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exosomal RNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710381/evaluation-and-diagnostic-potential-of-circulating-extracellular-vesicle-associated-micrornas-in-adrenocortical-tumors
#1
Pál Perge, Henriett Butz, Raffaele Pezzani, Irina Bancos, Zoltán Nagy, Krisztina Pálóczi, Gábor Nyírő, Ábel Decmann, Erna Pap, Michaela Luconi, Massimo Mannelli, Edit I Buzás, Miklós Tóth, Marco Boscaro, Attila Patócs, Peter Igaz
There is no available blood marker for the preoperative diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of extracellular vesicle-associated microRNAs and their diagnostic potential in plasma samples of patients suffering from adrenocortical tumors. Extracellular vesicles were isolated either by using Total Exosome Isolation Kit or by differential centrifugation/ultracentrifugation. Preoperative plasma extracellular vesicle samples of 6 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and 6 histologically verified adrenocortical cancer (ACC) were first screened by Taqman Human Microarray A-cards...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709002/exosome-rna-unshielding-couples-stromal-activation-to-pattern-recognition-receptor-signaling-in-cancer
#2
Barzin Y Nabet, Yu Qiu, Jacob E Shabason, Tony J Wu, Taewon Yoon, Brian C Kim, Joseph L Benci, Angela M DeMichele, Julia Tchou, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Andy J Minn
Interactions between stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells generate signals for cancer progression, therapy resistance, and inflammatory responses. Although endogenous RNAs acting as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may represent one such signal, these RNAs must remain unrecognized under non-pathological conditions. We show that triggering of stromal NOTCH-MYC by breast cancer cells results in a POL3-driven increase in RN7SL1, an endogenous RNA normally shielded by RNA binding proteins SRP9/14...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708994/unshielding-exosomal-rna-unleashes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#3
Irina Matei, Han Sang Kim, David Lyden
Reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment drive cancer progression and therapy resistance. In this issue, Nabet et al. demonstrate that dynamic feedback between tumor and stroma subverts normal inflammatory responses by triggering the release of exosomes containing unshielded RNAs that activate pattern recognition receptors, thereby promoting tumor growth and metastasis.
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691041/affinity-purification-of-the-rna-degradation-complex-the-exosome-from-hek-293-cells
#4
Michal Domanski, John LaCava
The RNA exosome complex plays a central role in RNA processing and regulated turnover. Present both in cytoplasm and nucleus, the exosome functions through associations with ribonucleases and various adapter proteins (reviewed in [Kilchert et al., 2016]). The following protocol describes an approach to purify RNA exosome complexes from HEK-293 cells, making use of inducible ectopic expression, affinity capture, and rate-zonal centrifugation. The obtained RNA exosomes have been used successfully for proteomic, structural, and enzymatic studies (Domanski et al...
April 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687512/recessive-mutation-in-exosc3-associates-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pontocerebellar-hypoplasia
#5
Gudrun Schottmann, Sylvie Picker-Minh, Jana Marie Schwarz, Esther Gill, Richard J T Rodenburg, Werner Stenzel, Angela M Kaindl, Markus Schuelke
Recessive mutations in EXOSC3, encoding a subunit of the human RNA exosome complex, cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b (PCH1B). We report a boy with severe muscular hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, progressive microcephaly, and cerebellar atrophy. Biochemical abnormalities comprised mitochondrial complex I and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency. Whole exome sequencing uncovered a known EXOSC3 mutation p.(D132A) as the underlying cause. In patient fibroblasts, a large portion of the EXOSC3 protein was trapped in the cytosol...
July 4, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684402/braf-v600-inhibition-alters-the-microrna-cargo-in-the-vesicular-secretome-of-malignant-melanoma-cells
#6
Taral R Lunavat, Lesley Cheng, Berglind O Einarsdottir, Roger Olofsson Bagge, Somsundar Veppil Muralidharan, Robyn A Sharples, Cecilia Lässer, Yong Song Gho, Andrew F Hill, Jonas A Nilsson, Jan Lötvall
The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib can be used to treat patients with metastatic melanomas harboring BRAF(V600) mutations. Initial antitumoral responses are often seen, but drug-resistant clones with reactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway soon appear. Recently, the secretome of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been ascribed important functions in cancers. To elucidate the possible functions of EVs in BRAF-mutant melanoma, we determined the RNA content of the EVs, including apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, released from such cancer cells after vemurafenib treatment...
July 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684219/elevated-plasma-levels-of-mir-29a-are-associated-with-hemolysis-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#7
Dimitrios Ntelios, Soultana Meditskou, Georgios Efthimiadis, Antonios Pitsis, Eleni Nikolakaki, Fotios Girtovitis, Despoina Parcharidou, Thomas Zegkos, Sofia Kouidou, Haralampos Karvounis, Georgios Tzimagiorgis
BACKGROUND: miR-29a is a small non-coding RNA that is known to repress collagen synthesis. Interestingly, elevated plasma miR-29a was reported to correlate with pronounced myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to elucidate the origin of plasma miR-29a, and evaluate its significance as a biomarker. METHODS: miR-29a expression was evaluated in plasma (n=50) and myocardial samples (n=4) from patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using RT-qPCR...
July 4, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675930/proteomic-analysis-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-hakai-highlights-a-role-in-plasticity-of-the-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-in-the-proteasome-system
#8
Andrea Diaz-Diaz, Alba Casas-Pais, Valentina Calamia, Raquel Castosa, Olaia Martinez-Iglesias, Daniel Roca-Lema, Isabel Santamarina, Manuel Valladares-Ayerbes, Lourdes Calvo, Venancio Chantada, Angélica Figueroa
Carcinoma, the most common type of cancer, arises from epithelial cells. The transition from adenoma to carcinoma is associated with the loss of E-cadherin and, in consequence, the disruption of cell-cell contacts. E-cadherin is a tumour suppressor and it is down-regulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), indeed its loss is a predictor of poor prognosis. Hakai is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase protein that mediates E-cadherin ubiquitination, endocytosis and finally degradation, leading the alterations of cell-cell contacts...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674185/yeast-rna-binding-protein-nab3-regulates-genes-involved-in-nitrogen-metabolism
#9
Jonathan Merran, Jeffry L Corden
Termination of yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts occurs through two alternative pathways. Termination of mRNAs is coupled to cleavage and polyadenylation while non-coding transcripts are terminated through the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) pathway in a process that is linked to RNA degradation by the nuclear exosome. Some mRNA transcripts are also attenuated through premature termination directed by the NNS complex. In this paper we present the results of nuclear depletion of the NNS component Nab3. As expected many non-coding RNAs fail to terminate properly...
July 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671449/rapid-isolation-and-detection-of-exosomes-and-associated-biomarkers-from-plasma
#10
Stuart D Ibsen, Jennifer Wright, Jean M Lewis, Sejung Kim, Seo-Yeon Ko, Jiye Ong, Sareh Manouchehri, Ankit Vyas, Johnny Akers, Clark C Chen, Bob S Carter, Sadik C Esener, Michael J Heller
Exosomes found in the circulation are a primary source of important cancer-related RNA and protein biomarkers that are expected to lead to early detection, liquid biopsy, and point-of-care diagnostic applications. Unfortunately, due to their small size (50-150 nm) and low density, exosomes are extremely difficult to isolate from plasma. Current isolation methods are time-consuming multistep procedures that are unlikely to translate into diagnostic applications. To address this issue, we demonstrate the ability of an alternating current electrokinetic (ACE) microarray chip device to rapidly isolate and recover glioblastoma exosomes from undiluted human plasma samples...
July 3, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670604/rna-degradation-assay-using-rna-exosome-complexes-affinity-purified-from-hek-293-cells
#11
Michal Domanski, John LaCava
The RNA exosome complex plays a central role in RNA processing and regulated turnover. Present both in cytoplasm and nucleus, the exosome functions through associations with ribonucleases and various adapter proteins (reviewed in [Kilchert et al., 2016]). The RNA exosome-associated EXOSC10 protein is a distributive, 3'-5' exoribonuclease. The following protocol describes an approach to monitor the ribonucleolytic activity of affinity-purified EXOSC10-containing RNA exosomes, originating from HEK-293 cells, as reported in (Domanski et al...
April 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665018/extracellular-vesicles-mediate-intercellular-communication-transfer-of-functionally-active-micrornas-by-microvesicles-into-phagocytes
#12
Laura Claßen, Lars-Oliver Tykocinski, Felix Wiedmann, Carolin Birr, Petra Schiller, Christine Tucher, Stefan Krienke, Marc-Steffen Raab, Norbert Blank, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Martin Schiller
Cell activation and apoptosis lead to the formation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes or microvesicles (MVs). EVs have been shown to modulate immune responses; recently, MVs were described to carry microRNA (miRNA) and a role for MVs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been discussed. Here we systematically characterized MVs and exosomes according to their release stimuli. The miRNA content of viable or apoptotic human T lymphocytes and the corresponding MVs was analyzed. miRNA, protein and surface marker expression, as well as cytokine release by human monocytes was measured after EV engulfment...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659881/rna-profiling-analysis-of-the-serum-exosomes-derived-from-patients-with-active-and-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Lingna Lv, Cuidan Li, Xiuli Zhang, Nan Ding, Tianshu Cao, Xinmiao Jia, Jinghui Wang, Liping Pan, Hongyan Jia, Zihui Li, Ju Zhang, Fei Chen, Zongde Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) has exceeded HIV as the most lethal infectious disease globally for two consecutive years. Moreover, one third of the world's population is estimated to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This is mainly because of difficulties associated with diagnosis and treatment for both TB and LTBI patients. Exosomes provide a promising research tool for TB diagnosis and treatment because they are released from various cells containing valuable biochemical information related to disease. In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing analysis on exosomes derived from clinical specimens of healthy controls (HC), active tuberculosis (ATB), and LTBI patients...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656228/glioma-cells-enhance-angiogenesis-and-inhibit-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-through-the-release-of-exosomes-that-contain-long-non-coding-rna-ccat2
#14
Hai-Li Lang, Guo-Wen Hu, Bo Zhang, Wei Kuang, Yong Chen, Lei Wu, Guo-Hai Xu
Angiogenesis is a key event in the progression of gliomas. Exosomes, as signaling extracellular organelles, modulate the tumor microenvironment and promote angiogenesis and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that long intergenic non-coding RNA CCAT2 (linc-CCAT2) was overexpressed in glioma tissues and functioned to promote glioma progression. Therefore, this study aimed to explore an underlying mechanism of glioma cell-affected angiogenesis. First, qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression level of linc-CCAT2 in 4 glioma cell lines and 293T cells, and the results revealed that the U87-MG cells exhibited the highest expression level...
August 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650446/exosomes-from-plasmodium-infected-hosts-inhibit-tumor-angiogenesis-in-a-murine-lewis-lung-cancer-model
#15
Y Yang, Q Liu, J Lu, D Adah, S Yu, S Zhao, Y Yao, L Qin, L Qin, X Chen
Previous research to investigate the interaction between malaria infection and tumor progression has revealed that malaria infection can potentiate host immune response against tumor in tumor-bearing mice. Exosomes may play key roles in disseminating pathogenic host-derived molecules during infection because several studies have shown the involvement and roles of extracellular vesicles in cell-cell communication. However, the role of exosomes generated during Plasmodium infection in tumor growth, progression and angiogenesis has not been studied either in animals or in the clinics...
June 26, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646161/circulating-exosomal-mir-125a-3p-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-early-stage-colon-cancer
#16
Jing Wang, Feihu Yan, Qi Zhao, Fei Zhan, Ruitao Wang, Liang Wang, Yanqiao Zhang, Xiaoyi Huang
Circulating exosome holds great potentials as biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers. Previously, we have applied small RNA sequencing to identify aberrantly expressed exosomal miRNAs as candidates for diagnostic markers in colon cancer patients. In this validation cohort, plasma derived exosomal miRNA was isolated from 50 early-stage colon cancer patients and 50 matched healthy volunteers. Real-time qRT-PCR revealed that miR-125a-3p, miR-320c were significantly up-regulated in plasma exosomes of the patients with early stage colon cancer...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643872/circulating-microrna-as-candidates-for-early-embryonic-viability-in-cattle
#17
K G Pohler, J A Green, L A Moley, S Gunewardena, W T Hung, R R Payton, X Hong, L K Christenson, T W Geary, M F Smith
Blood-borne extracellular vesicles (i.e. exosomes and microvesicles) carrying microRNAs (miRNAs) could make excellent biomarkers of disease and different physiologic states, including pregnancy status. We tested the hypothesis that circulating extracellular vesicle-derived miRNAs might differentiate the pregnancy status of cows that had maintained pregnancy to Day 30 from non-pregnant cows or from those that exhibited embryonic mortality between Days 17-30 of gestation. Cows were randomly assigned for artificial insemination with fertile semen (n= 36) or dead semen (n = 8; control group) on Day 0 (day of estrus)...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642780/rrp42-a-subunit-of-exosome-plays-an-important-role-in-female-gametophytes-development-and-mesophyll-cell-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#18
Xiaoyuan Yan, Zongyun Yan, Yuzhen Han
The exosome complex plays a central and essential role in RNA metabolism. However, current research on functions of exosome subunit in plants is limited. Here, we used an egg cell-specific promoter-controlled CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out RRP42 which encodes a core subunit of the Arabidopsis exosome and presented evidence that RRP42 is essential for the development of female gametophytes. Next, we designed three different amiRNAs targeting RRP42. The rrp42 knock-down mutants mainly displayed variegated and serrated leaves, especially in cauline leaves...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639207/the-cell-biology-of-the-thyroid-disrupting-mechanism-of-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-ddt
#19
REVIEW
M Rossi, A R Taddei, I Fasciani, R Maggio, F Giorgi
OBJECTIVE: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine known for its pesticide properties and for its negative effects on human health. It was banned in most countries for its toxicity to the endocrine system, but due to its persistence at clinically relevant concentrations in both soil and animal tissues, DDT is still linked to several health and social problems. METHODS: We have previously shown that DDT exposure is causally related to the extracellular release of vesicular organelles such as microvesicles and/or exosomes by using immunocytochemistry with gold-tagged antibodies and various fluorescent membrane markers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#20
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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