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saliva tick

Teresa C Assumpção, Daniella M Mizurini, Dongying Ma, Robson Q Monteiro, Sydney Ahlstedt, Morayma Reyes, Michail Kotsyfakis, Thomas N Mather, John F Andersen, Jan Lukszo, José M C Ribeiro, Ivo M B Francischetti
Tick saliva is a rich source of modulators of vascular biology. We have characterized Ixonnexin, a member of the "Basic-tail" family of salivary proteins from the tick Ixodes scapularis. Ixonnexin is a 104 residues (11.8 KDa), non-enzymatic basic protein which contains 3 disulfide bonds and a C-terminal rich in lysine. It is homologous to SALP14, a tick salivary FXa anticoagulant. Ixonnexin was produced by ligation of synthesized fragments (51-104) and (1-50) followed by folding. Ixonnexin, like SALP14, interacts with FXa...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Saiful Islam, Myung-Jo You
Tick saliva is critically important for continuous attachment to the host, blood feeding for days, and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. To characterize the patterns of inflammatory cytokine gene expression during its attachment and blood sucking time, peripheral blood samples of rabbits infested with Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were collected at different intervals. Blood histamine concentration was evaluated as well as gene encoding IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were compared with non-infested rabbits...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Ellen Y Stromdahl, Robyn M Nadolny, Graham J Hickling, Sarah A Hamer, Nicholas H Ogden, Cory Casal, Garrett A Heck, Jennifer A Gibbons, Taylor F Cremeans, Mark A Pilgard
In the early 1980s, Ixodes spp. ticks were implicated as the key North American vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner) (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Concurrently, other human-biting tick species were investigated as potential B. burgdorferi vectors. Rashes thought to be erythema migrans were observed in patients bitten by Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks, and spirochetes were visualized in a small percentage of A...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Saravanan Thangamani, Meghan E Hermance, Rodrigo I Santos, Mirko Slovak, Dar Heinze, Steven G Widen, Maria Kazimirova
Emerging and re-emerging diseases transmitted by blood feeding arthropods are significant global public health problems. Ticks transmit the greatest variety of pathogenic microorganisms of any blood feeding arthropod. Infectious agents transmitted by ticks are delivered to the vertebrate host together with saliva at the bite site. Tick salivary glands produce complex cocktails of bioactive molecules that facilitate blood feeding and pathogen transmission by modulating host hemostasis, pain/itch responses, wound healing, and both innate and adaptive immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Eliane Esteves, Sandra R Maruyama, Rebeca Kawahara, André Fujita, Larissa A Martins, Adne A Righi, Francisco B Costa, Giuseppe Palmisano, Marcelo B Labruna, Anderson Sá-Nunes, José M C Ribeiro, Andréa C Fogaça
Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogenic microorganisms to their vertebrate hosts. Amblyomma sculptum is vector of Rickettsia rickettsii , the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most lethal rickettsiosis that affects humans. It is known that the transmission of pathogens by ticks is mainly associated with the physiology of the feeding process. Pathogens that are acquired with the blood meal must first colonize the tick gut and later the salivary glands (SG) in order to be transmitted during a subsequent blood feeding via saliva...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Valeria Hajnická, Marcela Kúdelová, Iveta Štibrániová, Mirko Slovák, Pavlína Bartíková, Zuzana Halásová, Peter Pančík, Petra Belvončíková, Michaela Vrbová, Viera Holíková, Rosemary S Hails, Patricia A Nuttall
Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jaroslava Lieskovská, Jana Páleníková, Helena Langhansová, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký
It has been suggested that tick saliva facilitates transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) to vertebrates. The mechanism of this facilitation has not been elucidated yet. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are among first cells attacked by the virus, we examined the amount of virus and changes induced by saliva in TBEV-infected DCs. We found that virus replication was significantly increased by saliva of Ixodes ricinus tick. Next, saliva-induced enhancement of Akt pathway activation was observed in TBEV-infected DCs...
November 17, 2017: Virology
B F Leal, M F Alzugaray, A Seixas, I Da Silva Vaz, C A S Ferreira
Salivary molecules, as glycine-rich proteins (GRPs), are essential to tick attachment and feeding on the host and are suggested to be involved in the host's immune system evasion, therefore representing natural candidates in the search for protective vaccine antigens. This work shows the molecular characterization of a GRP from Rhipicephalus microplus (RmGRP). The cDNA and putative amino acid sequences were analysed, as well as the transcription level in tick tissues/developmental stages, showing the highest levels of gene expression in 1-day-old larvae and salivary glands of fully engorged females...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
Donghun Kim, Paulina Maldonado-Ruiz, Ludek Zurek, Yoonseong Park
Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i...
2017: PeerJ
Marketa Rezkova, Jan Kopecky
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammatory process. In the skin, it contributes to immune containment of tick-transmitted pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi. In the saliva of some tick species, active compounds are present that inhibit detection of TNF in specific ELISA. We compared the presence of anti-TNF activity in saliva or salivary gland extract from 11 tick species from the family Ixodidae and demonstrated it in genera Ixodes Latreille, 1795 and Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844. Analysis of anti-TNF activity in Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) saliva during the feeding period showed that it is present in the late, rapid phase of engorgement...
October 20, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Chaima Bensaoud, Zaineb Abdelkafi-Koubaa, Hazem Ben Mabrouk, Maram Morjen, Issam Hmila, Adel Rhim, Mohamed El Ayeb, Naziha Marrakchi, Ali Bouattour, Youmna M'ghirbi
Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are blood-sucking ectoparasites characterized by the extended period of their attachment to their host. To access their bloodmeal, ticks secrete saliva containing a range of molecules that target the host's inflammation, immune system, and hemostatic components. Some of these molecules reportedly possess antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. The present study describes our investigation, the first of its kind, of the antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of the Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), salivary gland extract (SGE), which inhibited the adhesion and migration of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner, as well as angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane model...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mohammad Saiful Islam, Myung Jo You
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to induce salivation in Haemaphysalis longicornis to increase saliva production and to characterize the collection of proteins present in the collected saliva using on-chip-electrophoresis. METHODS: Saliva of adult female engorged H. longicornis was collected by treatment with 0.2% dopamine hydrochloride. All protein samples were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis using a microfluidic High Sensitivity Protein Assay 250 kit by 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, USA) under non-reducing conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Tsukushi Kamiya, Megan A Greischar, Nicole Mideo
Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Such pre-sensitisation of host immunity has been reported to both exacerbate and limit infection symptoms, depending on the system in question, with potential implications for recovery...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Manuel Rodriguez-Valle, Paula Moolhuijzen, Roberto A Barrero, Chian Teng Ong, Greta Busch, Thomas Karbanowicz, Mitchell Booth, Richard Clark, Johannes Koehbach, Hina Ijaz, Kevin Broady, Kim Agnew, Aleta G Knowles, Matthew I Bellgard, Ala E Tabor
The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) secretes neuropathic toxins into saliva that induce host paralysis. Salivary glands and viscera were dissected from fully engorged female I. holocyclus ticks collected from dogs and cats with paralysis symptoms. cDNA from both tissue samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 100 bp pair end read technologies. Unique and non-redundant holocyclotoxin sequences were designated as HT2-HT19, as none were identical to the previously described HT1. Specific binding to rat synaptosomes was determined for synthetic HTs, and their neurotoxic capacity was determined by neonatal mouse assay...
October 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Motoyuki Mihara
The Ixodidae family of hard ticks has cement-producing and non-cement-producing species. Involved skins of four patients bitten by cement-producing ticks and two by non-cement-producing ticks were histopathologically examined. Those of the latter two patients were also studied immunohistochemically to characterize the infiltrating inflammatory cells. In patients with cement-producing ticks, the cement substance was observed as external cement or outer zone of internal cement, respectively. Coagulative necrosis was present in the epidermis in one patient and from the epidermis to the dermis in another patient...
September 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Darko Mihaljica, Dragana Marković, Željko Radulović, Albert Mulenga, Sanja Ćakić, Ratko Sukara, Zorana Milanović, Snežana Tomanović
Due to the recorded spreading of ticks in past years, a higher incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can be expected in the future in endemic areas, but can also pose an emerging public health concern in areas where they have not yet been recognized. Assessment of the exposure of vulnerable hosts to ticks would be a very helpful tool for TBD epidemiological studies, as well as for their proper managing. To confirm previous tick bites, the method of choice is detection of antibodies in host serum as markers developed against injected tick saliva proteins during feeding...
August 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Mária Kazimírová, Saravanan Thangamani, Pavlína Bartíková, Meghan Hermance, Viera Holíková, Iveta Štibrániová, Patricia A Nuttall
Ticks are efficient vectors of arboviruses, although less than 10% of tick species are known to be virus vectors. Most tick-borne viruses (TBV) are RNA viruses some of which cause serious diseases in humans and animals world-wide. Several TBV impacting human or domesticated animal health have been found to emerge or re-emerge recently. In order to survive in nature, TBV must infect and replicate in both vertebrate and tick cells, representing very different physiological environments. Information on molecular mechanisms that allow TBV to switch between infecting and replicating in tick and vertebrate cells is scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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