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adhd across the life span

Stephen P Becker
The body of research investigating the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct continues to accumulate at a rapid pace. This article provides an introduction to the Special Issue on SCT, which includes 10 empirical studies that collectively make a major contribution to the SCT knowledge base. Notably, the studies in this Special Issue include participants spanning in age from 4 to 64 years and from four continents, helping to move the field toward a life span, transcultural understanding of SCT. Together, these studies demonstrate that SCT symptoms can be distinguished from ADHD symptoms as early as preschool and that SCT does not fall under the overarching umbrella of ADHD...
June 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Leila Kasmi, Damien Bonnet, Michèle Montreuil, David Kalfa, Nikoletta Geronikola, David C Bellinger, Johanna Calderon
Advances in prenatal diagnosis, perioperative management, and postoperative care have dramatically increased the population of survivors of neonatal and infant heart surgery. The high survival rate of these patients into adulthood has exposed the alarming prevalence of long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric morbidities. Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is one of the most extensively studied cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) with regard to neurodevelopmental outcomes. Landmark studies have described a common neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotype associated with d-TGA...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Anita Thapar, Miriam Cooper, Michael Rutter
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder, although most commonly considered in childhood, can be lifelong conditions. In this Personal View that is shaped by clinical experience and research, we adopt a conceptual approach. First, we discuss what disorders are neurodevelopmental and why such a grouping is useful. We conclude that both distinction and grouping are helpful and that it is important to take into account the strong overlap across neurodevelopmental disorders...
April 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
Andy C Belden, Kelsey Irvin, Greg Hajcak, Emily S Kappenman, Danielle Kelly, Samantha Karlow, Joan L Luby, Deanna M Barch
OBJECTIVE: Adults and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) show a blunted neural response to rewards. Depression has been validated in children as young as age 3; however, it remains unclear whether blunted response to reward is also a core feature of preschool-onset depression. If so, this would provide further validation for the continuity of the neural correlates of depression across the life span and would identify a potential target for treatment in young children. METHOD: Fifty-three 4- to 7-year-old children with depression and 25 psychiatrically healthy 4- to 7-year-old children completed a simple guessing task in which points could be won or lost on each trial while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Arthur Caye, James Swanson, Anita Thapar, Margaret Sibley, Louise Arseneault, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Janni Niclasen, Terrie Moffitt, Luis Augusto Rohde
There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Victoria U Vildalen, Erlend J Brevik, Jan Haavik, Astri J Lundervold
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in self-reported ADHD symptoms in a group of adults with ADHD and a control group. METHODS: A total of 682 adults with ADHD (49.9% females) and 882 controls (59.2% females) completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), listing the 18 symptoms included in the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. RESULTS: Within the ADHD group, females reported more severe symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity than males...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lucas Battel, Renata R Kieling, Christian Kieling, Maurício Anés, Nathassia Kadletz Aurich, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Luis Augusto Rohde, Alexandre Rosa Franco
INTRODUCTION: Although widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the brain are not completely understood. Functional neuroimaging techniques may help increase knowledge about the mechanisms of MPH action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in functional connectivity patterns of the default mode network (DMN) in children with ADHD following long-term treatment with MPH...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Sara Lina Hansson Halleröd, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Marianne Hansson Scherman
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span, there is still little research on adults' own experiences of being diagnosed with ADHD. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe patients' experiences and perceptions of being diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood. The study can be seen as an attempt to validate the diagnosis from a patient perspective. METHODS: Twenty-one adults diagnosed with ADHD were individually interviewed...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
Brenton Prosser, Matthew C Lambert, Robert Reid
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for Australian studies of ADHD that utilize the individual child as the unit of analysis because they provide a more accurate picture of national patterns (in new prescriptions, start age, and duration). The aim of this study was to build toward a national picture of patterns in psychostimulant use for ADHD by undertaking a retrospective analysis of archival data on prescriptions within New South Wales (NSW), Australia's most populated state. METHOD: A person-based data set was used to assess (a) rate of new prescriptions by age group, (b) demographic characteristics (age of start, male:female ratio), (c) duration of use, and (d) comparisons across the two decades...
April 2015: Journal of Attention Disorders
Greg L West, Sandrine Mendizabal, Marie-Pierre Carrière, Sarah Lippé
The present study examined development-related differences in saccade curvature during a goal-directed saccade task in the presence of distracting visual information. Participants were individuals who ranged in age from 6 to 30 years. Consistent with previous findings, all participants showed curvature toward the distractor stimulus at shorter saccadic reaction times (SRTs). Chronological age, however, was positively related to participants' ability to inhibit distracting information as revealed by curvature away from the distractor stimulus at longer SRTs...
September 2014: Developmental Psychology
Larry Culpepper, Ronna Fried
The prevalence and disease burden of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that primary care physicians (PCPs) have an opportunity to improve the functioning and quality of life of a significant number of adult patients. The American Academy of Pediatrics provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines that recognize ADHD as a chronic condition, and a large proportion of children with ADHD continue to meet diagnostic criteria as adults. Therefore, the management of ADHD should incorporate principles common to the management of other chronic conditions, including proactive planning for continuity of treatment across the life span and integrated, multidisciplinary health care teams for optimal disease management...
July 2013: Postgraduate Medicine
Jose Martinez-Raga, Nestor Szerman, Carlos Knecht, Raquel de Alvaro
A wide range of comorbid psychiatric disorders overlap with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. There is a robust and complex link between ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this report was to review the neurobiological and other vulnerability factors explaining the comorbidity of ADHD and an addictive disorder, as well as the key aspects of the assessment and diagnosis of dually diagnosed ADHD patients. A comprehensive and systematic search of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and PsychINFO) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until July 31, 2012, with the aim of exploring the association of ADHD and SUD with postgraduate training and residency education...
2013: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Jeffery N Epstein, Margaret D Weiss
OBJECTIVE: To review measures used to assess treatment response in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. DATA SOURCES: Keyword searches of English-language articles in the PubMed database up to and including the May 4, 2011, index date were performed with the search strings (1) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (outcome assessment [MeSH] OR adaptation of life skills OR executive function [MeSH]) and (2) (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity [MeSH] OR ADHD) AND (function OR functioning OR quality of life [MeSH])...
2012: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Philip J Asherson, Henrik Larsson
CONTEXT: The genetic and environmental link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood and the adult manifestation of the disorder is poorly understood because of a lack of longitudinal studies with cross-informant data. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on symptoms of attention problems from childhood to early adulthood. DESIGN: Analysis was conducted using longitudinal structural equation modeling with multiple informants...
March 2013: JAMA Psychiatry
Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Laura Díaz-Digon, Marina Comín, Rosa Bosch, Gloria Palomar, J Pablo Chalita, Carlos Roncero, Mariana Nogueira, Marta Torrens, Miguel Casas
OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of ADHD in adults is around 2% to 4%. Comorbidity is frequent in ADHD; 75% of patients develop a comorbid disorder across life span, substance use disorder (SUD) being one of the most prevalent. METHOD: A case-control study was performed to check the criteria and concurrent validity of psychiatric research interview for substance and mental disorders (PRISM) adult ADHD section. Validation was done comparing PRISM with the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
December 2015: Journal of Attention Disorders
Vanessa Casavant, Christina Chae, Afsheen Sherwani, Lawrence C Perlmuter
Subclinical levels of orthostatic hypotension (OH) have been linked to a variety of emotional and behavioral outcomes across the life span. These connections are not surprising, given the multitude of correlated conditions, including autonomic control, cardiovascular functioning, baroreceptor activity, and dopamine and serotonin. The current study assessed blood pressure regulation in healthy preschool children ages 3-5 (n = 61). The Conner's Parent Rating Scale Revised was used to assess indexes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
May 2012: Psychophysiology
T Banaschewski, L Poustka, M Holtmann
Exclusion criteria of the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 do prevent dual diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are amongst the most frequent associated symptoms of ASD. Psychopathological, neuropsychological, brain imaging and genetic studies suggest possible pathophysiological links between ASD and ADHD. Thus, standard diagnostic procedures for both disorders should assess the presence of potential comorbid symptoms of the other disorder...
May 2011: Der Nervenarzt
Joseph Biederman, Ronna Fried, Carter R Petty, Janet Wozniak, Alysa E Doyle, Aude Henin, Lyndsey Corkum, Kim Claudat, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychometrically defined cognitive variables across the adult life span, using data from a large controlled study of adults with and without ADHD. METHOD: Comparisons were made between 2 groups of adults: participants with DSM-IV-diagnosed ADHD who had never received pharmacotherapy for their ADHD (n = 116) and 146 control participants. Subjects received a battery assessing IQ, neuropsychological measures, and academic testing...
January 2011: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Yolanda Martínez Ortega, Rosa Bosch Munsó, Montserrat Gomà-i-Freixanet, Sergi Valero Ventura, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Mariana Nogueira, Miguel Casas Brugué
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and personality traits are relatively stable from childhood and across life span. The purpose of this study was to identify differential and discriminative personality traits between clinical subtypes of ADHD in adults. The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory-II (MCMI-II) were administered to a sample of 146 adults with ADHD. Activity and Aggression-Hostility dimensions from the ZKPQ allowed us to properly classify 75...
May 2010: Psicothema
Ivo Marx, Thomas Hübner, Sabine C Herpertz, Christoph Berger, Erik Reuter, Tilo Kircher, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, albeit with changes in clinical symptoms throughout the life span. Although effect sizes of neuropsychological deficits in ADHD are well established, developmental approaches have rarely been explored and little is yet known about age-dependent changes in cognitive dysfunction from childhood to adulthood. In this cross-sectional study, 20 male children (8-12 years), 20 adolescents (13-16 years), and 20 adults (18-40 years) with ADHD and a matched control group were investigated using six experimental paradigms tapping into different domains of cognitive dysfunction...
March 2010: Journal of Neural Transmission
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