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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918224/driving-on-urban-roads-how-we-come-to-expect-the-correct-speed
#1
Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
The subjective categories that drivers use to distinguish between different road types have been shown to influence the speeds they choose to drive but as yet we do not understand the road features that drivers use to make their discriminations. To better understand how drivers describe and categorise the roads they drive, 55 participants were recruited to drive a video of familiar urban roads in a driving simulator at the speed they would drive these roads in their own cars (using the accelerator and brake pedal in the driving simulator to adjust their speed)...
September 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917887/a-visible-and-controllable-porphyrin-poly-ethylene-glycol-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-hydrogel-nanocomposites-system-for-photo-response
#2
Jie Liang, Xia Dong, Chang Wei, Guilei Ma, Tianjun Liu, Deling Kong, Feng Lv
The real-time controlling and tracking of the evolution and status of the hydrogel are important challenges for accurate and precise assessments. In this article, a visible and controllable hydrogel nanocomposites system for photo response was designed and developed based on a thermosensitive porphyrin-poly(ethylene glycol)/α-cyclodextrin hydrogel loaded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PPEG-MWNTs/α-CD). The PPEG-MWNTs/α-CD hydrogel was simply self-assembled with a carbon nanotubes dispersed porphyrin-poly(ethylene glycol) solution and an aqueous solution of α-cyclodextrin by homogeneous stirring...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917820/characterization-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-photo-oxidation-of-gasoline-exhaust-and-specific-sources-of-major-components
#3
Pengkun Ma, Peng Zhang, Jinian Shu, Bo Yang, Haixu Zhang
To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917785/fluorescence-quenching-based-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-detection
#4
Yaqi Mei, Qiong Hu, Baojing Zhou, Yonghui Zhang, Minhui He, Ting Xu, Feng Li, Jinming Kong
Simple and fast detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is of great importance for diagnostic and analytical applications. In this work, we report a turn-off approach for the real-time detection of ALP activity on the basis of the charge transfer induced fluorescence quenching of the Cu(BCDS)2(2-) (BCDS = bathocuproine disulfonate) probe. Initially, ALP can enzymatically hydrolyze the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to release ascorbic acid (AA). Subsequently, the AA-mediated reduction of the Cu(BCDS)2(2-) probe, which displays an intense photoluminescence band at the wavelength of 402nm, leads to the static quenching of fluorescence of the probe as a result of charge transfer...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917125/what-makes-a-face-photo-a-good-likeness
#5
Kay L Ritchie, Robin S S Kramer, A Mike Burton
Photographs of people are commonly said to be 'good likenesses' or 'poor likenesses', and this is a concept that we readily understand. Despite this, there has been no systematic investigation of what makes an image a good likeness, or of which cognitive processes are involved in making such a judgement. In three experiments, we investigate likeness judgements for different types of images: natural images of film stars (Experiment 1), images of film stars from specific films (Experiment 2), and iconic images and face averages (Experiment 3)...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917116/thermal-and-photo-induced-degradation-of-perfluorinated-carboxylic-acids-kinetics-and-mechanism
#6
Jiaoqin Liu, Ruijuan Qu, Zunyao Wang, Itza Mendoza-Sanchez, Virender K Sharma
Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) of different carbon chain lengths are chemicals of concern to human health and their removal, using conventional remediation technologies, is challenging. The present paper pursuits thermal and photo-induced degradation of PFCAs (F(CF2)nCOOH, n = 1-9) under various concentrations of four different acids (HNO3, H2SO4, HCl, and H3PO4) covering a range of strong acidic to basic pH. For thermal-induced experiments, the temperature was set at 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C at acid strengths of 0...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916799/exploring-the-excited-state-behavior-for-2-phenyl-imidazo-4-5-c-pyridine-in-methanol-solvent
#7
Dapeng Yang, Min Jia, Jingyuan Wu, Xiaoyan Song
In this present work, we theoretically investigate the excited state mechanism for the 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (PIP-C) molecule combined with methanol (MeOH) solvent molecules. Three MeOH molecules should be connected with PIP-C forming stable PIP-C-MeOH complex in the S0 state. Upon the photo-excitation, the hydrogen bonded wires are strengthened in the S1 state. Particularly the deprotonation process of PIP-C facilitates the excited state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process. In our work, we do verify that the ESIPT reaction should occur due to the low potential energy barrier 8...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916173/a-new-anatomical-view-on-the-vector-cardiogram-the-mean-temporal-spatial-isochrones
#8
Peter M van Dam
AIM: This proof of principle study aims to show the direct relationship between cardiac anatomy and the mean cardiac activation path as captured by the 12 lead ECG derived mean temporal-spatial isochrones (mean TSI) path. METHODS: To obtain the mean TSI signal a vector cardiographic (VCG) signal is constructed from the 12 lead ECG. The construction of the VCG signal uses a model of the heart and torso with patient specific electrode extracted from a 3D photo. The propagation of the activation through the heart is captured by estimating the mean of a cardiac activation isochrone using this VCG signal...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915467/the-broad-emission-at-785nm-in-yag-ce-3-cr-3-phosphor
#9
Xianju Zhou, Xiaoxia Luo, Bing Wu, Sha Jiang, Li Li, Xiaobing Luo, Yu Pang
Luminescence of defects and/or impurities is important for phosphors. One broad emission band centered at 785nm was observed in (Y0.97Ce0.03)3(Al1-xCrx)5O12 (x=0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09), (YAG:Ce,Cr) nano-particles synthesized by polymer-assisted sol-gel method in this work. In order to study the source of this wide emission band, the crystalline phase structure of the phosphors was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). No obvious diffraction peaks due to impurity phase were observed even though the calcining temperature of the samples arrived at 1400°C...
September 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915379/study-on-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction-catalyzed-by-a-cold-tolerant-marine-strain-phylogenetically-related-to-erythrobacter-citreus
#10
Lianqiang Li, Fei Ding, Lin Sang, Jiaquan Liu, Duolu Mao, Xingjiang Liu, Qiang Xu
As the development of marine economy, the submarine battery with the seawater electrolyte has obtained more and more attentions. Owing to the conventional electrochemical catalysts of the cathodes in seawater battery are expensive, it is to seek the new biological catalysts to improve the electrochemical performance of the cathode and reduce the cost of seawater battery. A novel marine bacterial strain (Strain SQ-32) phylogenetically related to the Erythrobactercitreus strain has been isolated from the sea-bed sludge in the Yellow Sea of China successfully...
September 8, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915035/photoelectrochemistry-of-photosystem-ii-in-vitro-vs-in-vivo
#11
Jenny Z Zhang, Paolo Bombelli, Katarzyna P Sokol, Andrea Fantuzzi, A William Rutherford, Christopher J Howe, Erwin Reisner
Factors governing the photoelectrochemical output of photosynthetic microorganisms are poorly understood, which can lead to energy losses through inefficient electron transfer (ET) processes. Here, we systematically compare the photoe-lectrochemistry of photosystem II (PSII) protein-films to cyano-bacteria biofilms to derive: (i) the losses in light-to-charge con-version efficiencies, (ii) gains in photocatalytic longevity, and (iii) insights into the ET mechanism at the biofilm interface. This study was enabled by the use of hierarchically structured elec-trodes, which could be tailored for high/stable loadings of PSII core complexes and Synechocystis sp...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915010/molecular-engineering-for-enhanced-charge-transfer-in-thin-film-photoanode
#12
Jeong Soo Kim, Byung-Man Kim, Un-Young Kim, HyeonOh Shin, Jung Seung Nam, Deok-Ho Roh, Tae-Hyuk Kwon
We developed three types of dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophene (DTT)-based organic sensitizers for high-performance thin photoactive TiO2 films and investigate the simple but powerful molecular engineering of different types of bonding between the triarylamine electron donor and the conjugated DTT π-bridge by the introduction of single, double, and triple bonds. As a result, with only 1.3-μm transparent and 2.5-μm TiO2 scattering layers, the triple bond sensitizer (T-DAHTDTT) shows the highest power conversion efficiency (η = 8...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914925/application-of-polarization-information-to-a-light-controlling-light-technique
#13
J C Liang, H C Wang
Nonlinear effects of photo-induced waveguides based on isomerization photochemistry are investigated. It is found that polarization information of the controlling light can be used to control the propagation of the signal light in all-optical waveguides, and an accurate and convenient light-controlling-light scheme is proposed, that is, controlling propagation of the signal light by synergic use of the intensity information and polarization information of the controlling light. The polarization dependence of optical nonlinearity is expected to enrich the connotation of the optical nonlinear effects and has theoretical significance and practical value...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914333/-acute-skin-infections-and-their-imitators-in-children-a-photo-quiz
#14
REVIEW
M Theiler, A Schwieger-Briel, L Weibel
BACKGROUND: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate frequent pediatric skin infections and pitfalls in view of imitators and differential diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A photo quiz is presented with the discussion of a selection of acute pediatric skin infections in comparison to their infectious or noninfectious differential diagnoses...
September 15, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914295/a-novel-photo-active-cd-1-4-benzene-dicarboxylate-metal-organic-framework-templated-using-ru-ii-2-2-bipyridine-3-2-synthesis-and-photophysics-of-rwlc-5
#15
Randy W Larsen, Jacob M Mayers, Lukasz Wojtas
The development of photoactive porous materials is of significant importance for applications ranging from sustainable energy to pharmaceutical development and catalysis. A particularly attractive class of photo-active materials is the metal-organic framework (MOF)-based platform in which the photo-active elements are components of the framework itself or photo-active guests encapsulated within the MOF cavities. It has now been demonstrated that the photo-active [Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)3](2+) (RuBpy) complex can template the formation of MOFs with varying three dimensional structures...
September 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914045/electron-transfer-from-bi-isonicotinic-acid-emerges-upon-photodegradation-of-n3-sensitized-tio2-electrodes
#16
Melike Karakus, Wen Zhang, Hans Joachim Räder, Mischa Bonn, Enrique Cánovas
The long-term stability of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is determined to a large extent by the photodegradation of their sensitizers. Understanding the mechanism of light induced decomposition of dyes sensitizing a mesoporous oxide matrix may therefore contribute to solutions to increase the life span of DSSCs. Here, we investigate, using ultrafast terahertz photoconductivity measurements, the evolution of interfacial electron transfer (ET) dynamics in N3 dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 electrodes upon dye photodegradation...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913722/nonlinear-data-assimilation-for-the-regional-modeling-of-maximum-ozone-values
#17
Marija Zlata Božnar, Boštjan Grašič, Primož Mlakar, Dejan Gradišar, Juš Kocijan
We present a new method of data assimilation with the aim of correcting the forecast of the maximum values of ozone in regional photo-chemical models for areas over complex terrain using multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. Up until now, these types of models have been used as a single model for one location when forecasting concentrations of air pollutants. We propose a method for constructing a more ambitious model: a single model, which can be used at several locations because the model is spatially transferable and is valid for the whole 2D domain...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913692/nanotechnology-and-water-purification-indian-know-how-and-challenges
#18
Madhulika Bhati, Radhika Rai
Water contamination being ubiquitous problem across the world. A significant strata of population worldwide are still struggling to get drinkable water. This demand to develop technologies to provide clean water at affordable price is unveiling the need of rigorous research in this area. There are several technologies available for removal of persistent as well as emerging pollutants from water. Nanotechnology-based technology are providing the promising solution because of its extraordinary characteristics like large surface area, low cost maintenance and reuse, etc...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912472/honeycomb-like-zno-mesoporous-nanowall-arrays-modified-with-ag-nanoparticles-for-highly-efficient-photocatalytic-activity
#19
Yimeng Feng, Guojing Wang, Jiecui Liao, Wei Li, Chienhua Chen, Mingyang Li, Zhengcao Li
A new structure of honeycomb-like ZnO mesoporous nanowall arrays (MNWAs) with highly efficient photocatalytic activity was designed and successfully synthesized on Al foil by hydrothermal method. The nanowalls of ZnO-MNWAs have mesopores, which possess a large surface area. The visible light absorption of ZnO-MNWAs was efficiently stronger than ZnO nanowire, resulting in that the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-MNWAs, whose bandgap energy was 3.12 eV, was 5.97 times than that of ZnO nanowires in the degradation of methyl orange...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911654/extraction-optimization-of-gallic-acid-catechin-%C3%A2-procyanidin-b2-epicatechin-epigallocatechin-gallate-and-epicatechin-gallate-their-simultaneous-identification-and-quantification-in-saraca-asoca
#20
Tushar Dhanani, Raghuraj Singh, Satyanshu Kumar
The objective of the present investigation was to optimize extraction conditions for maximum recovery of bioactive phenolics from different parts of Saraca asoca. Extraction recovery was optimized using a mixture of methanol and water in different proportions. For identification and quantification of six analytes, a rapid reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) photo diode array detection method was developed. UPLC separation was achieved in a gradient elution mode on a C18 column with acetonitrile and aqueous phosphoric acid (0...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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