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Reproductive health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231800/let-s-talk-about-sex-work-in-humanitarian-settings-piloting-a-rights-based-approach-to-working-with-refugee-women-selling-sex-in-kampala
#1
Jennifer S Rosenberg, Denis Bakomeza
Although it is well known that refugees engage in sex work as a form of livelihood, stigma and silence around this issue persist within humanitarian circles. As a result, these refugees' sexual and reproductive health and rights, and related vulnerabilities, remain overlooked. Their protection and health needs, which are significant, often go unmet at the field level. In 2016, the Women's Refugee Commission and Reproductive Health Uganda partnered to pilot a peer-education intervention tailored to meet the needs of refugee women engaged in sex work in Kampala...
December 12, 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231790/uptake-of-postabortion-care-services-and-acceptance-of-postabortion-contraception-in-puntland-somalia
#2
Kingsley Chukwumalu, Meghan C Gallagher, Sabine Baunach, Amy Cannon
Unsafe abortion is responsible for at least 9% of all maternal deaths worldwide; however, in humanitarian emergencies where health systems are weak and reproductive health services are often unavailable or disrupted, this figure is higher. In Puntland, Somalia, Save the Children International (SCI) implemented postabortion care (PAC) services to address the issue of high maternal morbidity and mortality due to unsafe abortion. Abortion is explicitly permitted by Somali law to save the life of a woman, but remains a sensitive topic due to religious and social conservatism that exists in the region...
December 12, 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231788/the-2018-inter-agency-field-manual-on-reproductive-health-in-humanitarian-settings-revising-the-global-standards
#3
Angel M Foster, Dabney P Evans, Melissa Garcia, Sarah Knaster, Sandra Krause, Therese McGinn, Sarah Rich, Meera Shah, Hannah Tappis, Erin Wheeler
Since the 1990s, the Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings (IAFM) has provided authoritative guidance on reproductive health service provision during different phases of complex humanitarian emergencies. In 2018, the Inter-Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises will release a new edition of this global resource. In this article, we describe the collaborative and inter-sectoral revision process and highlight major changes in the 2018 IAFM. Key revisions to the manual include repositioning unintended pregnancy prevention within and explicitly incorporating safe abortion care into the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) chapter, which outlines a set of priority activities to be implemented at the outset of a humanitarian crisis; stronger guidance on the transition from the MISP to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services; and the addition of a logistics chapter...
December 12, 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231753/rates-of-insufficiency-and-deficiency-of-vitamin-d-levels-in-elite-professional-male-and-female-skiers-a-chronobiologic-approach
#4
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Giovanni Lombardi, Luca Cavaleri, Rosa Graziani, Herbert Schoenhuber, Antonio La Torre, Giuseppe Banfi
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230701/estimating-intermittent-individual-spawning-behavior-via-disaggregating-group-data
#5
Joel Nishimura, Rebecca Smith, Kathleen Jensen, Gerald Ankley, Karen Watanabe
In order to understand fish biology and reproduction, it is important to know the fecundity patterns of individual fish, as frequently established by recording the output of mixed-sex groups of fish in a laboratory setting. However, for understanding individual reproductive health and modeling purposes it is important to estimate individual fecundity from group fecundity. We created a multistage method that disaggregates group-level data into estimates for individual-level clutch size and spawning interval distributions...
December 11, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230529/sexual-maturity-and-life-stage-influences-toxic-metal-accumulation-in-croatian-brown-bears
#6
Maja Lazarus, Ankica Sekovanić, Tatjana Orct, Slaven Reljić, Jasna Jurasović, Đuro Huber
The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult)...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230439/ex-vivo-detection-and-quantification-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-human-seminal-and-follicular-fluids
#7
Dimitrios Bitounis, Jean-Philippe Klein, Lionel Mery, Amira El-Merhie, Valérie Forest, Delphine Boudard, Jérémie Pourchez, Michèle Cottier
Increasing consumption of engineered nanoparticles and occupational exposure to novel, ultrafine airborne particles during the last decades has coincided with deterioration of sperm parameters and delayed fecundity. In order to prevent possible adverse health effects and ensure a sustainable growth for the nanoparticle industry, the ability to investigate the nanosized, mineralogical load of human reproductive systems is becoming a real clinical need. Toward this goal, the current study proposes two methods for the detection and quantification of engineered nanoparticles in human follicular and seminal fluid, developed with the use of well-defined 60 nm Au particles...
December 12, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230047/three-dimensional-3d-culture-of-adult-murine-colon-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-cryptosporidiosis-proof-of-concept
#8
Martha Baydoun, Sadia Benamrouz Vanneste, Colette Creusy, Karine Guyot, Nausicaa Gantois, Magali Chabe, Baptiste Delaire, Anthony Mouray, Atallah Baydoun, Gerard Forzy, Vincent Chieux, Pierre Gosset, Vincent Senez, Eric Viscogliosi, Jérôme Follet, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrheal illness and was recently potentially associated with digestive carcinogenesis. Despite its impact on human health, Cryptosporidium pathogenesis remains poorly known, mainly due to the lack of a long-term culture method for this parasite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) culture model from adult murine colon allowing biological investigations of the host-parasite interactions in an in vivo-like environment and, in particular, the development of parasite-induced neoplasia...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229082/asthma-is-associated-with-endometriosis-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Yi-Hao Peng, Shan-Yu Su, Wei-Chih Liao, Chien-Wen Huang, Chung Y Hsu, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Trong-Neng Wu, Wen-Chao Ho, Chin-Ching Wu
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the association between asthma and endometriosis is limited and inconsistent. The goal of the study was to investigate whether women diagnosed as having asthma were at a greater risk of endometriosis than age-matched unaffected women. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective study by using data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during the period of 2000-2005 with follow-up through 2013...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228926/factors-affecting-the-achievement-of-fertility-intentions-in-urban-nigeria-analysis-of-longitudinal-data
#10
Stella Babalola, Olamide Oyenubi, Ilene S Speizer, Lisa Cobb, Akinsewa Akiode, Mojisola Odeku
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is among the highest in the world with an estimated 160 women dying every day of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. In addition to appropriate management of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, preventing unwanted pregnancies is an effective way to reduce maternal deaths. Identifying potentially modifiable factors associated with the achievement of fertility intentions is critical for developing behavior change interventions that will contribute to reducing maternal mortality...
December 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228883/health-promoting-behaviors-and-their-predictors-in-iranian-women-of-reproductive-age-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Sareh Bakouei, Fatemeh Bakouei, Shabnam Omidvar, Afsaneh Bakhtiari
Health-promoting behaviors are one of the main determinative components of health in the prevention of many diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine health-promoting behaviors and their relationship to sociodemographic variables on 330 women of reproductive age admitted to the selected primary health-care centers in Qom city (one of the biggest cities in Iran) from March 2016 to July 2016. Data were collected using the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) questionnaire and the sociodemographic characteristics and also were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, with post hoc (if necessary), and multivariable linear regression...
January 1, 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228413/estimating-vector-borne-viral-infections-in-the-urban-setting-of-the-2020-tokyo-olympics-japan-using-mathematical-modeling
#12
Hiroyuki Furuya
The first domestic outbreak of dengue fever in Japan since 1945 was reported in Tokyo in 2014. Meanwhile, daily mean summer temperatures are expected to continue to rise world-wide. Such conditions are expected to increase the risk of an arbovirus outbreak at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. To address this possibility, the present study compared estimates of the risk of infection by dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in urban areas. To compare the risk of infection by arboviruses transmitted by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the reproduction number for each of three arboviruses was estimated under the environmental conditions associated with the 2014 dengue outbreak in Tokyo, and additionally under conditions assuming a daily mean temperature elevation of 2° C...
December 20, 2017: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227963/the-development-of-a-specific-pathogen-free-spf-barrier-colony-of-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-for-aging-research
#13
Corinna N Ross, Steven Austad, Kathy Brasky, Celeste J Brown, Larry J Forney, Jonathan A Gelfond, Robert Lanford, Arlan Richardson, Suzette D Tardif
A specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier colony of breeding marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was established at the Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies. Rodent and other animal models maintained as SPF barrier colonies have demonstrated improved health and lengthened lifespans enhancing the quality and repeatability of aging research. The marmosets were screened for two viruses and several bacterial pathogens prior to establishing the new SPF colony. Twelve founding animals successfully established a breeding colony with increased reproductive success, improved health parameters, and increased median lifespan when compared to a conventionally housed, open colony...
December 7, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227505/neurobiology-of-sexual-assault-and-osteopathic-considerations-for-trauma-informed-care-and-practice
#14
Kristen M Cuevas, Jane Balbo, Krista Duval, Elizabeth A Beverly
Sexual assault is a traumatic event with potentially devastating lifelong effects on physical and emotional health. Sexual assault is associated with gastrointestinal, neurologic, and reproductive symptoms, as well as obesity, diabetes, and chronic pain. With 1 in 3 women and 1 in 6 men experiencing some form of unwanted sexual violence in their lifetime, sexual assault is a significant public health problem that necessitates attention in the medical community. This review discusses relevant literature on the neurobiologic changes that occur as a consequence of sexual assault, such as how the brain responds during a traumatic experience and the impact of trauma on memory...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226745/management-of-adolescent-parent-dyads-discordance-for-willingness-to-participate-in-a-reproductive-health-clinical-trial
#15
Jenny K R Francis, Lauren Dapena Fraiz, Ariel M de Roche, Marina Catallozzi, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Susan L Rosenthal
The objective of this study is to understand the resolution of discordance between adolescent-parent dyads about participation in research. Adolescent (14-17 years) and parent dyads were recruited from NYC pediatric clinics to assess attitudes toward research participation. A subset of dyads participated in videotaped discussions about participation in a hypothetical study. Videos from dyads that held strongly discordant opinions about participation ( n = 30) were content-coded and analyzed using a thematic framework approach...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225951/is-governance-gross-domestic-product-inequality-population-size-or-country-surface-area-associated-with-coverage-and-equity-of-health-interventions-ecological-analyses-of-cross-sectional-surveys-from-80-countries
#16
Fernando C Wehrmeister, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Aluisio J D Barros, Cesar G Victora
Objective: To assess associations between national characteristics, including governance indicators, with a proxy for universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). Design: Ecological analysis based on data from national standardised cross-sectional surveys. Setting: Low-income and middle-income countries with a Demographic and Health Survey or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey since 2005. Participants: 1 246 710 mothers and 2 129 212 children from 80 national surveys...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225945/reproductive-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-in-conflict-a-case-study-on-syria-using-countdown-indicators
#17
Jocelyn DeJong, Hala Ghattas, Hyam Bashour, Rima Mourtada, Chaza Akik, Amelia Reese-Masterson
Introduction: Women and children account for a disproportionate morbidity burden among conflict-affected populations, and yet they are not included in global accountability frameworks for women's and children's health. We use Countdown to 2015 (Millennium Development Goals) health indicators to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the best available data on Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey and internally displaced within Syria and explore data challenges in this conflict setting...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225941/beyond-menstrual-hygiene-addressing-vaginal-bleeding-throughout-the-life-course-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#18
REVIEW
Marni Sommer, Penelope A Phillips-Howard, Therese Mahon, Sasha Zients, Meredith Jones, Bethany A Caruso
Girls and women experience numerous types of vaginal bleeding. These include healthy reproductive processes, such as menstruation and bleeding after childbirth, but also bleeding related to health conditions, such as fibroids or cancer. In most societies, the management of menstruation is handled covertly, something girls are often instructed about at menarche. The management of other vaginal bleeding is often similarly discreet, although behaviours are not well documented. In many societies, cultural taboos frequently hinder open discussion around vaginal bleeding, restricting information and early access to healthcare...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225110/assessment-of-the-cerebellar-neurotoxic-effects-of-nicotine-in-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#19
Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Jenna Bloemer, Ayaka Fujihashi, Bailee-Ryan Crump, Harrison Hightower, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Timothy Moore, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
The adverse effects of prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. However, there are very few scientific reports on the effect of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum of the offspring. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in a rodent model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)...
December 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224963/meeting-report-initial-world-health-organization-consultation-on-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-vaccine-preferred-product-characteristics-march-2017
#20
Sami L Gottlieb, Birgitte K Giersing, Julian Hickling, Rebecca Jones, Carolyn Deal, David C Kaslow
The development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important global goal for sexual and reproductive health. A key priority to advance development of HSV vaccines is the definition of preferred product characteristics (PPCs), which provide strategic guidance on World Health Organization (WHO) preferences for new vaccines, specifically from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) perspective. To start the PPC process for HSV vaccines, the WHO convened a global stakeholder consultation in March 2017, to define the priority public health needs that should be addressed by HSV vaccines and discuss the key considerations for HSV vaccine PPCs, particularly for LMICs...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
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