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Rohan lewis

Eleni Palaiologou, Patricia Goggin, David S Chatelet, Emma M Lofthouse, Christopher Torrens, Bram G Sengers, Jane K Cleal, Anton Page, Rohan M Lewis
The syncytiotrophoblast forms a continuous barrier between the maternal and fetal circulations. Here we present a serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) study, based on a single image stack, showing pooling of fetal blood underneath a region of stretched syncytiotrophoblast that has become detached from the basement membrane. Erythrocytes are protruding from discrete holes in the syncytiotrophoblast suggesting that, under specific circumstances, the syncytiotrophoblast may be permeable to fetal cells...
October 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Rohan Sharma, Valerie M Harris, Joshua Cavett, Biji T Kurien, Ke Liu, Kristi A Koelsch, Anum Fayaaz, Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Lida Radfar, David Lewis, Donald U Stone, C Erick Kaufman, Shibo Li, Barbara Segal, Daniel J Wallace, Michael H Weisman, Swamy Venuturupalli, Jennifer A Kelly, Bernardo Pons-Estel, Roland Jonsson, Xianglan Lu, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Deborah S Cunninghame-Graham, Andrew J W Huang, Michael T Brennan, Pamela Hughes, Ilias Alevizos, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Edward C Keystone, Vivian P Bykerk, Gideon Hirschfield, Gunnel Nordmark, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Per Eriksson, Roald Omdal, Nelson L Rhodus, Maureen Rischmueller, Michael Rohrer, Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Torsten Witte, Marta Alarcón-Riquelme, Xavier Mariette, Christopher J Lessard, John B Harley, Wan-Fai Ng, Astrid Rasmussen, Kathy L Sivils, R Hal Scofield
OBJECTIVE: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are related by clinical and serologic manifestations as well as genetic risks. Both diseases are more commonly found in women than in men, at a ratio of ~10 to 1. Common X chromosome aneuploidies, 47,XXY and 47,XXX, are enriched among men and women, respectively, in either disease, suggesting a dose effect on the X chromosome. METHODS: We examined cohorts of SS and SLE patients by constructing intensity plots of X chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles, along with determining the karyotype of selected patients...
November 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Toluwalope O Junaid, Robert S Bradley, Rohan M Lewis, John D Aplin, Edward D Johnstone
Experimental methods that allow examination of the intact vascular network of large organs, such as the human placenta are limited, preventing adequate comparison of normal and abnormal vascular development in pregnancy disease. Our aims were (i) to devise an effective technique for three-dimensional analyses of human placental vessels; (ii) demonstrate the utility of the technique in the comparison of placental vessel networks in normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR) complicated pregnancies. Radiopaque plastic vessel networks of normal and FGR placentas (n = 12/group) were created by filling the vessels with resin and corroding the surrounding tissues...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rohan M Lewis, Gernot Desoye
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of childhood obesity is a significant public health challenge, the consequences of which extend across the life course. SUMMARY: Diet and exercise are clearly the major contributors to childhood obesity, but the factors predisposing to obesity may become established in the womb. Worryingly maternal overnutrition, in particular when it leads to obesity and diabetes, perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of obesity through its effects on placental function and fetal metabolism...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Debashish Danda, Rohan Sharma, Dat Truong, Kristi A Koelsch, Biji T Kurien, Harini Bagavant, Umesh Deshmukh, C Erick Kaufman, David M Lewis, Donald U Stone, Lida Radfar, Astrid Rasmussen, Kathy L Sivils, Robert H Scofield
OBJECTIVES: To characterise the serological and clinical findings in primary Sjögren's syndrome in which anti-La was found without anti-Ro. We hypothesised that a significant portion of these are falsely negative for anti-Ro60. METHODS: Twenty-nine sera from primary Sjögren's syndrome patients were tested for antibodies directed against La and Ro. Anti-La was detected using bovine La treated with or without DNAase and RNAase to identify potential false positivity...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Simone Perazzolo, Birgit Hirschmugl, Christian Wadsack, Gernot Desoye, Rohan M Lewis, Bram G Sengers
The factors determining fatty acid transfer across the placenta are not fully understood. This study used a combined experimental and computational modeling approach to explore placental transfer of nonesterified fatty acids and identify the rate-determining processes. Isolated perfused human placenta was used to study the uptake and transfer of (13)C-fatty acids and the release of endogenous fatty acids. Only 6.2 ± 0.8% of the maternal (13)C-fatty acids taken up by the placenta was delivered to the fetal circulation...
February 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Robert C Kaplan, Garrett Strizich, Chino Aneke-Nash, Clara Dominguez-Islas, Petra Bužková, Howard Strickler, Thomas Rohan, Michael Pollak, Lewis Kuller, Jorge R Kizer, Anne Cappola, Christopher I Li, Bruce M Psaty, Anne Newman
Context: Multiple diseases may explain the association of the growth hormone/insulinlike growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis with longevity. Objective: To relate circulating GH/IGF-I system protein levels with major health events. Design and Setting: This is a cohort study set in 4 US communities. Participants: Adults (N = 2268) 65 years and older free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Measurements: We assessed insulinlike growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and ghrelin in fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood samples, as well as fasting IGF-I and IGFBP-3...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Zdenek Rohan, Ivan Milenkovic, Mirjam I Lutz, Radoslav Matej, Gabor G Kovacs
Pathological protein deposits in oligodendroglia are common but variable features of various neurodegenerative conditions. To evaluate oligodendrocyte response in neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) with different extents of oligodendroglial protein deposition we performed immunostaining for tubulin polymerization-promoting protein p25α (TPPP/p25α), α-synuclein (α-syn), phospho-tau, ubiquitin, myelin basic protein, and the microglial marker HLA-DR. We investigated cases of multiple system atrophy ([MSA] n = 10), Lewy body disease ([LBD] n = 10), globular glial tauopathy ([GGT] n = 7) and progressive supranuclear palsy ([PSP] n = 10)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Lewis E Holmes, Rohan Gupta, Saissan Rajendran, John Luu, John K French, Craig P Juergens
AIMS: To compare three glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists (GPIs) in terms of platelet inhibition and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and assess the rate of bleeding and MACEs between GPIs and coadministered P2Y12 agents. METHODS: Eighty-three acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with planned GPI use were randomized to receive high-dose bolus tirofiban, double-bolus eptifibatide, or abciximab followed by a 12-hour infusion...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Louise A Brinton, Britton Trabert, Garnet L Anderson, Roni T Falk, Ashley S Felix, Barbara J Fuhrman, Margery L Gass, Lewis H Kuller, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Thomas E Rohan, Howard D Strickler, Xia Xu, Nicolas Wentzensen
BACKGROUND: Although endometrial cancer is clearly influenced by hormonal factors, few epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of endogenous estrogens or especially estrogen metabolites. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), a cohort of 93,676 postmenopausal women recruited between 1993 and 1998. Using baseline serum samples from women who were non-current hormone users with intact uteri, we measured 15 estrogens/estrogen metabolites via HPLC/MS-MS among 313 incident endometrial cancer cases (271 type I, 42 type II) and 354 matched controls, deriving adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and subtype-specific endometrial cancer risk...
July 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Valerie M Harris, Rohan Sharma, Joshua Cavett, Biji T Kurien, Ke Liu, Kristi A Koelsch, Astrid Rasmussen, Lida Radfar, David Lewis, Donald U Stone, C Erick Kaufman, Shibo Li, Barbara Segal, Daniel J Wallace, Michael H Weisman, Swamy Venuturupalli, Jennifer A Kelly, Marta E Alarcon-Riquelme, Bernardo Pons-Estel, Roland Jonsson, Xianglan Lu, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Deborah S Cunninghame-Graham, Andrew J W Huang, Michael T Brennan, Pamela Hughes, Ilias Alevizos, Corinne Miceli-Richard, Edward C Keystone, Vivian P Bykerk, Gideon Hirschfield, Gang Xie, Wan-Fai Ng, Gunnel Nordmark, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Per Eriksson, Roald Omdal, Nelson L Rhodus, Maureen Rischmueller, Michael Rohrer, Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Torsten Witte, Xavier Mariette, Christopher J Lessard, John B Harley, Kathy L Sivils, R Hal Scofield
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) has a strong female bias. We evaluated an X chromosome dose effect by analyzing 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome, 1 in 500 live male births) among subjects with pSS. 47,XXY was determined by examination of fluorescence intensity of single nucleotide polymorphisms from the X and Y chromosomes. Among 136 pSS men there were 4 with 47,XXY. This was significantly different from healthy controls (1 of 1254 had 47,XXY, p=0.0012 by Fisher's exact test) as well men with rheumatoid arthritis (0 of 363 with 47,XXY), but not different compared to men with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (4 of 136 versus 8 of 306, Fisher's exact test p=NS)...
July 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Cynthia A Thomson, David O Garcia, Betsy C Wertheim, Melanie D Hingle, Jennifer W Bea, Oleg Zaslavsky, Graciela Caire-Juvera, Thomas Rohan, Mara Z Vitolins, Patricia A Thompson, Cora E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Studies evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality demonstrate a U-shaped association. To expand, this study evaluated the relationship between adiposity indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity index (BAI), and mortality in 77,505 postmenopausal women. METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in the Women's Health Initiative to ascertain the independent relationships between adiposity indices and mortality in order to inform on the clinical usefulness of alternate measures of mortality risk...
May 2016: Obesity
E M Lofthouse, S Perazzolo, S Brooks, I P Crocker, J D Glazier, E D Johnstone, N Panitchob, C P Sibley, K L Widdows, B G Sengers, R M Lewis
Membrane transporters are considered essential for placental amino acid transfer, but the contribution of other factors, such as blood flow and metabolism, is poorly defined. In this study we combine experimental and modeling approaches to understand the determinants of [(14)C]phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta. Transfer of [(14)C]phenylalanine across the isolated perfused human placenta was determined at different maternal and fetal flow rates. Maternal flow rate was set at 10, 14, and 18 ml/min for 1 h each...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Pricilla E Day, Georgia Ntani, Sarah R Crozier, Pam A Mahon, Hazel M Inskip, Cyrus Cooper, Nicholas C Harvey, Keith M Godfrey, Mark A Hanson, Rohan M Lewis, Jane K Cleal
INTRODUCTION: Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother's capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content) on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth. METHODS: RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women's Survey placental samples...
2015: PloS One
Zhihong Gong, Aaron K Aragaki, Rowan T Chlebowski, JoAnn E Manson, Thomas E Rohan, Chu Chen, Mara Z Vitolins, Lesley F Tinker, Erin S LeBlanc, Lewis H Kuller, Lifang Hou, Michael J LaMonte, Juhua Luo, Jean Wactawski-Wende
Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women's Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1...
April 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sandra Bucci, Christine Barrowclough, John Ainsworth, Rohan Morris, Katherine Berry, Matthew Machin, Richard Emsley, Shon Lewis, Dawn Edge, Iain Buchan, Gillian Haddock
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of psychosis; however, only a small proportion of service users have access to this intervention. Smartphone technology using software applications (apps) could increase access to psychological approaches for psychosis. This paper reports the protocol development for a clinical trial of smartphone-based CBT. METHODS/DESIGN: We present a study protocol that describes a single-blind randomised controlled trial comparing a cognitive behaviour therapy-informed software application (Actissist) plus Treatment As Usual (TAU) with a symptom monitoring software application (ClinTouch) plus TAU in early psychosis...
September 10, 2015: Trials
Emma M Lofthouse, Suzanne Brooks, Jane K Cleal, Mark A Hanson, Kirsten R Poore, Ita M O'Kelly, Rohan M Lewis
The organic anion transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) and organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP2B1 (SLCO2B1) are expressed in the basal membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. These transporters mediate exchange whereby uptake of one organic anion is coupled to efflux of a counter-ion. In placenta, these exchangers mediate placental uptake of substrates for oestrogen synthesis as well as clearing waste products and xenobiotics from the fetal circulation. However, the identity of the counter-ion driving this transport in the placenta, and in other tissues, is unclear...
October 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Kate L Widdows, Nuttanont Panitchob, Ian P Crocker, Colin P Please, Mark A Hanson, Colin P Sibley, Edward D Johnstone, Bram G Sengers, Rohan M Lewis, Jocelyn D Glazier
Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [(14)C]L-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles...
June 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Dattatraya H Dethe, Rohan D Erande, Samarpita Mahapatra, Saikat Das, Vijay Kumar B
A simple, highly diastereoselective, Lewis acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts coupling of a cyclic allylic alcohol with resorcinol derivatives has been developed. The method was applied for the enantiospecific total syntheses of structurally diverse natural products such as machaeriol-D, Δ(8)-THC, Δ(9)-THC, epi-perrottetinene and their analogues. Synthesis of both natural products and their enantiomers has been achieved with high atom economy, in a protecting group free manner and in less than 6 steps, the longest linear sequence, in a very good overall yield starting from R-(+) and S-(-)-limonene...
February 18, 2015: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Marta Swirski, J Scott Miners, Rohan de Silva, Tammaryn Lashley, Helen Ling, Janice Holton, Tamas Revesz, Seth Love
INTRODUCTION: Lewy body and Alzheimer-type pathologies often co-exist. Several studies suggest a synergistic relationship between amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation. We have explored the relationship between Aβ accumulation and the phosphorylation of α-syn at serine-129 (pSer129 α-syn), in post-mortem human brain tissue and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells transfected to overexpress human α-syn. METHODS: We measured levels of Aβ40, Aβ42, α-syn and pSer129 α-syn by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in soluble and insoluble fractions of midfrontal, cingulate and parahippocampal cortex and thalamus, from cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) with (PDD; n = 12) and without dementia (PDND; n = 23), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 10) and age-matched controls (n = 17)...
2014: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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