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Urogenital cancer

Sofoklis Panteleimonitis, Jamil Ahmed, Meghana Ramachandra, Muhammad Farooq, Mick Harper, Amjad Parvaiz
PURPOSE: Urological and sexual dysfunction are recognised risks of rectal cancer surgery; however, there is limited evidence regarding urogenital function comparing robotic to laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the urogenital functional outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Urological and sexual functions were assessed using gender-specific validated standardised questionnaires. Questionnaires were sent a minimum of 6 months after surgery, and patients were asked to report their urogenital function pre- and post-operatively, allowing changes in urogenital function to be identified...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Medine Cumhur Cüre, Erkan Cüre, Yıldıray Kalkan, Aynur Kırbaş, Levent Tümkaya, Arif Yılmaz, Ayşegül Küçükali Türkyılmaz, İbrahim Şehitoğlu, Süleyman Yüce
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (Cis) is one of the most commonly used antineoplastic drugs. It is used as chemotherapy for many solid organ malignancies such as brain, neck, male and female urogenital, vesical and pulmonary cancers. Infliximab blocks tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Several studies have reported that infliximab ameliorates cell damage by reducing cytokine levels. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether infliximab has a preventive effect against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and whether it has a synergistic effect when combined with Cis...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
William Grey, Rosaline Hulse, Anna Yakovleva, Dilyana Genkova, Benjamin Whitelaw, Ellen Solomon, Salvador J Diaz-Cano, Louise Izatt
The REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in growth and differentiation during embryogenesis and maintenance of the urogenital and nervous systems in mammals. Distinct mutations across hotspot RET exons can cause Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A (MEN2A) characterised by development of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. Here, we report a 42-year-old man presented in the clinic with a unilateral PCC, with subsequent investigations revealing a nodular and cystic thyroid gland...
October 5, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
Suzanne N Landi, Kemi M Doll, Jeannette T Bensen, Laura Hendrix, Carey K Anders, Jennifer M Wu, Hazel B Nichols
PURPOSE: Endocrine therapy for breast cancer can exacerbate menopausal symptoms. The association between endocrine therapy and common pelvic floor disorders including urinary incontinence has rarely been evaluated. We examined urogenital and sexual side effects among women with a breast cancer diagnosis, comparing endocrine therapy users to nonusers. METHODS: Urogenital and sexual symptoms were self-reported during the enrollment interview within the University of North Carolina Cancer Survivorship Cohort...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Christian Doehn, Viktor Grünwald, Thomas Steiner, Markus Follmann, Heidrun Rexer, Susanne Krege
BACKGROUND: In 2014, 15 500 persons in Germany were given the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. This disease is the third most common cancer of the urogenital system. The mean age at diagnosis is 68 years in men and 71 in men. METHODS: Pertinent publications up to 2014 were retrieved by a systematic literature search and reviewed in a moderated, formalized consensus process. Key questions were generated and answered by the adaptation of existing international guidelines, on the basis of an independent literature review, and by expert consensus...
September 5, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Shaun A Wahab, Sadhna Verma
Prostate MRI has been a hot topic in recent years in large part due to the high incidence of prostate cancer worldwide. Advances in technology have allowed multiparametric MRI to improve lesion detection and characterization in prostate imaging. Additionally, prostate MRI has shown great promise in the detection of clinically significant cancer. In 2012, the European Society of Urogenital Radiology established clinical guidelines for multiparametric MRI of the prostate to facilitate a greater level of standardization and consistency, which became known as the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)...
November 2016: Future Oncology
Shu Yang, Ming Jiang, Magdalena M Grabowska, Jiahe Li, Zachary M Connelly, Jianghong Zhang, Simon W Hayward, Justin M Cates, Guichun Han, Xiuping Yu
Androgens regulate the proliferation and differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells, including prostate cancer (PCa) cells in a context-dependent manner. Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) do not invariably promote cell proliferation; in the normal adult, endogenous stromal and epithelial AR activation maintains differentiation and inhibits organ growth. In the current study, we report that activation of AR differentially regulates the proliferation of human prostate epithelial progenitor cells, NHPrE1, in vitro and in vivo...
September 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Hannah Brechka, Erin M McAuley, Sophia M Lamperis, Gladell P Paner, Donald J Vander Griend
A fundamental understanding of prostate development and tissue homeostasis has the high potential to reveal mechanisms for prostate disease initiation and identify novel therapeutic approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Our current understanding of prostate lineage specification stems from the use of developmental model systems that rely upon the embryonic preprostatic urogenital sinus mesenchyme to induce the formation of mature prostate epithelial cells. It is unclear, however, how the urogenital sinus epithelium can derive both adult urethral glands and prostate epithelia...
October 4, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Xiang-Rong Zhao, Chao Gao, Yong Zhang, Lei Kong, Wei Qu, Jia Li, Yong-Sheng Gao, Yong-Hua Yu
BACKGROUND: The urachus is a vestigial tubular structure that connects the urinary bladder to the allantois during early embryonic development. Urachal carcinoma develops in the urachus, which is an embryological remnant of the urogenital sinus and allantois. The estimated annual incidence of urachal carcinoma in the general population is 0.01% of all cancers in adults. Moreover, urachal carcinoma accounts for 0.34% to 0.7% of all bladder carcinoma cases. And breast metastasis is extremely rarer...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Delphine Carouge, Valerie Blanc, Sue E Knoblaugh, Robert J Hunter, Nicholas O Davidson, Joseph H Nadeau
Testicular tumors, the most common cancer in young men, arise from abnormalities in germ cells during fetal development. Unconventional inheritance for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) risk both in humans and mice implicates epigenetic mechanisms. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme complex 1 (APOBEC1) cytidine deaminase and Deadend-1, which are involved in C-to-U RNA editing and microRNA-dependent mRNA silencing, respectively, are potent epigenetic modifiers of TGCT susceptibility in the genetically predisposed 129/Sv inbred mouse strain...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Karl, T Grimm, F Jokisch, N T Gaisa, C G Stief
INTRODUCTION: Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is known as one of most common malignant tumors in the urogenital tract. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in particular has a high recurrence rate and results in correspondingly high costs for the public health system. METHODS: To improve the recurrence rate and the prognosis of NMIBC the diagnosis, resection technique, adjuvant instillation therapy and exact histopathological classification of tumor lesions are indispensable...
September 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Pardeep K Mittal, Juan C Camacho, Dushyant V Sahani, Bobby Kalb, Peter A Harri, Viraj Master, Nima Kokabi, Matthew Hartman, Hiroumi D Kitajima, Courtney C Moreno
Hematospermia is a challenging and anxiety-provoking condition that can manifest as a single episode or recur over the course of weeks to months. It is usually a benign self-limiting condition in younger sexually active males without a history of risk factors such as cancer, urogenital malformations, bleeding disorders, and their associated symptoms. However, patients with recurrent, refractory and painful hematospermia with associated symptoms, such as fever, pain, or weight loss, require evaluation through clinical assessment and noninvasive investigations to rule out underlying pathologic conditions such as ejaculatory obstruction, infectious and inflammatory causes, malignancy, vascular malformations, and systemic disorders that increase the risk of bleeding, especially when presenting in older men...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jean-Philippe Adam, Quentin Denost, Maylis Capdepont, Bart van Geluwe, Eric Rullier
BACKGROUND: Urogenital dysfunctions after rectal cancer treatment are well recognized, although incidence and evolution over time are less well known. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the evolution of urogenital functions over time after the treatment for rectal cancer. DESIGN: This is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at a quaternary referral center for colorectal surgery. PATIENTS: A total of 250 consecutive patients treated for rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled for urogenital assessment...
September 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
M Retz, J E Gschwend, P Maisch
Urinary bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urogenital system. The Guideline Program in Oncology (Leitlinienprogramm Onkologie) of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF), the German Cancer Society (Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft) and the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe) as well as 31 different medical societies have developed the first interdisciplinary, evidence-based German guideline for bladder cancer...
September 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Min-Hoe Chew, Yu-Ting Yeh, Evan Lim, Francis Seow-Choen
The advent of total mesorectal excision (TME) together with minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic colorectal surgery and robotic surgery has improved surgical results. However, the incidence of bladder and sexual dysfunction remains high. This may be particularly distressing for the patient and troublesome to manage for the surgeon when it does occur. The increased use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant radiotherapy is also associated with poorer functional outcomes. In this review, we evaluate current understanding of the anatomy of pelvic nerves which are divided into the areas of the inferior mesenteric artery pedicle, the lateral pelvic wall and dissection around the urogenital organs...
August 2016: Gastroenterology Report
LaTayia Aaron, Omar E Franco, Simon W Hayward
Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease...
August 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
N Rioux-Leclercq, E Comperat, S-F Kammerer-Jacquet, P Camparo, G Fromont
INTRODUCTION: The ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology) Consensus Conferences between 2012 and 2015 made recommendations regarding the classification, staging, prognostic factors of adult tumors from kidney, prostate, bladder and testis. The main points of these recommendations are highlighted in this article. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article is based on a systematic literature search by using different keywords "cancer, kidney, prostate, bladder, testis, pathology, classification" from Pubmed database...
June 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Z H Wei, X Q Xie, F Liu, P Wang, J Wang, Y L Gao, J T Su, J Du, Q P Liu, X H Deng
OBJECTIVE: To fill up the absence of data on causes of death of urban residents in Beijing during 1965-1974 and provide evidence for the similar study in other areas. METHODS: All possible sources for death data during 1965-1974 were identified through expert consultations and record search. Stratified sampling was conducted to collect the death data of urban residents during this period in Beijing. The mortality rate, death cause constituent and rank of death causes were used in this descriptive analysis...
July 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Kwong Ming Kee, Jing-Houng Wang, Chih-Chi Wang, Yu-Fan Cheng, Sheng-Nan Lu
Clinical manifestations between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extra-hepatic primary malignancy (EHPM) are lack of large-scale study. We enrolled 14555 HCC patients between 1986 and 2013 retrospectively. The EHPM was classified as prior, synchronous and metachronous group based on before, within and after 6 months of HCC diagnosis, respectively. The incidence rate of EHPM is 3.91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.60-4.23%). Urogenital cancers, kidney and bladder, were at unexpected higher ranks. Older in age, Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, negativity of HBsAg and anti-HCV, and earlier BCLC staging are independent factors associated with EHPM...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ashley Di Meo, Ihor Batruch, Arsani G Yousef, Maria D Pasic, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George M Yousef
BACKGROUND: Urine represents an ideal source of clinically relevant biomarkers as it contains a large number of proteins and low molecular weight peptides. The comprehensive characterization of the normal urinary proteome and peptidome can serve as a reference for future biomarker discovery. Proteomic and peptidomic analysis of urine can also provide insight into normal physiology and disease pathology, especially for urogenital diseases. METHODS: We developed an integrated proteomic and peptidomic analytical protocol in normal urine...
July 9, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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