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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715627/why-do-drivers-become-safer-over-the-first-three-months-of-driving-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study
#1
Marianne R Day, Andrew R Thompson, Damian R Poulter, Christopher B Stride, Richard Rowe
Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues...
April 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686528/social-justice-and-mobility-in-coastal-louisiana-usa
#2
Craig E Colten, Jessica R Z Simms, Audrey A Grismore, Scott A Hemmerling
Louisiana faces extensive coastal land loss which threatens the livelihoods of marginalized populations. These groups have endured extreme disruptive events in the past and have survived in the region by relying on several resilient practices, including mobility. Facing environmental changes that will be wrought by deliberate coastal restoration programs, elderly residents are resisting migration while younger residents continue a decades-long inland migration. Interviews and historical records illustrate a complex intersection of resilient practices and environmental migration...
February 2018: Regional Environmental Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685859/shock-wave-induced-permeabilization-of-mammalian-cells
#3
REVIEW
Luz M López-Marín, Ana Leonor Rivera, Francisco Fernández, Achim M Loske
Controlled permeabilization of mammalian cell membranes is fundamental to develop gene and cell therapies based on macromolecular cargo delivery, a process that emerged against an increasing number of health afflictions, including genetic disorders, cancer and infections. Viral vectors have been successfully used for macromolecular delivery; however, they may have unpredictable side effects and have been limited to life-threatening cases. Thus, several chemical and physical methods have been explored to introduce drugs, vaccines, and nucleic acids into cells...
March 21, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680805/examining-the-use-of-natural-in-breastfeeding-promotion-ethical-and-practical-concerns
#4
Jessica Martucci, Anne Barnhill
References to the 'natural' are common in public health messaging about breastfeeding. For example, the WHO writes that 'Breast milk is the natural first food for babies' and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has a breastfeeding promotion campaign called 'It's only natural', which champions breastfeeding as the natural way to feed a baby. This paper critically examines the use of 'natural' language in breastfeeding promotion by public health and medical bodies. A pragmatic concern with selling breastfeeding as 'natural' is that this may reinforce the already widespread perspective that natural options are presumptively healthier, safer and better, a view that works at cross-purposes to public health and medicine in other contexts...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674980/decision-making-in-suicidal-behavior-the-protective-role-of-loss-aversion
#5
Gergö Hadlaczky, Sebastian Hökby, Anahit Mkrtchian, Danuta Wasserman, Judit Balazs, Núria Machín, Marco Sarchiapone, Merike Sisask, Vladimir Carli
Background: Loss aversion is a central and well operationalized trait behavior that describes the tendency for humans to strongly prefer avoiding losses to making equivalent gains. Human decision-making is thus biased toward safer choices. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between loss aversion and suicidal behavior in a large cohort of adolescents recruited in 30 schools of seven European countries for a longitudinal study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65120704)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661997/implementation-of-safe-by-design-for-nanomaterial-development-and-safe-innovation-why-we-need-a-comprehensive-approach
#6
Annette Kraegeloh, Blanca Suarez-Merino, Teun Sluijters, Christian Micheletti
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are regarded as key components of innovations in various fields with high potential impact (e.g., energy generation and storage, electronics, photonics, diagnostics, theranostics, or drug delivery agents). Widespread use of MNMs raises concerns about their safety for humans and the environment, possibly limiting the impact of the nanotechnology-based innovation. The development of safe MNMs and nanoproducts has to result in a safe as well as functional material or product. Its safe use, and disposal at the end of its life cycle must be taken into account too...
April 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600762/prodrugs-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-a-long-march-toward-synthesis-of-safer-nsaids
#7
Shikha Sehajpal, Deo Nandan Prasad, Rajesh Kumar Singh
As a therapeutic group, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications for the treatment of inflammatory diseases but suffering from several undesired side effects, the most important being ulcerogenicity, mucosal hemorrhage and gastritis. Mostly, the NSAID moieties are chemically composed of carboxylic functional groups and this could be a potential reason for the damage of mucosal lining. The prodrug designing is one of the several strategies used to overcome this drawback...
March 29, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557215/the-evolution-of-practical-radiobiological-modelling
#8
B Jones, R G Dale
A summary of the key aspects of radiobiological modelling is provided, based on the theoretical and practical concepts of the linear quadratic (LQ) model, which gradually replaced other numerical approaches. The closely related biological effective dose (BED) concept is useful in many clinical applications. BED formulations in conventional photon-based radiotherapy continue to be developed, and can be extended to the now increasingly used proton and ion-beam therapy, to very low or high dose ranges, the dose rate effect, hypoxia and repopulation...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552467/dynamic-anterior-stabilization-using-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-for-anteroinferior-glenohumeral-instability
#9
Philippe Collin, Alexandre Lädermann
Anteroinferior glenohumeral instability can be treated by variants of the Bankart repair, remplissage , and the Latarjet procedure, although all options remain associated with complications, including recurrence, stiffness, persistent pain, apprehension, and dislocation arthropathy. The authors therefore thought of a concept of dynamic anterior stabilization to treat anteroinferior glenohumeral instability by transferring the long head of the biceps within a subscapularis split to the anterior glenoid margin, thereby creating a "sling effect" by using a conservative technique...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548829/lab-scale-evaluation-of-aerated-burial-concept-for-treatment-and-emergency-disposal-of-infectious-animal-carcasses
#10
Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527328/targeting-il-2-an-unexpected-effect-in-treating-immunological-diseases
#11
Congxiu Ye, David Brand, Song G Zheng
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis since Treg dysfunction in both animals and humans is associated with multi-organ autoimmune and inflammatory disease. While IL-2 is generally considered to promote T-cell proliferation and enhance effector T-cell function, recent studies have demonstrated that treatments that utilize low-dose IL-2 unexpectedly induce immune tolerance and promote Treg development resulting in the suppression of unwanted immune responses and eventually leading to treatment of some autoimmune disorders...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520604/estrogen-therapy-for-osteoporosis-in-the-modern-era
#12
REVIEW
V A Levin, X Jiang, R Kagan
Menopause predisposes women to osteoporosis due to declining estrogen levels. This results in a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in fractures. Osteoporotic fractures lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, and are considered one of the largest public health priorities by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is therefore essential for menopausal women to receive appropriate guidance for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial first proved hormonal therapy (HT) reduces the incidence of all osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women...
May 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503439/vaccine-induced-autoimmunity-the-role-of-molecular-mimicry-and-immune-crossreaction
#13
REVIEW
Yahel Segal, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Since the early 1800s vaccines have saved numerous lives by preventing lethal infections. However, during the past two decades, there has been growing awareness of possible adverse events associated with vaccinations, cultivating heated debates and leading to significant fluctuations in vaccination rates. It is therefore pertinent for the scientific community to seriously address public concern of adverse effects of vaccines to regain public trust in these important medical interventions. Such adverse reactions to vaccines may be viewed as a result of the interaction between susceptibility of the vaccinated subject and various vaccine components...
March 5, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487041/why-clinicians-don-t-report-adverse-drug-events-qualitative-study
#14
Corinne M Hohl, Serena S Small, David Peddie, Katherin Badke, Chantelle Bailey, Ellen Balka
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events are unintended and harmful events related to medications. Adverse drug events are important for patient care, quality improvement, drug safety research, and postmarketing surveillance, but they are vastly underreported. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to identify barriers to adverse drug event documentation and factors contributing to underreporting. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in 1 ambulatory center, and the emergency departments and inpatient wards of 3 acute care hospitals in British Columbia between March 2014 and December 2016...
February 27, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474550/developmental-plasticity-and-its-relevance-to-assisted-human-reproduction
#15
Tessa J Roseboom
The advent of assisted reproduction has allowed the conception of millions of individuals who otherwise would not have existed. Although most ART children are born healthy, there is increasing awareness of the plasticity of the human embryo causing concerns about potential long-term consequences of ART for the growth, development and health of this growing population of individuals. Evidence from studies in animals and humans suggest that physiology and metabolism may be permanently affected by ART. It suggests that ART children may be at increased risk of later cardiometabolic diseases...
April 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464852/perceptions-of-driving-after-marijuana-use-compared-to-alcohol-use-among-rural-american-young-adults
#16
Kaylin M Greene
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Substance use contributes to motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death among young adults. The current qualitative study examined perceptions of the acceptability and harms associated with driving after marijuana versus alcohol use in rural America. Illuminating rural perspectives is critical given that the motor vehicle fatality rate is twice as high in rural as in urban areas in the USA. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2015-2016, 72 young adults aged 18-25 years (Mage  = 20...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464428/changes-in-providers-self-efficacy-and-intentions-to-provide-safer-conception-counseling-over-24-months
#17
Kathy Goggin, Emily A Hurley, Glenn J Wagner, Vincent Staggs, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya, Deborah Mindry, Josephine Birungi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
High rates of fertility desires, childbearing and serodiscordant partnerships among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Uganda underscore the need to promote use of safer conception methods (SCM). Effective SCM exist but few PLHIV benefit from provider-led safer conception counseling (SCC) and comprehensive national SCC guidelines are still lacking. Providers' self-efficacy, intentions and attitudes for SCC impact provision and should inform development of services, but there are no longitudinal studies that assess these important constructs...
February 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462171/stigma-gets-in-my-way-factors-affecting-client-provider-communication-regarding-childbearing-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-uganda
#18
Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Kathy Goggin, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Mahlet Atakilt Woldetsadik, Deborah Mindry, Josephine Birungi, Glenn J Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Many HIV-affected couples living in sub-Saharan Africa desire to have children, but few quantitative studies have examined support for their childbearing needs. Our study explored client-provider communication about childbearing and safer conception among HIV clients in Uganda. METHODS: 400 Ugandan HIV clients in committed relationships and with intentions to conceive were surveyed. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbearing, and use of safer conception methods were assessed, including communication with providers about childbearing needs, the correlates of which were examined with bivariate statistics and logistic multivariate analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455572/safer-conception-among-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples-in-east-africa-understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-experiences
#19
Kerry Hancuch, Jared Baeten, Kenneth Ngure, Connie Celum, Nelly Mugo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Renee Heffron
For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, HIV-1 exposure and risk of transmission is heightened during pregnancy attempts, but safer conception strategies can reduce risk. As safer conception programs are scaled up, understanding couples' preferences and experiences can be useful for programmatic recommendations. We followed 1013 high-risk, heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda for two years in an open-label delivery study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), the Partners Demonstration Project...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428150/equal-to-or-better-than-the-application-of-statistical-non-inferiority-to-fatigue-risk-management
#20
Amanda Lamp, Jane M C Chen, David McCullough, Gregory Belenky
In December 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) completed a major revision of the rules and regulations governing flight and duty time in commercial aviation (Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 117). Scientists were included in the revision process and provided insights into sleep, sleep loss, the circadian rhythm, and their effects on performance that were incorporated into the new rule. If a planned flight was non-compliant with the regulation, for example if it exceeded flight and duty time limits, it could only be flown under an FAA-approved Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) as meeting an Alternative Method of Compliance (AMOC)...
February 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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