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saliva tick

Željko M Radulović, Albert Mulenga
Some serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulators of essential life pathways bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to enhance inhibitory functions and achieve physiologically relevant rates. This study demonstrates that highly conserved Amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19 (AAS19), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of hemostasis and inflammation system proteases and anticoagulant, can bind heparan sulfate/heparin (HS)GAGs and that this interaction alters its function. Substrate hydrolysis and unpaired t-test analyses revealed that HSGAG binding caused rAAS19 inhibitory activity to: (i) significantly increase against blood clotting factors (f) IIa (thrombin) and fIXa, (ii) significantly reduce against fXa and fXIIa and (iii) moderate to no effect against trypsin, kallikrein, papain, and plasmin...
November 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
October 15, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Martin Glatz, Terry Means, Josef Haas, Allen C Steere, Robert R Müllegger
Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines, and leukocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick bite skin lesions (<24 h of tick attachment) were characterized by a predominance of macrophages and dendritic cells, elevated mRNA levels of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4) and neutrophil chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL8), of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-5...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
David A Meekins, Michael R Kanost, Kristin Michel
Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are expressed as acute-phase serpins in insects upon infection...
September 4, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Cassandra L Olds, Stephen Mwaura, David O Odongo, Glen A Scoles, Richard Bishop, Claudia Daubenberger
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of Theileria parva, the etiological agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a devastating disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that a vaccine targeting tick proteins that are involved in attachment and feeding might affect feeding success and possibly reduce tick-borne transmission of T. parva. Here we report the evaluation of a multivalent vaccine cocktail of tick antigens for their ability to reduce R. appendiculatus feeding success and possibly reduce tick-transmission of T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
James J Valdés, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Radek Sima, Philip T Butterill, Daniel Růžek, Patricia A Nuttall
Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dana K Shaw, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Having emerged during the early part of the Cretaceous period, ticks are an ancient group of hematophagous ectoparasites with significant veterinary and public health importance worldwide. The success of their life strategy can be attributed, in part, to saliva. As we enter into a scientific era where the collection of massive data sets and structures for biological application is possible, we suggest that understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern the life cycle of ticks is within grasp. With this in mind, we discuss what is currently known regarding the manipulation of Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like (NLR) receptor signaling pathways by tick salivary proteins, and how these molecules impact pathogen transmission...
June 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
R Manzano-Román, V Díaz-Martín, A Oleaga, P Obolo-Mvoulouga, R Pérez-Sánchez
Recently obtained evidence indicated that an orthologue of the O. savignyi TSGP4 salivary lipocalin was present in the saliva of O. moubata. TSGP4 is known to act as a cysteinyl leukotrienes scavenger helping in the prevention of inflammation and oedema at the tick bite site. Since this function seems to be crucial for successful tick feeding, the novel O. moubata TSGP4 turned into a potential vaccine target. The purposes of the current work were: (i) to clone and characterize the O. moubata TSGP4 and, (ii) to produce it as recombinant to evaluate its protective efficacy as vaccine antigen...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
K H Banajee, V I Verhoeve, E K Harris, K R Macaluso
Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is a pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. The acute innate immune response to this pathogen and the effect of tick feeding or salivary components on this response is largely unknown. We hypothesized that A. maculatum saliva enhances R. parkeri infection via downregulation of the acute cellular and cytokine immune response. C3H/HeN mice were intradermally inoculated with R...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Naylene C S Silva, Vladimir F Vale, Paula F Franco, Nelder F Gontijo, Jesus G Valenzuela, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Daniel S Rodrigues, Walter S Lima, Blima Fux, Ricardo N Araujo
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. For a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. In spite of the importance of R. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. The current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by R. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by putative salivary proteins on both classical and alternative complement pathways...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Dorothy C Scholl, Monica E Embers, John R Caskey, Deepak Kaushal, Thomas N Mather, Wayne R Buck, Lisa A Morici, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: The prolonged feeding process of ixodid ticks, in combination with bacterial transmission, should lead to a robust inflammatory response at the blood-feeding site. Yet, factors present in tick saliva may down-regulate such responses, which may be beneficial to spirochete transmission. The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that tick saliva, in the context of Borrelia burgdorferi, can have widespread effects on the production of immune mediators in skin. METHODS: A cross-section of tick feeding on skin was examined histologically...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mayukh Ghosh, Nirmal Sangwan, Arun K Sangwan
AIM: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts' rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species...
June 2015: Veterinary World
Xiaowei Wang, Dana K Shaw, Olivia S Sakhon, Greg A Snyder, Eric J Sundberg, Laura Santambrogio, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, J Stephen Dumler, Kari Ann Shirey, Darren J Perkins, Katharina Richard, Andrezza C Chagas, Eric Calvo, Jan Kopecký, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Tick saliva contains a number of effector molecules that inhibit host immunity and facilitate pathogen transmission. How tick proteins regulate immune signaling, however, is incompletely understood. Here, we describe that loop 2 of sialostatin L2, an anti-inflammatory tick protein, binds to annexin A2 and impairs the formation of the NLRC4 inflammasome during infection with the rickettsial agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum Macrophages deficient in annexin A2 secreted significantly smaller amounts of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and had a defect in NLRC4 inflammasome oligomerization and caspase-1 activation...
June 2016: Infection and Immunity
Paula F Franco, Naylene C S Silva, Vladimir Fazito do Vale, Jéssica F Abreu, Vânia C Santos, Nelder F Gontijo, Jesus G Valenzuela, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Alessandra P S Gomes, Ricardo N Araujo
Inhibition of the complement system during and after haematophagy is of utmost importance for tick success in feeding and tick development. The role of such inhibition is to minimise damage to the intestinal epithelium as well as avoiding inflammation and opsonisation of salivary molecules at the bite site. Despite its importance, the salivary anti-complement activity has been characterised only in species belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex which saliva is able to inhibit the alternative and lectin pathways...
May 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Rebekah L Bullard, Jaclyn Williams, Shahid Karim
Saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. Therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. Here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time PCR. The information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. We analyzed the temporal expression of seven housekeeping genes and 44 differentially expressed salivary molecules selected from a previously published Amblyomma americanum sialotranscriptome...
2016: PloS One
Donghun Kim, Joshua Urban, Daniel L Boyle, Yoonseong Park
Control of salivary secretion in ticks involves autocrine dopamine activating two dopamine receptors: D1 and Invertebrate-specific D1-like dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated Na/K-ATPase as an important component of the secretory process. Immunoreactivity for Na/K-ATPase revealed basal infolding of lamellate cells in type-I, abluminal interstitial (epithelial) cells in type-II, and labyrinth-like infolding structures opening towards the lumen in type-III acini. Ouabain (10 μmol l(-1)), a specific inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, abolished dopamine-induced salivary secretion by suppressing fluid transport in type III acini...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lucas Tirloni, Tae Kwon Kim, Mariana Loner Coutinho, Abid Ali, Adriana Seixas, Carlos Termignoni, Albert Mulenga, Itabajara da Silva Vaz
Inflammation and hemostasis are part of the host's first line of defense to tick feeding. These systems are in part serine protease mediated and are tightly controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, in the serpin superfamily (serine protease inhibitors). From this perspective ticks are thought to use serpins to evade host defenses during feeding. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus encodes at least 24 serpins, of which RmS-3, RmS-6, and RmS-17 were previously identified in saliva of this tick. In this study, we screened inhibitor functions of these three saliva serpins against a panel of 16 proteases across the mammalian defense pathway...
April 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kotál, Jan Kopecký, Joao H F Pedra, Michail Kotsyfakis
The saliva of ixodid ticks contains a mixture of bioactive molecules that target a wide spectrum of host defense mechanisms to allow ticks to feed on the vertebrate host for several days. Tick salivary proteins cluster in multigenic protein families, and individual family members display redundancy and pluripotency in their action to ameliorate or evade host immune responses. It is now clear that members of different protein families can target the same cellular or molecular pathway of the host physiological response to tick feeding...
May 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Jennifer Bernard, Evelyne Hutet, Frédéric Paboeuf, Tantely Randriamparany, Philippe Holzmuller, Renaud Lancelot, Valérie Rodrigues, Laurence Vial, Marie-Frédérique Le Potier
African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection...
2016: PloS One
Ricardo Nascimento Araujo, Paula Ferreira Franco, Henrique Rodrigues, Luiza C B Santos, Craig S McKay, Carlos A Sanhueza, Carlos Ramon Nascimento Brito, Maíra Araújo Azevedo, Ana Paula Venuto, Peter J Cowan, Igor C Almeida, M G Finn, Alexandre F Marques
The anaphylaxis response is frequently associated with food allergies, representing a significant public health hazard. Recently, exposure to tick bites and production of specific IgE against α-galactosyl (α-Gal)-containing epitopes has been correlated to red meat allergy. However, this association and the source of terminal, non-reducing α-Gal-containing epitopes have not previously been established in Brazil. Here, we employed the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse (α1,3-GalT-KO) model and bacteriophage Qβ-virus like particles (Qβ-VLPs) displaying Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc (Galα3LN) epitopes to investigate the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the saliva of Amblyomma sculptum, a species of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, which represents the main tick that infests humans in Brazil...
March 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
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