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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723373/skin-manifestations-of-tick-bites-in-humans
#1
Vidal Haddad, Michel Raineri Haddad, Mônica Santos, João Luiz Costa Cardoso
Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods that attach to human skin through oral devices causing diverse initial cutaneous manifestations, and may also transmit serious infectious diseases. In certain situations, the Health Teams (and especially dermatologists) may face difficulties in identifying the lesions and associating them to the parasites. To assist them in clinical diagnosis, we suggest a classification of the skin manifestations in primary lesions, which occur by the attachment the tick to the host (for toxicity and the anticoagulant substances in the saliva and/or marked inflammation by the penetration and permanence of the mouthparts) and secondary lesions that are manifestations of infections caused by rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa and fungi inoculated by the ticks...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705147/anti-neoplastic-activity-of-amblyomma-sculptum-amblyomma-parvum-and-riphicephalus-sanguineus-tick-saliva-on-breast-tumor-cell-lines
#2
Ana Carolina Prado Sousa, Carlo José Freire Oliveira, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Cancer is one of the most troubling diseases and is becoming increasingly common. Breast cancer has a high cure rate when diagnosed early, but when diagnosed late, treatment is frequently painful, devastating and unsuccessful. The search for new treatments that are more effective and less harmful has led to several substances and biomolecules from plants and animals with potential anti-tumor activity. Within this context, ticks have emerged as an excellent source of new molecules with a wide array of therapeutic properties...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657015/are-recreational-areas-a-risk-factor-for-tick-paralysis-in-urban-environments
#3
Maria Gerasimova, Mark Kelman, Michael P Ward
In Australia, tick paralysis in dogs (caused by a toxin in the saliva of Ixodes species during feeding) is a serious, distressing condition, and untreated it is often fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between parkland (recreational or natural) in an urban area and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis. Brisbane, as a large urban centre located within the zone of paralysis tick habitat along the east coast of Australia, was selected as the study area. Postcodes selected for inclusion were those defined as being of an urban character (Australian Bureau of Statistics)...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652888/sialome-diversity-of-ticks-revealed-by-rnaseq-of-single-tick-salivary-glands
#4
Jan Perner, Sára Kropáčková, Petr Kopáček, José M C Ribeiro
Ticks salivate while feeding on their hosts. Saliva helps blood feeding through host anti-hemostatic and immunomodulatory components. Previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies revealed the complexity of tick saliva, comprising hundreds of polypeptides grouped in several multi-genic families such as lipocalins, Kunitz-domain containing peptides, metalloproteases, basic tail secreted proteins, and several other families uniquely found in ticks. These studies also revealed that the composition of saliva changes with time; expression of transcripts from the same family wax and wane as a function of feeding time...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555911/ixonnexin-from-tick-saliva-promotes-fibrinolysis-by-interacting-with-plasminogen-and-tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-and-prevents-arterial-thrombosis
#5
Teresa C Assumpção, Daniella M Mizurini, Dongying Ma, Robson Q Monteiro, Sydney Ahlstedt, Morayma Reyes, Michail Kotsyfakis, Thomas N Mather, John F Andersen, Jan Lukszo, José M C Ribeiro, Ivo M B Francischetti
Tick saliva is a rich source of modulators of vascular biology. We have characterized Ixonnexin, a member of the "Basic-tail" family of salivary proteins from the tick Ixodes scapularis. Ixonnexin is a 104 residues (11.8 KDa), non-enzymatic basic protein which contains 3 disulfide bonds and a C-terminal rich in lysine. It is homologous to SALP14, a tick salivary FXa anticoagulant. Ixonnexin was produced by ligation of synthesized fragments (51-104) and (1-50) followed by folding. Ixonnexin, like SALP14, interacts with FXa...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529851/expression-patterns-of-host-inflammatory-cytokine-genes-during-infestation-with-haemaphysalis-longicornis-a-zoonotic-vector-in-blood-sucking-periods
#6
Mohammad Saiful Islam, Myung-Jo You
Tick saliva is critically important for continuous attachment to the host, blood feeding for days, and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. To characterize the patterns of inflammatory cytokine gene expression during its attachment and blood sucking time, peripheral blood samples of rabbits infested with Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were collected at different intervals. Blood histamine concentration was evaluated as well as gene encoding IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were compared with non-infested rabbits...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394366/amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-ticks-are-not-vectors-of-the-lyme-disease-agent-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirocheatales-spirochaetaceae-a-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Ellen Y Stromdahl, Robyn M Nadolny, Graham J Hickling, Sarah A Hamer, Nicholas H Ogden, Cory Casal, Garrett A Heck, Jennifer A Gibbons, Taylor F Cremeans, Mark A Pilgard
In the early 1980s, Ixodes spp. ticks were implicated as the key North American vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner) (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Concurrently, other human-biting tick species were investigated as potential B. burgdorferi vectors. Rashes thought to be erythema migrans were observed in patients bitten by Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks, and spirochetes were visualized in a small percentage of A...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313244/meningoencephaloradiculitis-following-infection-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
March 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250492/transcriptional-immunoprofiling-at-the-tick-virus-host-interface-during-early-stages-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-transmission
#9
Saravanan Thangamani, Meghan E Hermance, Rodrigo I Santos, Mirko Slovak, Dar Heinze, Steven G Widen, Maria Kazimirova
Emerging and re-emerging diseases transmitted by blood feeding arthropods are significant global public health problems. Ticks transmit the greatest variety of pathogenic microorganisms of any blood feeding arthropod. Infectious agents transmitted by ticks are delivered to the vertebrate host together with saliva at the bite site. Tick salivary glands produce complex cocktails of bioactive molecules that facilitate blood feeding and pathogen transmission by modulating host hemostasis, pain/itch responses, wound healing, and both innate and adaptive immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209593/analysis-of-the-salivary-gland-transcriptome-of-unfed-and-partially-fed-amblyomma-sculptum-ticks-and-descriptive-proteome-of-the-saliva
#10
Eliane Esteves, Sandra R Maruyama, Rebeca Kawahara, André Fujita, Larissa A Martins, Adne A Righi, Francisco B Costa, Giuseppe Palmisano, Marcelo B Labruna, Anderson Sá-Nunes, José M C Ribeiro, Andréa C Fogaça
Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogenic microorganisms to their vertebrate hosts. Amblyomma sculptum is vector of Rickettsia rickettsii , the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most lethal rickettsiosis that affects humans. It is known that the transmission of pathogens by ticks is mainly associated with the physiology of the feeding process. Pathogens that are acquired with the blood meal must first colonize the tick gut and later the salivary glands (SG) in order to be transmitted during a subsequent blood feeding via saliva...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164067/tick-borne-transmission-of-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68
#11
Valeria Hajnická, Marcela Kúdelová, Iveta Štibrániová, Mirko Slovák, Pavlína Bartíková, Zuzana Halásová, Peter Pančík, Petra Belvončíková, Michaela Vrbová, Viera Holíková, Rosemary S Hails, Patricia A Nuttall
Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156399/saliva-of-ixodes-ricinus-enhances-tbe-virus-replication-in-dendritic-cells-by-modulation-of-pro-survival-akt-pathway
#12
Jaroslava Lieskovská, Jana Páleníková, Helena Langhansová, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký
It has been suggested that tick saliva facilitates transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) to vertebrates. The mechanism of this facilitation has not been elucidated yet. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are among first cells attacked by the virus, we examined the amount of virus and changes induced by saliva in TBEV-infected DCs. We found that virus replication was significantly increased by saliva of Ixodes ricinus tick. Next, saliva-induced enhancement of Akt pathway activation was observed in TBEV-infected DCs...
January 15, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144218/characterization-of-a-glycine-rich-protein-from-rhipicephalus-microplus-tissue-expression-gene-silencing-and-immune-recognition
#13
B F Leal, M F Alzugaray, A Seixas, I Da Silva Vaz, C A S Ferreira
Salivary molecules, as glycine-rich proteins (GRPs), are essential to tick attachment and feeding on the host and are suggested to be involved in the host's immune system evasion, therefore representing natural candidates in the search for protective vaccine antigens. This work shows the molecular characterization of a GRP from Rhipicephalus microplus (RmGRP). The cDNA and putative amino acid sequences were analysed, as well as the transcription level in tick tissues/developmental stages, showing the highest levels of gene expression in 1-day-old larvae and salivary glands of fully engorged females...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104829/water-absorption-through-salivary-gland-type-i-acini-in-the-blacklegged-tick-ixodes-scapularis
#14
Donghun Kim, Paulina Maldonado-Ruiz, Ludek Zurek, Yoonseong Park
Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063857/anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-activity-in-saliva-of-various-tick-species-and-its-appearance-during-the-feeding-period
#15
Marketa Rezkova, Jan Kopecky
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammatory process. In the skin, it contributes to immune containment of tick-transmitted pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi. In the saliva of some tick species, active compounds are present that inhibit detection of TNF in specific ELISA. We compared the presence of anti-TNF activity in saliva or salivary gland extract from 11 tick species from the family Ixodidae and demonstrated it in genera Ixodes Latreille, 1795 and Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844. Analysis of anti-TNF activity in Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) saliva during the feeding period showed that it is present in the late, rapid phase of engorgement...
October 20, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029126/hyalomma-dromedarii-acari-ixodidae-salivary-gland-extract-inhibits-angiogenesis-and-exhibits-in-vitro-antitumor-effects
#16
Chaima Bensaoud, Zaineb Abdelkafi-Koubaa, Hazem Ben Mabrouk, Maram Morjen, Issam Hmila, Adel Rhim, Mohamed El Ayeb, Naziha Marrakchi, Ali Bouattour, Youmna M'ghirbi
Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are blood-sucking ectoparasites characterized by the extended period of their attachment to their host. To access their bloodmeal, ticks secrete saliva containing a range of molecules that target the host's inflammation, immune system, and hemostatic components. Some of these molecules reportedly possess antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. The present study describes our investigation, the first of its kind, of the antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of the Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), salivary gland extract (SGE), which inhibited the adhesion and migration of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner, as well as angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane model...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026848/drug-induced-sialorrhea-and-microfluidic-chip-electrophoretic-analysis-of-engorged-adult-female-tick-saliva-of-haemaphysalis-longicornis-acari-ixodidae
#17
Mohammad Saiful Islam, Myung Jo You
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to induce salivation in Haemaphysalis longicornis to increase saliva production and to characterize the collection of proteins present in the collected saliva using on-chip-electrophoresis. METHODS: Saliva of adult female engorged H. longicornis was collected by treatment with 0.2% dopamine hydrochloride. All protein samples were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis using a microfluidic High Sensitivity Protein Assay 250 kit by 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, USA) under non-reducing conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991904/epidemiological-consequences-of-immune-sensitisation-by-pre-exposure-to-vector-saliva
#18
Tsukushi Kamiya, Megan A Greischar, Nicole Mideo
Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Such pre-sensitisation of host immunity has been reported to both exacerbate and limit infection symptoms, depending on the system in question, with potential implications for recovery...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989068/transcriptome-and-toxin-family-analysis-of-the-paralysis-tick-ixodes-holocyclus
#19
Manuel Rodriguez-Valle, Paula Moolhuijzen, Roberto A Barrero, Chian Teng Ong, Greta Busch, Thomas Karbanowicz, Mitchell Booth, Richard Clark, Johannes Koehbach, Hina Ijaz, Kevin Broady, Kim Agnew, Aleta G Knowles, Matthew I Bellgard, Ala E Tabor
The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) secretes neuropathic toxins into saliva that induce host paralysis. Salivary glands and viscera were dissected from fully engorged female I. holocyclus ticks collected from dogs and cats with paralysis symptoms. cDNA from both tissue samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 100 bp pair end read technologies. Unique and non-redundant holocyclotoxin sequences were designated as HT2-HT19, as none were identical to the previously described HT1. Specific binding to rat synaptosomes was determined for synthetic HTs, and their neurotoxic capacity was determined by neonatal mouse assay...
January 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959131/a-histopathologic-study-of-the-human-skin-in-the-early-stage-after-a-tick-bite-a-special-reference-to-cutaneous-tissue-reaction-to-the-cement-substance-of-tick-saliva
#20
Motoyuki Mihara
The Ixodidae family of hard ticks has cement-producing and non-cement-producing species. Involved skins of four patients bitten by cement-producing ticks and two by non-cement-producing ticks were histopathologically examined. Those of the latter two patients were also studied immunohistochemically to characterize the infiltrating inflammatory cells. In patients with cement-producing ticks, the cement substance was observed as external cement or outer zone of internal cement, respectively. Coagulative necrosis was present in the epidermis in one patient and from the epidermis to the dermis in another patient...
September 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
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