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Natalie Pearson, Paula Griffiths, Stuart J H Biddle, Julie P Johnston, Emma Haycraft
This study aimed to examine individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables and energy-dense snacks among adolescents. Adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 521, 48% boys) completed a paper-based questionnaire during class-time which included a Food Frequency Questionnaire assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, and energy-dense (ED) snacks, and items assessing habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating with parents, parenting practices, and home availability and accessibility of foods...
January 3, 2017: Appetite
Erica Simon, Brit Long, Kyle Johnston, Shane Summers
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is common in the United States, with many patients maintained on hemodialysis (HD). The process of HD requires vascular access through an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, AV graft, or central venous catheter. Today, as a result of the National Kidney Foundation's "Fistula First" initiative, nearly 55% of HD patients utilize an AV fistula. As there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with fistula placement and recurrent fistula cannulation, emergency physicians must be equipped to recognize and treat fistula complications...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
L R Stoneking, A L Waterbrook, J Garst Orozco, D Johnston, A Bellafiore, C Davies, T Nuño, J Fatás-Cabeza, O Beita, V Ng, K H Grall, W Adamas-Rappaport
BACKGROUND: After emergency department (ED) discharge, Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency are less likely than English-proficient patients to be adherent to medical recommendations and are more likely to be dissatisfied with their visit. OBJECTIVES: To determine if integrating a longitudinal medical Spanish and cultural competency curriculum into emergency medicine residency didactics improves patient satisfaction and adherence to medical recommendations in Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Massimo A Fazio, John K Johnstone, Brandon Smith, Lan Wang, Christopher A Girkin
PURPOSE: To assess if the in vivo mechanical displacement of the anterior laminar cribrosa surface (ALCS) as a response of an acute elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) differs in individuals of European (ED) and African descent (AD). METHODS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) scans were obtained from 24 eyes of 12 individuals of AD and 18 eyes of 9 individuals of ED at their normal baseline IOP and after 60 seconds IOP elevation using ophthalmodynamometry...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Danielle E Medek, Paul J Beggs, Bircan Erbas, Alison K Jaggard, Bradley C Campbell, Don Vicendese, Fay H Johnston, Ian Godwin, Alfredo R Huete, Brett J Green, Pamela K Burton, David M J S Bowman, Rewi M Newnham, Constance H Katelaris, Simon G Haberle, Ed Newbigin, Janet M Davies
Although grass pollen is widely regarded as the major outdoor aeroallergen source in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), no assemblage of airborne pollen data for the region has been previously compiled. Grass pollen count data collected at 14 urban sites in Australia and NZ over periods ranging from 1 to 17 years were acquired, assembled and compared, revealing considerable spatiotemporal variability. Although direct comparison between these data is problematic due to methodological differences between monitoring sites, the following patterns are apparent...
2015: Aerobiologia
Indra J Das, Chee-Wai Cheng, Minsong Cao, Peter A S Johnstone
Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate dosimetry in heterogeneous media (such as a patient' body) with the help of tissue characterization based on computed tomography (CT) number. However, CT number depends on the type of scanner, tube voltage, field of view (FOV), reconstruction algorithm including artifact reduction and processing filters. The impact of these parameters on CT to electron density (ED) conversion had been subject of investigation for treatment planning in various clinical situations...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
Amy Johnston, Louisa Abraham, Jaimi Greenslade, Ogilvie Thom, Eric Carlstrom, Marianne Wallis, Julia Crilly
Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted...
February 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Ghayda M Mirzaa, Valerio Conti, Andrew E Timms, Christopher D Smyser, Sarah Ahmed, Melissa Carter, Sarah Barnett, Robert B Hufnagel, Amy Goldstein, Yoko Narumi-Kishimoto, Carissa Olds, Sarah Collins, Kathreen Johnston, Jean-François Deleuze, Patrick Nitschké, Kathryn Friend, Catharine Harris, Allison Goetsch, Beth Martin, Evan August Boyle, Elena Parrini, Davide Mei, Lorenzo Tattini, Anne Slavotinek, Ed Blair, Christopher Barnett, Jay Shendure, Jamel Chelly, William B Dobyns, Renzo Guerrini
BACKGROUND: Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP), the most common form of regional polymicrogyria, causes the congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, featuring oromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. The causes of BPP are heterogeneous, but only a few genetic causes have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic causes of BPP and characterise their frequency in this population. METHODS: Children (aged ≤18 years) with polymicrogyria were enrolled into our research programme from July, 1980, to October, 2015, at two centres (Florence, Italy, and Seattle, WA, USA)...
December 2015: Lancet Neurology
Daniel C Payne, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Parvin H Azimi, Julie A Boom, Janet A Englund, Mary Allen Staat, Natasha B Halasa, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Peter G Szilagyi, James Chappell, Monica McNeal, Eileen J Klein, Leila C Sahni, Samantha H Johnston, Christopher J Harrison, Carol J Baker, David I Bernstein, Mary E Moffatt, Jacqueline E Tate, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Mathew D Esona, Mary E Wikswo, Aaron T Curns, Iddrisu Sulemana, Michael D Bowen, Jon R Gentsch, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Using a multicenter, active surveillance network from 2 rotavirus seasons (2012 and 2013), we assessed the vaccine effectiveness of RV5 (RotaTeq) and RV1 (Rotarix) rotavirus vaccines in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for numerous demographic and secular strata. METHODS: We enrolled children hospitalized or visiting the ED with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the 2012 and 2013 seasons at 7 medical institutions...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Angela Jones, Megan-Jane Johnstone, Maxine Duke
BACKGROUND: Patient assessment is an essential nursing intervention that reduces the incidence and impact of errors and preventable adverse events in emergency departments (EDs). This paper reports on a key finding of the ED nurse component of a larger study investigating how registered nurses manage 'discontinuities' or 'gaps' in patient care. METHODS: The larger study was undertaken as a naturalistic inquiry using a qualitative exploratory descriptive approach...
November 2015: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
Elizabeth Elder, Amy N B Johnston, Julia Crilly
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of incorporating a physician at triage (PAT) and the implementation of a medical assessment unit (MAU) on emergency department (ED) patient throughput. METHODS: A retrospective comparative analysis of two additional models of care (standard care, T1; PAT, T2 and PATplusMAU, T3) was undertaken. Patient presentations to a large public teaching hospital in South-East Queensland between 10th January 2013 and 25th February 2013, and the same time period in 2012, were included...
March 2016: International Emergency Nursing
Elizabeth Elder, Amy Nb Johnston, Julia Crilly
To explore the literature regarding three key strategies designed to promote patient throughput in the ED. CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Australian Government databases were searched for articles published between 1980 and 2014 using the key search terms ED flow/throughput, ED congestion, crowding, overcrowding, models of care, physician-assisted triage, medical assessment units, nurse practitioner, did not wait (DNW) and ED length of stay (LOS). Abstracts and articles not published in English and articles published before 1980 were excluded from the review...
October 2015: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Grant K Walkup, Zhiping You, Philip L Ross, Eleanor K H Allen, Fereidoon Daryaee, Michael R Hale, John O'Donnell, David E Ehmann, Virna J A Schuck, Ed T Buurman, Allison L Choy, Laurel Hajec, Kerry Murphy-Benenato, Valerie Marone, Sara A Patey, Lena A Grosser, Michele Johnstone, Stephen G Walker, Peter J Tonge, Stewart L Fisher
Many drug candidates fail in clinical trials owing to a lack of efficacy from limited target engagement or an insufficient therapeutic index. Minimizing off-target effects while retaining the desired pharmacodynamic (PD) response can be achieved by reduced exposure for drugs that display kinetic selectivity in which the drug-target complex has a longer half-life than off-target-drug complexes. However, though slow-binding inhibition kinetics are a key feature of many marketed drugs, prospective tools that integrate drug-target residence time into predictions of drug efficacy are lacking, hindering the integration of drug-target kinetics into the drug discovery cascade...
June 2015: Nature Chemical Biology
Prasanthi Govindarajan, Benjamin T Friedman, James Q Delgadillo, David Ghilarducci, Lawrence J Cook, Barbara Grimes, Charles E McCulloch, S Claiborne Johnston
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine prehospital provider recognition of stroke by race and sex. METHODS: Diagnoses at emergency department (ED) and hospital discharge from a statewide database in California were linked to prehospital diagnoses from an electronic database from two counties in Northern California from January 2005 to December 2007 using probabilistic linkage. All patients 18 years and older, transported by ambulances (n = 309,866) within the two counties, and patients with hospital-based discharge diagnoses of stroke (n = 10,719) were included in the study...
March 2015: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Lindsay A Rhodes, Carrie Huisingh, John Johnstone, Massimo A Fazio, Brandon Smith, Lan Wang, Mark Clark, J Crawford Downs, Cynthia Owsley, Michael J A Girard, Jean Martial Mari, Christopher A Girkin
PURPOSE: This study examined the association between peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) with age and race in a group of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) subjects with normal eyes. METHODS: Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of AD and ED were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces of Bruch's membrane (BM), Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), and anterior sclera (AS)...
February 24, 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
B Nilsen, N P Johnston, N Stevens, T F Robinson
This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding...
October 2015: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Paul J Beggs, Constance H Katelaris, Danielle Medek, Fay H Johnston, Pamela K Burton, Bradley Campbell, Alison K Jaggard, Don Vicendese, David M J S Bowman, Ian Godwin, Alfredo R Huete, Bircan Erbas, Brett J Green, Rewi M Newnham, Ed Newbigin, Simon G Haberle, Janet M Davies
OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample...
February 2015: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Sara E Simonsen, Kathleen B Digre, Brenda Ralls, Valentine Mukundente, France A Davis, Sylvia Rickard, Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Eru Ed Napia, Heather Aiono, Meghan Chirpich, Louisa A Stark, Grant Sunada, Kassy Keen, Leanne Johnston, Caren J Frost, Michael W Varner, Stephen C Alder
Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders...
August 2015: Evaluation and Program Planning
Fay H Johnston, Stuart Purdie, Bin Jalaludin, Kara L Martin, Sarah B Henderson, Geoffrey G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Severe air pollution generated by forest fires is becoming an increasingly frequent public health management problem. We measured the association between forest fire smoke events and hospital emergency department (ED) attendances in Sydney from 1996-2007. METHODS: A smoke event occurred when forest fires caused the daily citywide average concentration of particulate matter (PM10 or PM2.5) to exceed the 99th percentile of the entire study period. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models adjusted for meteorology, influenza epidemics, and holidays to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ED attendances on event days compared with non-event days for all non-trauma ED attendances and selected cardiorespiratory conditions...
2014: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Maryann Street, Goetz Ottmann, Megan-Jane Johnstone, Julie Considine, Patricia M Livingston
The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of advance care planning (ACP) among older people presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) from the community or a residential aged care facility. The study sample comprised 300 older people (aged 65+ years) presenting to three Victorian EDs in 2011. A total of 150 patients transferred from residential aged care to ED were randomly selected and then matched to 150 people who lived in the community and attended the ED by age, gender, reason for ED attendance and triage category on arrival...
September 2015: Health & Social Care in the Community
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