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Alicia jawerbaum

Alicia Jawerbaum
In this issue, Yung and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4040-2 ) report endoplasmic reticulum stress in the placenta of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. With the use of a trophoblast-like cell line, these authors identify putative mechanisms involved in, and treatments to prevent the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Here, the relevance and possible implications of these findings and areas for further research are discussed.
October 2016: Diabetologia
Evangelina Capobianco, Daiana Fornes, Ivana Linenberg, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
A family history of diabetes predisposes to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We hypothesized that female offspring of rats with pre-gestational diabetes will develop GDM, a pathology associated with fetal overgrowth and altered placental signaling. We found normal glycemia and insulinemia in the offspring from pre-gestational diabetic rats at three months of age. However, consistent with GDM, maternal hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and increased fetal weight were evident when compared to controls. In this intrauterine programmed GDM model, the placentas showed alterations in mTOR pathway: unchanged phosphorylation of 4EBP-1 and PKCα despite reduced total expression of 4EBP-1 and PKCα, and increased phosphorylation of SGK1...
February 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
María Belén Mazzucco, Daiana Fornes, Evangelina Capobianco, Romina Higa, Alicia Jawerbaum, Verónica White
We aimed to analyze if an overload of saturated fat in maternal diet induced lipid metabolic impairments in livers from rat fetuses that persist in the offspring and to identify potential mechanisms involving fetal leptin resistance. Female rats were fed either a diet enriched in 25% of saturated fat (SFD rats) or a regular diet (controls). Fetuses of 21days of gestation and offspring of 21 and 140days of age were obtained and plasma and liver were kept for further analysis. Livers from a group of control and SFD fetuses were cultured in the presence or absence of leptin...
January 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Evangelina Capobianco, Magalí Pelesson, Valeria Careaga, Daiana Fornes, Ivana Canosa, Romina Higa, Marta Maier, Alicia Jawerbaum
SCOPE: Maternal diabetes can program metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. The aim of this work was to address whether an olive oil supplemented diet during pregnancy can prevent lipid metabolic alterations in the heart of the offspring of mild diabetic rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Control and diabetic Wistar rats were fed during pregnancy with either a standard diet or a 6% olive oil supplemented diet. The heart of adult offspring from diabetic rats showed increases in lipid concentrations (triglycerides in males and phospholipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acids in females), which were prevented with the maternal diets enriched in olive oil...
October 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum, María B Mazzucco, Martin Gauster, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy affects fetal growth and development. The insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGF) system comprising insulin, IGF, their receptors, and binding proteins, has been implicated in fetal growth regulation. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal diabetes alters the fetal insulin/IGF system in a tissue-specific manner. METHODS: Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by neonatal administration of streptozotocin and mated with control rats...
January 2015: Pediatric Research
Romina Higa, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Daniel Musikant, María Belén Mazzucco, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
Maternal diabetes induces a pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory intrauterine environment related to the induction of congenital anomalies. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated whether maternal diets supplemented with olive oil, enriched in oleic acid, a PPAR agonist, can regulate the expression of PPAR system genes, levels of lipoperoxidation and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats...
November 2014: Reproductive Toxicology
Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martinez, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Edith Arany, Alicia Jawerbaum
In maternal diabetes, the fetal heart can be structurally and functionally affected. Maternal diets enriched in certain unsaturated fatty acids can activate the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory pathways during development. Our aim was to investigate whether PPARα expression, lipid metabolism, lipoperoxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production are altered in the fetal hearts of diabetic rats, and to analyze the putative effects of in vivo PPAR activation on these parameters...
October 2014: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Francesca Gaccioli, Veronica White, Evangelina Capobianco, Theresa L Powell, Alicia Jawerbaum, Thomas Jansson
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) signaling pathways control protein synthesis in response to nutrient availability. Moreover, mTOR is a positive regulator of placental nutrient transport and is involved in the regulation of fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal overweight, induced by a diet with high saturated fat content, i) up-regulates placental mTOR activity and nutrient transport, resulting in fetal overgrowth; ii) inhibits phosphorylation of eIF2 at its alpha subunit (eIF2alpha); and iii) leads to placental inflammation...
October 2013: Biology of Reproduction
Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martínez, Daiana Fornes, Romina Higa, Ingrid Di Marco, María Natalia Basualdo, María Cristina Faingold, Alicia Jawerbaum
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand activated transcription factors with crucial functions in lipid homeostasis, anti-inflammatory processes and placental development. Maternal diabetes induces a pro-inflammatory environment and alters placental development. We investigated whether PPARs regulate lipid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in placental explants from healthy and type 2 diabetic (DM2) patients. We found decreased PPARα and PPARγ concentrations, no changes in PPARδ concentrations, and increased lipids, lipoperoxides and NO production in placentas from DM2 patients...
September 5, 2013: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Melisa Kurtz, Nora Martínez, Evangelina Capobianco, Romina Higa, Daiana Fornes, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
The fetal lung is affected by maternal diabetes. Nuclear receptor PPARα regulates nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in different tissues. We aimed to determine whether fetal lung PPARα expression is altered by maternal diabetes, and if there are gender-dependent changes in PPARα regulation of NO production in the fetal lung. Fetal lungs from control and diabetic rats were explanted on day 21 of gestation and evaluated for PPARα expression and NO production. Fetuses were injected with the PPARα ligand LTB(4) on days 19, 20 and 21, and the fetal lung explanted on day 21 to evaluate PPARα and the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS)...
October 15, 2012: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Evangelina Capobianco, Verónica White, María Sosa, Ingrid Di Marco, María Natalia Basualdo, María Cristina Faingold, Alicia Jawerbaum
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes related to a proinflammatory environment in several diseases, including diabetes, which can be activated by reactive nitrogen species. This work aimed to determine MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and nitration in term placentas from type 2 diabetic patients and verify the hypothesis that peroxynitrites are positive regulators of placental MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. For this purpose, term placentas from healthy and type 2 diabetic patients were analyzed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities, protein nitration, and nitration of MMP-2 and MMP-9...
August 2012: Reproductive Sciences
Romina Higa, Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martínez, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
Maternal diabetes increases the risks for embryo malformations. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are two relevant MMPs for embryo development. Here, we addressed whether changes in these MMPs and in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 are altered in embryos and decidua from type 1 diabetic rats during early organogenesis. Our results demonstrate MMP-2 and MMP-9 overactivities and overexpression, together with increases in lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in embryos and decidua from diabetic animals...
December 2011: Reproductive Toxicology
Martha Lappas, Ursula Hiden, Gernot Desoye, Julia Froehlich, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon, Alicia Jawerbaum
Normal human pregnancy is considered a state of enhanced oxidative stress. In pregnancy, it plays important roles in embryo development, implantation, placental development and function, fetal development, and labor. However, pathologic pregnancies, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), are associated with a heightened level of oxidative stress, owing to both overproduction of free radicals and/or a defect in the antioxidant defenses. This has important implications on the mother, placental function, and fetal well-being...
December 15, 2011: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Nora Martínez, Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
Maternal diabetes impairs fetoplacental metabolism and growth. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor capable of regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. In this study, we analyzed whether placental and fetal PPARα activation regulates lipid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in term placentas from diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration. On day 21 of pregnancy, placentas from control and diabetic rats were cultured in the presence of PPARα agonists (clofibrate and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))) for further evaluation of levels, synthesis, and peroxidation of lipids as well as NO production...
August 2011: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Nora Martínez, Verónica White, Melisa Kurtz, Romina Higa, Evangelina Capobianco, Alicia Jawerbaum
BACKGROUND: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a crucial regulator of liver lipid metabolism. As maternal diabetes impairs foetal lipid metabolism and growth, we aimed to determine whether PPARα activation regulates lipid metabolism in the foetal liver from diabetic rats as well as foetal weight and foetal liver weight. METHODS: diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration (90 mg/kg). For ex vivo studies, livers from 21-day-old foetuses from control and diabetic rats were explanted and incubated in the presence of PPARα agonists (clofibrate and leukotriene B(4) ) for further evaluation of lipid levels (by thin layer chromatography and densitometry), de novo lipid synthesis (by (14) C-acetate incorporation) and lipid peroxidation (by thiobarbituric reactive substances evaluation)...
January 2011: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Verónica White, Evangelina Capobianco, Romina Higa, Nora Martínez, María Sosa, María C Pustovrh, Alicia Jawerbaum
Nitration-induced protein damage in the placenta leads to impaired blood flow and deficient feto-placental exchange in diabetic pregnancies. This work studied the effect of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite on Cu/Zn SOD activity in rat placentas and evaluated whether Cu/Zn SOD is nitrated in the placenta from diabetic rats at mid-gestation. Protein nitration was evaluated by EIA, Cu/Zn SOD activity by inhibition of the epinephrine auto-oxidation, Cu/Zn SOD expression by western blot and specific nitration by immunoprecipitation...
December 2010: Free Radical Research
Alicia Jawerbaum, Verónica White
The worldwide increase in the incidence of diabetes, the increase in type 2 diabetes in women at reproductive ages, and the cross-generation of the intrauterine programming of type 2 diabetes are the bases for the growing interest in the use of experimental diabetic models in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of induction of developmental alterations in maternal diabetes. In this scenario, experimental models that present the most common features of diabetes in pregnancy are highly required. Several important aspects of human diabetic pregnancies such as the increased rates of spontaneous abortions, malformations, fetoplacental impairments, and offspring diseases in later life can be approached by using the appropriate animal models...
October 2010: Endocrine Reviews
Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martínez, Jimena Fernández, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
AIMS: Maternal diabetes impairs placental development and metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors relevant in metabolic homeostasis. We investigated the concentrations of PPARdelta and its endogenous agonist prostacyclin (PGI2), as well as the effects of carbaprostacylin (cPGI(2,) a PPARdelta agonist) on lipid metabolism in placentas from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on day 13.5 of gestation. MAIN METHODS: The placentas were explanted to evaluate PPARdelta expression and PGI2 concentrations, and cultured with cPGI2 for further analysis of lipid metabolism (concentrations and (14)C-acetate derived synthesis of triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids; release of glycerol and lipid peroxidation)...
May 22, 2010: Life Sciences
Evangelina Capobianco, Verónica White, Romina Higa, Nora Martínez, Alicia Jawerbaum
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor that plays an important role in placental development and function metabolism in diabetic and control rats after midpregnancy, as well as the concentrations of the PPARgamma endogenous agonist 15deoxyDelta(12,14)Prostaglandin J(2) (15dPGJ(2)). In vitro experiments showed that 15dPGJ(2) did not regulate placental concentrations of triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and free fatty acids, but decreased the de novo synthesis of these lipid species...
August 2008: Molecular Human Reproduction
Verónica White, Elida González, Carolina Pustovrh, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martínez, Darío Fernández Do Porto, Romina Higa, Alicia Jawerbaum
BACKGROUND: Leptin is involved in many metabolic and reproductive events and its levels are altered by the diabetic pathology. In this study, leptin concentrations and leptin effects on both nitric oxide (NO) and lipid concentrations were investigated in embryos from control and diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration (90 mg/kg). Embryos from control and diabetic rats were obtained on days 10.5 and 13.5 of gestation, corresponding to early organogenesis and post-placentation periods respectively...
October 2007: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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