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Reproductive health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350492/addressing-stillbirth-in-india-must-include-men
#1
Lisa Roberts, Susanne Montgomery, Gayatri Ganesh, Harinder Pal Kaur, Ratan Singh
BACKGROUND: Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important...
March 28, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#2
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344900/temporal-patterns-and-geographic-heterogeneity-of-zika-virus-zikv-outbreaks-in-french-polynesia-and-central-america
#3
Ying-Hen Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343552/testosterone-in-women-measurement-and-therapeutic-use
#4
REVIEW
Ann Kathryn Korkidakis, Robert L Reid
Androgens, both in excessive and depleted states, have been implicated in female reproductive health disorders. As such, serum testosterone measurements are frequently ordered by physicians in cases of sexual dysfunction and in women presenting with hirsutism. Commercially available androgen assays have significant limitations in the female population. Furthermore, the measurements themselves are not always informative in patient diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. This article reviews the limitations of serum androgen measurements in women suspected to have elevated or reduced androgen action...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342856/reproductive-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d
#5
Mette Lorenzen, Ida Marie Boisen, Li Juel Mortensen, Beate Lanske, Anders Juul, Martin Blomberg Jensen
Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341418/a-novel-y-chromosome-microdeletion-potentially-associated-with-defective-spermatogenesis-identified-by-custom-array-comparative-genome-hybridization
#6
Tianwen He, Xiangzhong Zhang, Hua Deng, Weiping Zhou, Xin Zhao, Hui Zhao, Jian Lu, Yichun Zheng, Changbin Zhang, Liang Zhang, Aihua Yin
Male infertility is a major health problem worldwide. Oligospermia and azoospermia are the most common symptoms of this disorder. Despite recent advances, the aetiopathogenesis of defective spermatogenesis remains largely uncertain. The aim of this study is to discover unknown or novel chromosome aberrations associated with male reproductive failure. We developed a high-resolution custom array comparative genomic hybridization for initial screening of copy number variations in 10 patients with idiopathic oligozoospermia and azoospermia and eight normal fertile men...
January 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341055/obstetric-care-for-women-with-thalassemia
#7
REVIEW
Terence T Lao
Thalassemia is the commonest monogenic disease and manifests as severe anemia. It is increasingly encountered outside the Mediterranean region, Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia because of immigration. Pregnancy, previously uncommon in patients with homozygous β-thalassemia, is encountered increasingly because of improved management and assisted reproduction technology; however, preconceptional problems that include anemia, iron overload, cardiac dysfunction, thromboembolism, alloimmunization, infections, and endocrine and bone disorders, could influence maternal and obstetric outcome...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340888/veterinary-aspects-of-bird-of-prey-reproduction
#8
REVIEW
Tom A Bailey, Michael Lierz
Captive breeding has contributed to successful restoration of many species of birds of prey. Avicultural techniques pioneered by raptor breeders include double clutching, direct fostering, cross-fostering, hatch and switch, hacking, imprinting male and female falcons for semen collection, and artificial insemination techniques. However, reproductive failure occurs related to management problems, including hygiene measures, food quality issues, breeding flock structure, or individual health issues of breeding birds...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340606/validating-a-self-report-measure-of-hiv-viral-suppression-an-analysis-of-linked-questionnaire-and-clinical-data-from-the-canadian-hiv-women-s-sexual-and-reproductive-health-cohort-study
#9
Allison Carter, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Erin Ding, Paul Sereda, Kath Webster, Valerie Nicholson, Kerrigan Beaver, Robert S Hogg, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: We assessed the validity of a self-report measure of undetectable viral load (VL) among women with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Questionnaire data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study was linked with population-based clinical data from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Self-reported undetectable VL was assessed by the question: "What was your most recent VL, undetectable (i.e. <50 copies/mL) or detectable (i.e. ≥50 copies/mL)?" Laboratory measurements of VL <50 copies/mL (closest to/before study visit) were the criterion for validity analyses...
March 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340500/advanced-practice-registered-nurses-and-long-acting-reversible-contraception
#10
Patricia J Kelly, An-Lin Cheng, Kimberly Carlson, Jacki Witt
INTRODUCTION: Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are in an excellent position to address the high rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States by providing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). These methods are significant in their effectiveness in preventing pregnancy in individual women and in having population-level effects on unintended pregnancy. The aim of this study was to learn more about APRN practices around long-acting reversible contraception and influences on those practices...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340207/effect-of-the-2014-2015-ebola-outbreak-on-reproductive-health-services-in-a-rural-district-of-guinea-an-ecological-study
#11
Bienvenu S Camara, Alexandre Delamou, Ermias Diro, Abdoul H Béavogui, Alison M El Ayadi, Sidikiba Sidibé, Fassou M Grovogui, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Patrice Bouedouno, Sah D Sandouno, Junko Okumura, Mamadou D Baldé, Johan Van Griensven, Rony Zachariah
Background: The 2014/2015 Ebola outbreak was the most sustained in history. In Guinea, we compared trends in family planning, antenatal care, and institutional deliveries over the period before, during and after the outbreak. Methods: We carried out an ecological study involving all the health facilities during pre-Ebola (1 March 2013 to 28 February 2014), intra-Ebola (1 March 2014 to 28 February 2015) and post-Ebola (1 March to 31 July 2016) periods in Macenta district...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339916/antenatal-tobacco-use-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-the-home-in-india
#12
Ritesh Mistry, Anjuli Dasika
Introduction: Antenatal tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure can have grave health consequences. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home among pregnant and reproductive age women in India, and identified sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: Data were from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006), a population-based cross-sectional survey. We measured current tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home, and used logistic regression analysis to identify sociodemographic risk factors...
March 2, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338902/assessment-of-the-status-of-measles-elimination-in-the-united-states-2001-2014
#13
Paul A Gastañaduy, Prabasaj Paul, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Susan B Redd, Ben A Lopman, Manoj Gambhir, Gregory S Wallace
We assessed the status of measles elimination in the United States using outbreak notification data. Measles transmissibility was assessed by estimation of the reproduction number, R, the average number of secondary cases per infection, using 4 methods; elimination requires maintaining R at <1. Method 1 estimates R as 1 minus the proportion of cases that are imported. Methods 2 and 3 estimate R by fitting a model of the spread of infection to data on the sizes and generations of chains of transmission, respectively...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337559/dietary-fiber-intake-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-defined-by-estrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-status-the-japan-public-health-center-based-prospective-study
#14
Saki Narita, Manami Inoue, Eiko Saito, Sarah K Abe, Norie Sawada, Junko Ishihara, Motoki Iwasaki, Taiki Yamaji, Taichi Shimazu, Shizuka Sasazuki, Kenji Shibuya, Shoichiro Tsugane
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. METHODS: A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334970/expenditure-tracking-and-review-of-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-policy-in-pakistan
#15
Muhammad Ashar Malik, Abdul Sattar Nahyoun, Arjumand Rizvi, Zaid Ahmad Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhutta
Since 2001 substantial resources have been allocated to the reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health sector (RMNCH) in Pakistan. Many new programmes have been started and coverage of some existing programmes has been extended to un-served and rural areas. Despite these efforts the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 were not achieved (2000-15). Maternal Mortality Ratio was reduced to 170 per 100 000 live births (target 100) by 2013 at an annual reduction rate of 3.6% (1990-2013). Against the target of 46 per 1000 live births, the Under Five Mortality Rate was reduced to 81 per 1000 live births by 2015 at an annual reduction rate of 2...
March 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334799/the-relative-roles-of-anc-and-epi-in-the-continuous-distribution-of-llins-a-qualitative-study-in-four-countries
#16
Katherine Theiss-Nyland, Diakalia Koné, Corine Karema, Waqo Ejersa, Jayne Webster, Jo Lines
Background: The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries...
December 26, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334747/the-family-planning-conundrum-in-afghanistan
#17
Hemat Shafiqullah, Ayako Morita, Keiko Nakamura, Kaoruko Seino
In Afghanistan, despite the high awareness levels of contraceptive methods, the contraceptive prevalence is low and short birth spacing is common. The aim of this study was to understand the perception about family planning and contraceptive utilization among reproductive-aged married women, their husbands, their mothers-in-law, religious leaders and healthcare providers. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among married women of reproductive age ( n =  482), their husbands ( n =  133), their mothers-in-law ( n =  194), their religious leaders ( n =  16), and healthcare providers ( n =  36) in rural and urban areas in five provinces...
October 20, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334254/selection-realized-heritability-and-fitness-cost-associated-with-dimethoate-resistance-in-a-field-population-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#18
Mehboob Alam, Muhammad Waqas Sumra, Daniyal Ahmad, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Muhammad Binyameen, Sarfraz Ali Shad
Mosquitoes are known to be vectors of numerous diseases leading to human morbidity and mortality at large scale in the world. Insecticide resistance has become a serious concern in controlling the insect vectors of public health importance. Dimethoate is an organophosphate insecticide used to control different insect pests including mosquitoes. Biological parameters of susceptible, unselected, and dimethoate-selected strains of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were studied in the laboratory to recognize resistance development potential and associated fitness cost...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333357/dietary-patterns-foods-and-nutrients-in-male-fertility-parameters-and-fecundability-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#19
Albert Salas-Huetos, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a global public health issue, affecting 15% of all couples of reproductive age. Male factors, including decreased semen quality, are responsible for ~25% of these cases. The dietary pattern, the components of the diet and nutrients have been studied as possible determinants of sperm function and/or fertility. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Previous systematic reviews have been made of the few heterogeneous low-quality randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in small samples of participants and investigating the effect of specific nutrients and nutritional supplements on male infertility...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333354/men-s-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-relating-to-fertility
#20
Karin Hammarberg, Veronica Collins, Carol Holden, Kate Young, Robert McLachlan
BACKGROUND: The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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