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Urogenital cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436852/comparing-photon-and-proton-based-hypofractioned-sbrt-for-prostate-cancer-accounting-for-robustness-and-realistic-treatment-deliverability
#1
Lee Goddard, Nils P Brodin, William R Bodner, Madhur Garg, Wolfgang A Tomé
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether photon or proton based SBRT is the preferred modality for high dose hypofractionation prostate cancer treatment. Achievable dose distributions were compared when uncertainties in target positioning and range uncertainties were appropriately accounted for. METHODS: Ten patients with prostate cancer previously treated at our institution with photon SBRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were identified. MRI images fused to the treatment planning CT allowed for accurate target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315701/histological-and-quantitative-analyzes-of-the-stromal-and-acinar-components-of-normal-human-prostate-zones
#2
Edilaine F Alves, Bruno Leonardo M de Freitas Ribeiro, Waldemar S Costa, Carla B M Gallo, Francisco J B Sampaio
BACKGROUND: McNeal divided the human prostate into three major anatomical areas: the peripheral zone (PZ), the central zone (CZ), and the transition zone (TZ). Each of these areas is biologically and histologically distinct. The PZ and TZ have clinical significance and are associated with prostate cancer (PC) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), respectively. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the parenchymal and stromal components that constitute the different prostate zones...
January 8, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273076/highly-conformal-combined-radiotherapy-with-cisplatin-and-gemcitabine-for-treatment-of-loco-regionally-advanced-cervical-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#3
Nikola Cihoric, Alexandros Tsikkinis, Eugenia Vlaskou Badra, Markus Glatzer, Urban Novak, Amina Scherz, Mohamed Shelan, Ivan Soldatovic, Chittazhathu Kurian Kuruvilla Yojena, Daniel M Aebersold, Kristina Lössl
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin and gemcitabine combined with conventional radiation therapy in the treatment of cervical cancer patients results in a favorable outcome but with excess toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity profile of dual chemotherapy and highly conformal external beam radiotherapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy. METHODS: Seventeen patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IB2-IIIB were treated with curative intent between 2011 and 2015...
December 22, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250970/-image-guided-radiotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-with-intravesical-lipiodol-injection-a-new-option-for-bladder-sparing-treatment
#4
Jorgo Kliton, Csaba Polgár, Péter Tenke, Gábor Kovács, Tibor Major, Gábor Stelczer, Péter Ágoston
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: To implement lipiodol as a fiducial marker of the tumor bed for image-guided radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost technique as part of radiochemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder tumors. METHOD: Since April 2016, radiochemotherapy was performed in 3 male patients with muscle invasive, transitional cell bladder carcinoma. Prior to radiochemotherapy, tumor bed resection was performed for each patient, at the same time 10 ml of lipiodol solution was injected submucosally into the resection site, thus marking the tumor bed for escalated dose irradiation...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250197/antiangiogenic-therapies-in-urogenital-malignancies-fiction-or-fact
#5
REVIEW
Friederike Haidl, David Pfister, Axel Heidenreich, Isabel Heidegger
The use of antiangiogenic agents in cancer therapy has become an attractive target in oncological research. However, concerning the uro-oncological field, current guidelines only recommend the use of antiangiogenic agents in metastatic renal cell cancer. Yet in recent years, several approaches for sequential treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors in other urogenital malignancies apart from renal cell cancer are ongoing. Thus, the present review article aims to provide an overview about clinical studies with antiangiogenic agents in prostate-, bladder-, testicular-, as well as penile cancer patients...
2017: Memo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218255/oncology-section-edge-task-force-on-urogenital-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-measures-for-incontinence
#6
Alicia Jeffrey, Shana E Harrington, Alexandra Hill, Amanda Roscow, Meryl Alappattu
Background: Compared to the general population, women and men with urogenital and colorectal cancer experience higher rates of urinary and fecal incontinence. Although a variety of measures exist to assess these areas, currently, there are no guidelines recommending which outcomes rehabilitation professionals should administer to examine these impairments in those with cancer. Purpose: To identify outcome measures for assessing urinary and fecal incontinence and evaluate their psychometric data and applicability to the cancer population...
July 2017: Rehabilitation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207728/the-effect-of-soy-isoflavones-on-the-menopause-rating-scale-scoring-in-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women-a-pilot-study
#7
Marya Ahsan, Ayaz Khurram Mallick
Introduction: Menopause is associated with many unpleasant symptoms which vary in different phases of menopausal transition. Although, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is considered the most effective mode of treatment for these symptoms, its use is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. Soy isoflavones are being widely used as a safer alternative to HRT, even though scientific evidence of their efficacy is poor or lacking. Aim: To study the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on the menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200869/preoperative-prognostic-nutritional-index-and-nomogram-predicting-recurrence-free-survival-in-patients-with-primary-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-without-carcinoma-in-situ
#8
Jianfeng Cui, Shouzhen Chen, Qiyu Bo, Shiyu Wang, Ning Zhang, Meng Yu, Wenfu Wang, Jie Han, Yaofeng Zhu, Benkang Shi
Background and objectives: Among the cancers of the urogenital system, bladder cancer is ranked second both in incidence and mortality, and hence, a more accurate estimate of the prognosis for individual patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is urgently needed. Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) which is based on serum albumin levels and peripheral lymphocyte count has been confirmed to have prognostic value in various cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of PNI in patients with NMIBC...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182577/estrogen-metabolism-associated-cyp2d6-and-il6-174g-c-polymorphisms-in-schistosoma-haematobium-infection
#9
Rita Cardoso, Pedro C Lacerda, Paulo P Costa, Ana Machado, André Carvalho, Adriano Bordalo, Ruben Fernandes, Raquel Soares, Joachim Richter, Helena Alves, Monica C Botelho
Schistosoma haematobium is a human blood fluke causing a chronic infection called urogenital schistosomiasis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCC) constitutes chronic sequelae of this infection, and S. haematobium infection is accounted as a risk factor for this type of cancer. This infection is considered a neglected tropical disease and is endemic in numerous countries in Africa and the Middle East. Schistosome eggs produce catechol-estrogens. These estrogenic molecules are metabolized to active quinones that induce modifications in DNA...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145324/a-rare-case-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-presenting-as-a-giant-intra-thoracic-mass-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Feng-Wei Kong, Miao Zhang, Heng Wang, Cun-Tao Lu, Wen-Bin Wu, Yuan-Yuan Liu
RATIONALE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine-derived cutaneous cancer. Ectopic or single metastatic MCC located in thorax is extremely rare; meanwhile, its definite management has not been elucidated yet. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female patient with a giant mass located in her left thorax was presented for stuffy pain of left chest for 6 months and fever for half a month. She underwent radical resection of vulvar MCC 10 years ago...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135152/-masks-of-urogenital-tuberculosis-as-the-cause-of-diagnostic-errors
#11
D P Kholtobin, E V Kulchavenya
Urogenital tuberculosis does not have pathognomonic symptoms, so diagnostic errors are quite common. This systematic review of literature was conducted to identify the causes and estimate the incidence of erroneous diagnoses. We critically evaluated some articles in which the authors describe observations of urogenital tuberculosis as rare and unusual because they never encountered this disease, but in fact that were typical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis. The authors analyzed and illustrated the features of urinary tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, differential diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis and kidney cancer and male genitourinary organs, described errors in the diagnosis of urethral, testicular, penile, prostatic and epididymal tuberculosis...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102489/cause-specific-mortality-in-adults-with-atopic-dermatitis
#12
Jacob P Thyssen, Lone Skov, Alexander Egeberg
BACKGROUND: Adult atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with several co-morbidities, but cause-specific mortality risk is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine cause-specific death rates and risk in adults with AD. METHODS: We performed cross-linkage of nationwide health care and cause of death registers. Adult patients with AD were matched with 10 controls per study subject. We calculated incidence rates per 1,000 person-years and hazard ratios (HRs) of cause-specific death with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using Cox proportional hazards models...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093256/-mechanisms-for-castration-resistance-of-prostate-carcinoma
#13
Fangzhi Chen, Xiaokun Zhao
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent male urogenital malignancy. The tumor cells are prone to castration-resistance after androgen deprivation therapy. Variation and reactivation of androgen receptor, and the change in the tumor microenvironment are the major pathological factors for development of castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (CRPC). Systematically analyzing and understanding the mechanisms for castration-resistance of prostate carcinoma will be significant for laying the basis for improvement of the strategies on precise treatment for CRPC...
October 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079542/aapt-diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-abdominal-pelvic-and-urogenital-pain-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
QiQi Zhou, Ursula Wesselmann, Lynn Walker, Linda Lee, Lonnie Zeltzer, G Nicholas Verne
In conjuction with the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative strove to develop the characteristics of a diagnostic system useful for clinical and research purposes across disciplines and types of chronic pain conditions. Following the establishment of these characteristics, a working group of clinicians and clinical and basic scientists with expertise in abdominal, pelvic, and urogenital pain began generating core diagnostic criteria and defining the related extraintestinal somatic pain and other symptoms experienced by patients...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071398/-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-use-of-cabazitaxel-taking-into-consideration-current-data
#15
J E Gschwend, P Albers, M Bögemann, P Goebell, A Heidenreich, J Klier, F König, S Machtens, K Pantel, C Thomas
BACKGROUND: At the 2016 ASCO annual meeting, new data from two randomized phase III studies concerning taxane-based chemotherapy as a treatment option for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) were presented. OBJECTIVES: The focus is on the clinical impact of these data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of German experts in the field of urogenital-oncologic expertise discussed the clinical impact with respect to the current data...
October 25, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063480/an-update-of-pitfalls-in-prostate-mpmri-a-practical-approach-through-the-lens-of-pi-rads-v-2-guidelines
#16
REVIEW
Valeria Panebianco, Francesco Giganti, Yu Xuan Kitzing, François Cornud, Riccardo Campa, Gianluca De Rubeis, Antonio Ciardi, Carlo Catalano, Geert Villeirs
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current report is to provide an update in the imaging interpretation of prostate cancer on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), with a special focus on how to discriminate pathological tissue from the most common pitfalls that may be encountered during daily clinical practice using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 guidelines. METHODS: All the cases that are shown in this pictorial review comply with the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) guidelines for technical mpMRI requirements...
October 23, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059677/parasitic-hematuria-six-cases-in-a-row-in-a-single-centre-in-spain
#17
Begoña Ballesta Martínez, Jonathan Rodríguez Talavera, Adrián Amador Robayna, Almudena Carrión Valencia, Nuria Orribo Morales, Lorena García García, Melania Santa Cruz Pérez, Manuel Felipe Ravina Pisaca
Most cases of urogenital parasitosis are registered in Africa. However, migration movements and travellers moving from developed to developing countries are responsible for leading to an increased incidence of genitourinary infections caused by parasites in the western world including Spain having serious economic and health implications. The importance of its early detection and treatment also results from its potential risk for infertility, susceptibility for HIV infection and the development of bladder cancer...
October 24, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039237/sglt2-inhibitors-are-they-safe
#18
REVIEW
Sebastian Filippas-Ntekouan, Theodosios D Filippatos, Moses S Elisaf
Sodium-glucose linked transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of antidiabetic drugs with positive cardiovascular and kidney effects. The aim of this review is to present the safety issues associated with SGLT2 inhibitors. Urogenital infections are the most frequently encountered adverse events, although tend to be mild to moderate and are easily manageable with standard treatment. Although no increased acute kidney injury risk was evident in the major trials, the mechanism of action of these drugs requires caution when they are administered in patients with extracellular volume depletion or with drugs affecting renal hemodynamics...
January 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028100/zeb1-promotes-prostate-cancer-proliferation-and-invasion-through-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#19
X-F Song, H Chang, Q Liang, Z-F Guo, J-W Wu
OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer is a kind of malignancy with high occurrence in the male urogenital system. However, the mechanism of the occurrence, the progression, and the metastasis of prostate cancer are still unclear. Searching for the effective molecule target is of great significance to improve the curative effect on prostate cancer. Zinc finger E box binding protein-1 (ZEB1) protein is a member of the zinc finger transcription factor family that participates in the embryonic development and formation...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020961/hazardous-waste-and-health-impact-a-systematic-review-of-the-scientific-literature
#20
REVIEW
L Fazzo, F Minichilli, M Santoro, A Ceccarini, M Della Seta, F Bianchi, P Comba, M Martuzzi
Waste is part of the agenda of the European Environment and Health Process and included among the topics of the Sixth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Disposal and management of hazardous waste are worldwide challenges. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the health impact of hazardous waste exposure, applying transparent and a priori defined methods. The following five steps, based on pre-defined systematic criteria, were applied. 1. Specify the research question, in terms of "Population-Exposure-Comparators-Outcomes" (PECO)...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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