALL can be induced into complete remission (CR), with a median overall survival (OS) of 4 months (range 2-6 months). Blinatumomab and inotuzumab ozogamycin (IO) are immunotherapeutic agents that increased CR to 80% and extended survival to 7.7 months in this high-risk population of patients. In the last few years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)--engineered T cells have led to major progress in cancer immunotherapy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, Harmehr Sekhon, Jennifer Gautier, Julia Chabot, Elise J Levinoff, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Assessment of changes in higher levels of gait control with aging is important to better understand age-related gait instability, with the perspective to improve the screening of individuals at risk for falls. The comparison between actual Timed Up and Go test (aTUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) is a simple clinical way to assess age-related changes in gait control. The modulations of iTUG performances by body positions and motor imagery (MI) strategies with normal aging have not been evaluated yet...
2018: PloS One
Laura Masala, Federica Ariu, Luisa Bogliolo, Emanuela Bellu, Sergio Ledda, Daniela Bebbere
Oocytes from prepubertal animals have a reduced ability to undergo embryo development and produce viable offspring. The present work used an ovine model consisting of oocytes derived from adult and prepubertal donors to assess the molecular status of oocytes and preimplantation embryos with different developmental competence. The lower potential of oocytes of young donors was confirmed in terms of in vitro developmental capabilities and kinetics. A panel of genes including maternal effect (DPPA3, GDF9, NMP2, ZAR1) and housekeeping genes (ACTB, RPL19, SDHA, YWHAZ, ATP1A1), genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B), genomic imprinting (IGF2R), pluripotency (NANOG, POU5F1) and cell cycle regulation (CCNB1, CDK1, MELK) was relatively quantified...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
B Kim, P Patterson, K White
The literature concerning the impact of having cancer during adolescence and emerging adulthood has been widely discussed in relation to the unique nature of psychosocial challenges. The current study presents these findings within the context of developmental literature to further our understanding on how their developmental transitioning can be affected by having cancer. Specifically, two developmental milestones considered to be the pre-requisites for acquiring an adult status were focused on: forming identity and establishing independence...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Leena Nahata, Nicole M Caltabellotta, Nicholas D Yeager, Vicky Lehmann, Stacy L Whiteside, Sarah H O'Brien, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Cynthia A Gerhardt
Infertility is a common and distressing late effect of cancer treatment among male survivors. Investigators examined desire for parenthood, prioritization of fertility compared to other life goals, and reports of fertility-related discussions among a cohort of male adolescent and young adult survivors. Eighty percent desired a biological child, yet only 31% ranked having a child among their "top 3" life goals. Only 40% reported fertility-related discussions with their health care providers in survivorship...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Marion Waite, Clare Martin, Rachel Franklin, David Duce, Rachel Harrison
BACKGROUND: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) undertake self-management to prevent short and long-term complications. Advanced technology potentially supports such activities but requires consideration of psychological and behavioral constructs and usability issues. Economic factors and health care provider capacity influence access and uptake of advanced technology. Previous reviews have focused upon clinical outcomes or were descriptive or have synthesized studies on adults with those on children and young people where human factors are different...
March 15, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
Chia-Ying Chu, Utako Minai
Previous studies have shown that young children often fail to comprehend demonstratives correctly when they are uttered by a speaker whose perspective is different from children's own, and instead tend to interpret them with respect to their own perspective (e.g., Webb and Abrahamson in J Child Lang 3(3):349-367, 1976); Clark and Sengul in J Child Lang 5(3):457-475, 1978). In the current study, we examined children's comprehension of demonstratives in English (this and that) and Mandarin Chinese (zhe and na) in order to test the hypothesis that children's non-adult-like demonstrative comprehension is related to their still-developing non-linguistic cognitive abilities supporting perspective-taking, including Theory of Mind and Executive Function...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Sarah N Boers, Karin M de Winter-de Groot, Jacquelien Noordhoek, Vincent Gulmans, Cornelis K van der Ent, Johannes J M van Delden, Annelien L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: Organoid technology enables the cultivation of human tissues in a dish. Its precision medicine potential could revolutionize the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) field. We provide a first thematic exploration of the patient perspective on organoid technology to set the further research agenda, which is necessary for responsible development of this ethically challenging technology. METHODS: 23 semi-structured qualitative interviews with 14 Dutch adult CF patients and 12 parents of young CF patients to examine their experiences, opinions, and attitudes regarding organoid technology...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Joshua L Pierce, A Lindsay Frazier, James F Amatruda
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) arising in infants, children, and adolescents present a set of special challenges. GCTs make up about 3% of malignancies in children aged 0-18 and nearly 15% of cancers in adolescents. Epidemiologic and molecular evidence suggests that GCTs in young children likely represent a distinct biologic group as compared to GCTs of older adolescents and adults. Despite this difference, pediatric GCTs are typically treated with cisplatin-based multiagent regimens similar to those used in adults...
2018: Advances in Urology
Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles, Glennon M Floyd, Elizabeth S Cahn, Veronica L Chaitan, Marisel Ponton
BACKGROUND: The US has seen an increase in the popularity of highly concentrated forms of cannabis (hereafter concentrates) and too little is known about the potential risks associated with their use. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to better understand the patterns and outcomes of concentrates use through the perspectives of young adult users. METHODS: Participants (N = 234, 27.9% female) aged 18-35 years were recruited using SurveyMonkey Audience® and had ingested concentrates at least once in the past 6 months...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Sarah Armstrong, Michael Wammes, Justin Arcaro, Amanda Hostland, Carolyn Summerhurst, Elizabeth Osuch
AIM: To compare young adults' expectations of psychiatric treatment to their actual experiences and identify myths and assumptions that youth might hold prior to receiving care. METHODS: We interviewed youth who engaged in at least 4 months of treatment at the First Episode Mood and Anxiety Program to theme saturation (N = 20). They were asked about their experience of treatment and the expectations they had prior to care. Transcribed interviews were analysed for themes...
March 7, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
El Molto, Peter Sheldrick
This article describes six cases of cancer from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. A mummy had a confirmed 'primary' diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The remaining diagnoses were based on the distribution and types of skeletal lesions in conjunction with age, sex, and/or the molecular phylogeny of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a confirmed cause of cancer of the uterine cervix (UC) and testes (TC) and it evolved in Africa long before Homo sapiens emerged. Today these cancers are common in young adult females and males, a fact which was pivotal in respectively including them in the differential diagnosis of UC and TC...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Rachel L Goldstein, Jennifer L Carlson, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
OBJECTIVES: To assess pediatric providers' attitudes and barriers to initiating a contraceptive method in the inpatient setting. METHODS: Pediatric attending physicians and trainees from 5 academic institutions were surveyed about contraceptive prescribing practices, attitudes, and potential barriers to initiating contraception in the inpatient setting. RESULTS: In 2016, 271 pediatric providers (34.0% were attending physicians, 18.1% fellows, and 47...
March 1, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Lisa Pauwels, Sima Chalavi, Jolien Gooijers, Celine Maes, Geneviève Albouy, Stefan Sunaert, Stephan P Swinnen
Motor performance deteriorates with age. Hence, studying the effects of different training types on performance improvement is particularly important. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of the contextual interference (CI) effect in 32 young (YA; 16 female) and 28 older (OA; 12 female) human adults. Participants were randomly assigned to either a blocked or random practice schedule and practiced three variations of a bimanual visuo-motor task over three days, and were re-tested six days later. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during the first and last training days and during retention...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Derrick Ssewanyana, Amina Abubakar, Anneloes van Baar, Patrick N Mwangala, Charles R Newton
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are among the key modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although such diseases often only appear in adulthood, these behaviors are typically initiated or reinforced already during adolescence. However, knowledge on underlying factors for adolescents' unhealthy dieting and physical inactivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is poor. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore the perceptions of a diverse group of 78 young people of 10-19 years of age, which also included some adolescents living with HIV, as this is an emerging group in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in many parts of SSA...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Agnieszka Ignatowicz, Anne-Marie Slowther, Patrick Elder, Carol Bryce, Kathryn Hamilton, Caroline Huxley, Vera Forjaz, Jackie Sturt, Frances Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Digital communication between a patient and their clinician offers the potential for improved patient care, particularly for young people with long term conditions who are at risk of service disengagement. However, its use raises a number of ethical questions which have not been explored in empirical studies. The objective of this study was to examine, from the patient and clinician perspective, the ethical implications of the use of digital clinical communication in the context of young people living with long-term conditions...
February 23, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Laura Golenia, Marina M Schoemaker, Egbert Otten, Leonora J Mouton, Raoul M Bongers
Inspired by the Developmental Systems perspective, we studied the development of reaching during mid-childhood (5-10 years of age) not just at the performance level (i.e., endpoint movements), as commonly done in earlier studies, but also at the joint angle level. Because the endpoint position (i.e., the tip of the index finger) at the reaching target can be achieved with multiple joint angle combinations, we partitioned variability in joint angles over trials into variability that does not (goal-equivalent variability, GEV) and that does (non-goal-equivalent variability, NGEV) influence the endpoint position, using the Uncontrolled Manifold method...
2018: PloS One
Kaylin M Greene
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Substance use contributes to motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death among young adults. The current qualitative study examined perceptions of the acceptability and harms associated with driving after marijuana versus alcohol use in rural America. Illuminating rural perspectives is critical given that the motor vehicle fatality rate is twice as high in rural as in urban areas in the USA. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2015-2016, 72 young adults aged 18-25 years (Mage  = 20...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jayne K Jeffries, Leslie Lytle, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Shelley Golden, Allison E Aiello, Laura Linnan
OBJECTIVES: To address chronic disease risk holistically from a behavioral perspective, insights are needed to refine understanding of the covariance of key health behaviors. This study aims to identify distinct typologies of young adults based on 4 modifiable risk factors of chronic disease using a latent class analysis approach, and to describe patterns of class membership based on demographic characteristics, living arrangements, and weight. METHODS: Overall, 441 young adults aged 18-35 attending community colleges in the Minnesota Twin Cities area completed a baseline questionnaire for the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings study, a RCT...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
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