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Urogenital cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217698/questions-and-challenges-associated-with-studying-the-microbiome-of-the-urinary-tract
#1
REVIEW
Yige Bao, Kait F Al, Ryan M Chanyi, Samantha Whiteside, Malcom Dewar, Hassan Razvi, Gregor Reid, Jeremy P Burton
Urologists are typically faced with clinical situations for which the microbiome may have been a contributing factor. Clinicians have a good understanding regarding the role of bacteria related to issues such as antibiotic resistance; however, they generally have a limited grasp of how the microbiome may relate to urological issues. The largest part of the human microbiome is situated in the gastrointestinal tract, and though this is mostly separated from the urinary system, bacterial dissemination and metabolic output by this community is thought to have a significant influence on urological conditions...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212658/c-met-expression-and-activity-in-urogenital-cancers-novel-aspects-of-signal-transduction-and-medical-implications
#2
REVIEW
Ralf Hass, Susanne Jennek, Yuanyuan Yang, Karlheinz Friedrich
C-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase with multiple functions throughout embryonic development, organogenesis and wound healing and is expressed in various epithelia. The ligand of c-Met is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) which is secreted among others by mesenchymal stroma/stem (MSC) cells.Physiological c-Met functions are centred around processes that underly cellular motility and invasive growth. Aberrant c-Met expression and activity is observed in numerous cancers and makes major contributions to cell malignancy...
February 17, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157066/multiparametric-mri-in-detection-and-staging-of-prostate-cancer
#3
Lars Boesen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the most frequently diagnosed male malignant disease among men in the Nordic countries. The manifestation of PCa ranges from indolent to highly aggressive disease and due to this high variation in PCa progression, the diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning can be challenging. The current diagnostic approach with PSA testing and digital rectal examination followed by transrectal ultrasound biopsies (TRUS-bx) lack in both sensitivity and specificity in PCa detection and offers limited information about the aggressiveness and stage of the cancer...
February 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134462/suicide-in-patients-with-genitourinary-malignancies
#4
REVIEW
M M de Lima, M Tobias-Machado
Genitourinary cancers are significant causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. The present review summarises the current literature on suicide and its risk factors among patients with genitourinary cancers. The review was based on relevant articles published in MEDLINE, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Scopus databases. Patients with prostate cancer represented the most important risk group for suicide, among patients with urogenital cancers. Other risk factors are male gender, older age, white race, advanced disease, living alone and co-existing psychological comorbidities...
January 30, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122196/in0523-urs-12-ene-3%C3%AE-24%C3%AE-diol-a-plant-based-derivative-of-boswellic-acid-protect-cisplatin-induced-urogenital-toxicity
#5
Amarinder Singh, S Arvinda, Surjeet Singh, Jyotsna Suri, Surinder Koul, Dilip M Mondhe, Gurdarshan Singh, Ram Vishwakarma
The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis...
March 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117002/b3-adrenoceptor-control-of-lower-gen%C3%A4-tour%C3%A4-nary-tract-organs-and-funct%C3%A4-on-in-male-an-overv%C3%A4-ew
#6
Ecem Kaya, Suresh C Sikka, Didem Yilmaz Oral, Isil Ozakca, Serap Gur
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system is one component of the nervous regulatory system of the physiological function of the lower genitourinary tract. Our knowledge on the role of this sympathetic system has advanced during the last decade due to the characterization of b3-adrenoceptors (b3-ARs) in the urogenital system. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the pharmacological and molecular evidence supporting the functional roles of β3-AR in male genitourinary tissues of various species...
January 20, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113097/the-immune-infiltrate-in-prostate-bladder-and-testicular-tumors-an-old-friend-for-new-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Nieves Martinez Chanzá, Ahmad Awada, Mario Scartozzi
In genito-urinary tumors immunotherapy has been administered for a long time: Calmette-Guèrin Bacillus as adjuvant treatment in high risk patients with non muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer and interleukin-2 and interferon-α in metastatic kidney cancer. The vaccine Sipuleucel-T has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic disease, given the 22% reduction of mortality risk in this group...
February 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112250/cholesterol-synthetase-dhcr24-induced-by-insulin-aggravates-cancer-invasion-and-progesterone-resistance-in-endometrial-carcinoma
#8
Miao Dai, Xiao-Lu Zhu, Fei Liu, Qin-Yang Xu, Qiu-Lin Ge, Shu-Heng Jiang, Xiao-Mei Yang, Jun Li, Ya-Hui Wang, Qing-Kai Wu, Zhi-Hong Ai, Yin-Cheng Teng, Zhi-Gang Zhang
3β-Hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24), the final enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, has been associated with urogenital neoplasms. However, the function of DHCR24 in endometrial cancer (EC) remains largely elusive. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of DHCR24 and the progesterone receptor (PGR) in our tissue microarray of EC (n = 258), the existing EC database in GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus), and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas). We found that DHCR24 was significantly elevated in patients with EC, and that the up-regulation of DHCR24 was associated with advanced clinical stage, histological grading, vascular invasion, lymphatic metastasis, and reduced overall survival...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111042/-immunotherapy-in-uropathology
#9
Virginie Verkarre, Hélène Roussel, Clémence Granier, Eric Tartour, Yves Allory
The algorithms for treatment of metastatic cancers are evolving due to positive results obtained with immunotherapy. Therapeutics approaches to stimulate the immune system have already been used in the treatment of kidney and bladder cancer, such as the administration of cytokines and BCG therapy, confirming the immunogenicity of these tumors. The aim of immunotherapies is not only to activate the immune system against tumor cells, but also to take into account the tumor-induced suppressive microenvironment, in particular by removing the anergy of T-cell lymphocytes, and by targeting the co-stimulation inhibitors molecules...
February 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110463/biomarkers-of-renal-tumors-the-current-state-and-clinical-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Marina O Golovastova, Dmitry O Korolev, Larisa V Tsoy, Vladimir A Varshavsky, Wan-Hai Xu, Andrey Z Vinarov, Evgeni Yu Zernii, Pavel P Philippov, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ranks the first death rate among the urogenital tumors, whereas its incidence follows the incidences of prostate and bladder cancer. The diagnosis of RCC at early stages allows immediately undertaking appropriate treatment, which significantly increases patients' survival rate. Early and accurate diagnosis avoids inadequate treatment, provides the disease progression forecast, and permits to apply more efficient therapy. Unfortunately, the small renal tumors are usually asymptomatic resulting in the late diagnosis and, therefore, low efficacy of treatment...
January 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094201/diagnosing-urogenital-schistosomiasis-dealing-with-diminishing-returns
#11
REVIEW
Loc Le, Michael H Hsieh
Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium, is the most prevalent form of schistosomiasis affecting humans, and can result in severe bladder, kidney, ureteral, and genital pathologies. Chronic infection with S. haematobium has been linked with bladder cancer and increased risk for HIV infection. As mass drug administration with praziquantel increases in an attempt to transition from control to elimination of schistosomiasis, the need for updated, more sensitive diagnostic tools becomes more apparent, especially for use in areas of low infection intensity and for individuals with light infections...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089750/long-noncoding-rna-ccat2-can-predict-metastasis-and-poor-prognosis-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Yang-Hua Fan, Hua Fang, Chen-Xing Ji, Huan Xie, Bing Xiao, Xin-Gen Zhu
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that Colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) is dysregulated in various cancers. We performed this meta-analysis to clarify its promising functions as a prognosis marker in malignant tumors. METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, were searched from inception to October 20, 2016. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to explore the relationship between CCAT2 expression and survival, which were extracted from the eligible studies...
January 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089362/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-oral-levofloxacin-and-sitafloxacin-in%C3%A2-epididymal-tissue
#13
Takuya Sadahira, Koichiro Wada, Kazuro Ikawa, Norifumi Morikawa, Hiroaki Kurahashi, Takashi Yoshioka, Yuichi Ariyoshi, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Masami Watanabe, Shinya Uehara, Toyohiko Watanabe, Yasutomo Nasu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the penetration of fluoroquinolones into human epididymal tissue. METHODS: The penetration of levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg or sitafloxacin (STFX) 100 mg into epididymal tissue was examined. Patients with prostate cancer who were referred for orchiectomy were included. LVFX 500 mg (n = 9) or STFX 100 mg (n = 9) was administered orally 1 h before orchiectomy, and 0.5 g of epididymal tissue and blood samples were collected simultaneously during surgery...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055110/survivorship-after-lower-gastrointestinal-cancer-patient-reported-outcomes-and-planning-for-care
#14
Melissa A Frick, Carolyn C Vachani, Margaret K Hampshire, Christina Bach, Karen Arnold-Korzeniowski, James M Metz, Christine E Hill-Kayser
BACKGROUND: There is significant need for quality follow-up care to optimize long-term outcomes for the growing population of lower gastrointestinal (GI) cancer survivors. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide valuable information regarding late and long-term effects (LLTEs). METHODS: A convenience sample from 1129 colon, rectal, and anal cancer survivors (n = 792; 218, and 119, respectively) who participated in an Internet-based survivorship care plan (SCP) tool between May 2010 and October 2014 was used to examine patient-reported demographics, treatment, and toxicity data...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026654/l1cam-in-the-early-enteric-and-urogenital-system
#15
Elisabeth Judith Pechriggl, Nicole Concin, Michael J Blumer, Mario Bitsche, Marit Zwierzina, Jozsef Dudas, Katarzyna Koziel, Peter Altevogt, Alain-Gustave Zeimet, Helga Fritsch
L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is a transmembrane molecule belonging to the L1 protein family. It has shown to be a key player in axonal guidance in the course of neuronal development. Furthermore, L1CAM is also crucial for the establishment of the enteric and urogenital organs and is aberrantly expressed in cancer originating in these organs. Carcinogenesis and embryogenesis follow a lot of similar molecular pathways, but unfortunately, comprehensive data on L1CAM expression and localization in human developing organs are lacking so far...
January 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018158/estrogen-catechols-detection-as-biomarkers-in-schistosomiasis-induced-cancer-and-infertility
#16
M C Botelho, H Alves, J Richter
Urogenital schistosomiasis is a chronic infection caused by the human blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis haematobium is a known risk factor for cancer leading to squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCC). This is a neglected tropical disease endemic in many countries of Africa and the Middle East. Schistosome eggs produce catechol-estrogens. These molecules are metabolized to active quinones that cause alterations in DNA (leading in other contexts to breast or thyroid cancer). Our group have shown that schistosome egg associated catechol estrogens induce tumor-like phenotypes in urothelial cells, originated from parasite estrogen-host cell chromosomal DNA adducts and mutations...
2017: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002522/primary-retroperitoneal-seminoma-embryology-histopathology-and-treatment-particularities
#17
Constantin Virgil Gîngu, Mihaela Mihai, Cătălin Baston, Mugurel Alexandru Crăsneanu, Alexandru Vladimir Dick, Vlad Olaru, Ioanel Sinescu
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933136/critical-analysis-of-the-literature-investigating-urogenital-function-preservation-following-robotic-rectal-cancer-surgery
#18
Sofoklis Panteleimonitis, Jamil Ahmed, Mick Harper, Amjad Parvaiz
AIM: To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: "rectal cancer" or "colorectal cancer" and robot* or "da Vinci" and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence. All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included...
November 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903835/identification-of-microrna-signature-and-potential-pathway-targets-in-prostate-cancer
#19
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohammed Ziada, Abubaker Elshaikh, Amrita Datta, Hogyoung Kim, Krzysztof Moroz, Sudesh Srivastav, Raju Thomas, Jonathan L Silberstein, Krishnarao Moparty, Fatma Elzahraa H Salem, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American men. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite to improving therapeutic benefits. However, the current clinical biomarkers for PC do not reliably decipher indolent PC from other urogenital disorders. Thus, effective clinical intervention necessitates development of new biomarkers for early detection of PC. The present study aimed to identify the miRNA signature in organ-confined (Gleason Score 6) prostate tumors...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843957/whether-her2-positive-non-breast-cancers-are-candidates-for-treatment-with-ado-trastuzumab-emtansine
#20
REVIEW
Azadeh Moghaddas, Ali Borhani
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has recommended Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) as a preferred agent for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer and prior trastuzumab therapy. Overexpression of HER2 was reported in other cancer types such as bladder, gastric and urogenital carcinosarcomas similar to what is discovered in breast cancer. Some preclinical studies demonstrated the potential anti-tumor effects of T-DM1 in HER2-positive non-breast cancers...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
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