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Rakhesh Devadas, Alfredo R Huete, Don Vicendese, Bircan Erbas, Paul J Beggs, Danielle Medek, Simon G Haberle, Rewi M Newnham, Fay H Johnston, Alison K Jaggard, Bradley Campbell, Pamela K Burton, Constance H Katelaris, Ed Newbigin, Michel Thibaudon, Janet M Davies
Allergic diseases, including respiratory conditions of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma, affect up to 500 million people worldwide. Grass pollen are one major source of aeroallergens globally. Pollen forecast methods are generally site-based and rely on empirical meteorological relationships and/or the use of labour-intensive pollen collection traps that are restricted to sparse sampling locations. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the grass pollen sources themselves, however, have received less attention...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Louisa J Abraham, Ogilvie Thom, Jaimi H Greenslade, Marianne Wallis, Amy Nb Johnston, Eric Carlström, Donna Mills, Julia Crilly
OBJECTIVE: Clinical staff in EDs are subject to a range of stressors. The objective of this study was to describe and compare clinical staff perceptions of their ED's working environment across two different Australian EDs. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, research design that included distribution of three survey tools to clinical staff in two Australian EDs in 2016. Descriptive statistics were reported to characterise workplace stressors, coping styles and the ED environment...
January 23, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Rosemary Johnston, Beth A DelConte, Libby Ungvary, Richard Fiene, Susan S Aronson
INTRODUCTION: Many families enroll their infants and toddlers in early education and child care programs. The Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics recruited 32 child care centers that care for infants and toddlers to be linked with a child care health consultant (CCHC). METHOD: Project staff assigned the centers alternately to an immediate intervention or a 1-year delayed intervention (contrast) group. At entry into the project, and then 1 and 2 years later, an evaluator assessed center compliance with 13 standards for infants and toddler care selected from Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards (3rd ed...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Kenton J Johnston, Lindsay Allen, Taylor A Melanson, Stephen R Pitts
OBJECTIVE: To document erosion in the New York University Emergency Department (ED) visit algorithm's capability to classify ED visits and to provide a "patch" to the algorithm. DATA SOURCES: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. STUDY DESIGN: We used bivariate models to assess whether the percentage of visits unclassifiable by the algorithm increased due to annual changes to ICD-9 diagnosis codes. We updated the algorithm with ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes added since 2001...
August 2017: Health Services Research
Elizabeth M Gore, Chen Hu, Alexander Y Sun, Daniel F Grimm, Suresh S Ramalingam, Neal E Dunlap, Kristin A Higgins, Maria Werner-Wasik, Aaron M Allen, Puneeth Iyengar, Gregory M M Videtic, Russell K Hales, Ronald C McGarry, James J Urbanic, Anthony T Pu, Candice A Johnstone, Volker W Stieber, Rebecca Paulus, Jeffrey D Bradley
INTRODUCTION: NRG Oncology RTOG 0937 is a randomized phase II trial evaluating 1-year overall survival (OS) with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) or PCI plus consolidative radiation therapy (PCI+cRT) to intrathoracic disease and extracranial metastases for extensive-disease SCLC. METHODS: Patients with one to four extracranial metastases were eligible after a complete response or partial response to chemotherapy. Randomization was to PCI or PCI+cRT to the thorax and metastases...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Natalie Pearson, Paula Griffiths, Stuart Jh Biddle, Julie P Johnston, Sonia McGeorge, Emma Haycraft
BACKGROUND: Screen-time and eating behaviours are associated in adolescents, but few studies have examined the clustering of these health behaviours in this age group. The identification of clustered health behaviours, and influences on adolescents' clustered health behaviours, at the time when they are most likely to become habitual, is important for intervention design. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours in adolescents, and examine the sociodemographic, individual, behavioural, and home social and physical environmental correlates of clustered health behaviours...
May 31, 2017: BMC Public Health
Sophia K Smith, Julia Johnston, Carlton Rutherford, Rachel Hollowell, Paula Tanabe
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex illness with many social-behavioral co-morbidities. The aim of this project was to describe unmet social-behavioral health needs for adults with SCD who presented to the emergency department for treatment of vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs). METHODS: A descriptive study using 1:1 interviews during an ED visit for a VOE was conducted; a brief social behavioral health screening interview guide was used. A convenience sample of adults with SCD treated in the emergency department for a VOE were eligible for inclusion...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
Phil Prior, Xinfeng Chen, Elizabeth Gore, Candice Johnstone, X Allen Li
PURPOSE: MRI-based treatment planning in radiation therapy (RT) is prohibitive, in part, due to the lack of electron density (ED) information within the image. The dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based planning for intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of lung cancer were investigated to assess the appropriateness of bulk ED assignment. METHODS: Planning CTs acquired for six representative lung cancer patients were used to generate bulk ED IMRT plans. To avoid the effect of anatomic differences between CT and MRI, "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated by forcing the relative ED (rED) to water on CT-delineated structures using organ specific values from the ICRU Report 46 and using the mean rED value of the internal target volume (ITV) from the planning CT...
April 9, 2017: Medical Physics
Natalie Pearson, Paula Griffiths, Stuart J H Biddle, Julie P Johnston, Emma Haycraft
This study aimed to examine individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables and energy-dense snacks among adolescents. Adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 521, 48% boys) completed a paper-based questionnaire during class-time which included a Food Frequency Questionnaire assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, and energy-dense (ED) snacks, and items assessing habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating with parents, parenting practices, and home availability and accessibility of foods...
May 1, 2017: Appetite
Erica Simon, Brit Long, Kyle Johnston, Shane Summers
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is common in the United States, with many patients maintained on hemodialysis (HD). The process of HD requires vascular access through an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, AV graft, or central venous catheter. Today, as a result of the National Kidney Foundation's "Fistula First" initiative, nearly 55% of HD patients utilize an AV fistula. As there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with fistula placement and recurrent fistula cannulation, emergency physicians must be equipped to recognize and treat fistula complications...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
L R Stoneking, A L Waterbrook, J Garst Orozco, D Johnston, A Bellafiore, C Davies, T Nuño, J Fatás-Cabeza, O Beita, V Ng, K H Grall, W Adamas-Rappaport
BACKGROUND: After emergency department (ED) discharge, Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency are less likely than English-proficient patients to be adherent to medical recommendations and are more likely to be dissatisfied with their visit. OBJECTIVES: To determine if integrating a longitudinal medical Spanish and cultural competency curriculum into emergency medicine residency didactics improves patient satisfaction and adherence to medical recommendations in Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Massimo A Fazio, John K Johnstone, Brandon Smith, Lan Wang, Christopher A Girkin
PURPOSE: To assess if the in vivo mechanical displacement of the anterior laminar cribrosa surface (ALCS) as a response of an acute elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) differs in individuals of European (ED) and African descent (AD). METHODS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) scans were obtained from 24 eyes of 12 individuals of AD and 18 eyes of 9 individuals of ED at their normal baseline IOP and after 60 seconds IOP elevation using ophthalmodynamometry...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Danielle E Medek, Paul J Beggs, Bircan Erbas, Alison K Jaggard, Bradley C Campbell, Don Vicendese, Fay H Johnston, Ian Godwin, Alfredo R Huete, Brett J Green, Pamela K Burton, David M J S Bowman, Rewi M Newnham, Constance H Katelaris, Simon G Haberle, Ed Newbigin, Janet M Davies
Although grass pollen is widely regarded as the major outdoor aeroallergen source in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), no assemblage of airborne pollen data for the region has been previously compiled. Grass pollen count data collected at 14 urban sites in Australia and NZ over periods ranging from 1 to 17 years were acquired, assembled and compared, revealing considerable spatiotemporal variability. Although direct comparison between these data is problematic due to methodological differences between monitoring sites, the following patterns are apparent...
June 2016: Aerobiologia
Indra J Das, Chee-Wai Cheng, Minsong Cao, Peter A S Johnstone
Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate dosimetry in heterogeneous media (such as a patient' body) with the help of tissue characterization based on computed tomography (CT) number. However, CT number depends on the type of scanner, tube voltage, field of view (FOV), reconstruction algorithm including artifact reduction and processing filters. The impact of these parameters on CT to electron density (ED) conversion had been subject of investigation for treatment planning in various clinical situations...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
Amy Johnston, Louisa Abraham, Jaimi Greenslade, Ogilvie Thom, Eric Carlstrom, Marianne Wallis, Julia Crilly
Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted...
February 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Ghayda M Mirzaa, Valerio Conti, Andrew E Timms, Christopher D Smyser, Sarah Ahmed, Melissa Carter, Sarah Barnett, Robert B Hufnagel, Amy Goldstein, Yoko Narumi-Kishimoto, Carissa Olds, Sarah Collins, Kathreen Johnston, Jean-François Deleuze, Patrick Nitschké, Kathryn Friend, Catharine Harris, Allison Goetsch, Beth Martin, Evan August Boyle, Elena Parrini, Davide Mei, Lorenzo Tattini, Anne Slavotinek, Ed Blair, Christopher Barnett, Jay Shendure, Jamel Chelly, William B Dobyns, Renzo Guerrini
BACKGROUND: Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP), the most common form of regional polymicrogyria, causes the congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, featuring oromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. The causes of BPP are heterogeneous, but only a few genetic causes have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic causes of BPP and characterise their frequency in this population. METHODS: Children (aged ≤18 years) with polymicrogyria were enrolled into our research programme from July, 1980, to October, 2015, at two centres (Florence, Italy, and Seattle, WA, USA)...
December 2015: Lancet Neurology
Daniel C Payne, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Parvin H Azimi, Julie A Boom, Janet A Englund, Mary Allen Staat, Natasha B Halasa, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Peter G Szilagyi, James Chappell, Monica McNeal, Eileen J Klein, Leila C Sahni, Samantha H Johnston, Christopher J Harrison, Carol J Baker, David I Bernstein, Mary E Moffatt, Jacqueline E Tate, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Mathew D Esona, Mary E Wikswo, Aaron T Curns, Iddrisu Sulemana, Michael D Bowen, Jon R Gentsch, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Using a multicenter, active surveillance network from 2 rotavirus seasons (2012 and 2013), we assessed the vaccine effectiveness of RV5 (RotaTeq) and RV1 (Rotarix) rotavirus vaccines in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for numerous demographic and secular strata. METHODS: We enrolled children hospitalized or visiting the ED with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the 2012 and 2013 seasons at 7 medical institutions...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Angela Jones, Megan-Jane Johnstone, Maxine Duke
BACKGROUND: Patient assessment is an essential nursing intervention that reduces the incidence and impact of errors and preventable adverse events in emergency departments (EDs). This paper reports on a key finding of the ED nurse component of a larger study investigating how registered nurses manage 'discontinuities' or 'gaps' in patient care. METHODS: The larger study was undertaken as a naturalistic inquiry using a qualitative exploratory descriptive approach...
November 2015: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
Elizabeth Elder, Amy N B Johnston, Julia Crilly
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of incorporating a physician at triage (PAT) and the implementation of a medical assessment unit (MAU) on emergency department (ED) patient throughput. METHODS: A retrospective comparative analysis of two additional models of care (standard care, T1; PAT, T2 and PATplusMAU, T3) was undertaken. Patient presentations to a large public teaching hospital in South-East Queensland between 10th January 2013 and 25th February 2013, and the same time period in 2012, were included...
March 2016: International Emergency Nursing
Elizabeth Elder, Amy Nb Johnston, Julia Crilly
To explore the literature regarding three key strategies designed to promote patient throughput in the ED. CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Australian Government databases were searched for articles published between 1980 and 2014 using the key search terms ED flow/throughput, ED congestion, crowding, overcrowding, models of care, physician-assisted triage, medical assessment units, nurse practitioner, did not wait (DNW) and ED length of stay (LOS). Abstracts and articles not published in English and articles published before 1980 were excluded from the review...
October 2015: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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