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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473453/in-silico-target-network-analysis-of-de-novo-discovered-tick-saliva-specific-micrornas-reveals-important-combinatorial-effects-in-their-interference-with-vertebrate-host-physiology
#1
Michael Hackenberg, David Langenberger, Alexandra Schwarz, Jan Erhart, Michail Kotsyfakis
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an important disease vector whose salivary secretions mediate blood feeding success on vertebrate hosts, including humans. Here we describe the expression profiles and downstream analysis of de novo discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in I. ricinus salivary glands and saliva. Eleven tick-derived libraries were sequenced to produce 67,375,557 Illumina reads. De novo prediction yielded 67 bona-fide miRNAs out of which 35 are currently not present in miRBase. We report for the first time the presence of microRNAs in tick saliva obtaining furthermore molecular indicators that those might be of exosomal origin...
May 4, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446245/mining-a-differential-sialotranscriptome-of-rhipicephalus-microplus-guides-antigen-discovery-to-formulate-a-vaccine-that-reduces-tick-infestations
#2
Sandra R Maruyama, Gustavo R Garcia, Felipe R Teixeira, Lucinda G Brandão, Jennifer M Anderson, José M C Ribeiro, Jesus G Valenzuela, Jana Horackova, Cecília J Veríssimo, Luciana M Katiki, Tamy M Banin, Amanda F Zangirolamo, Luiz G Gardinassi, Beatriz R Ferreira, Isabel K F de Miranda-Santos
BACKGROUND: Ticks cause massive damage to livestock and vaccines are one sustainable substitute for the acaricides currently heavily used to control infestations. To guide antigen discovery for a vaccine that targets the gamut of parasitic strategies mediated by tick saliva and enables immunological memory, we exploited a transcriptome constructed from salivary glands from all stages of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks feeding on genetically tick-resistant and susceptible bovines. RESULTS: Different levels of host anti-tick immunity affected gene expression in tick salivary glands; we thus selected four proteins encoded by genes weakly expressed in ticks attempting to feed on resistant hosts or otherwise abundantly expressed in ticks fed on susceptible hosts; these sialoproteins mediate four functions of parasitism deployed by male ticks and that do not induce antibodies in naturally infected, susceptible bovines...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438088/anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-species-infections-in-cats
#3
Maria Grazia Pennisi, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Alan D Radford, Séverine Tasker, Sándor Belák, Diane D Addie, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Tadeusz Frymus, Tim Gruffydd-Jones, Katrin Hartmann, Marian C Horzinek, Margaret J Hosie, Albert Lloret, Hans Lutz, Fulvio Marsilio, Etienne Thiry, Uwe Truyen, Karin Möstl
Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and coinfections are possible. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific, consisting of fever, anorexia and lethargy...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392782/anti-biofilm-activity-of-a-self-aggregating-peptide-against-streptococcus-mutans
#4
Juliana M Ansari, Nabil M Abraham, Jenna Massaro, Kelsey Murphy, Jillian Smith-Carpenter, Erol Fikrig
Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental cavities, in large part due to its ability to adhere to teeth and create a molecular scaffold of glucan polysaccharides on the tooth surface. Disrupting the architecture of S. mutans biofilms could help undermine the establishment of biofilm communities that cause cavities and tooth decay. Here we present a synthetic peptide P1, derived from a tick antifreeze protein, which significantly reduces S. mutans biofilm formation. Incubating cells with this peptide decreased biofilm biomass by approximately 75% in both a crystal violet microplate assay and an in vitro tooth model using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382676/natural-genomic-amplification-of-cholinesterase-genes-in-animals
#5
REVIEW
Arnaud Chatonnet, Nicolas Lenfant, Pascale Marchot, Murray E Selkirk
Tight control of the concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses requires precise regulation of the number and state of the acetylcholine receptors, and of the synthesis and degradation of the neurotransmitter. In particular, the cholinesterase activity has to be controlled exquisitely. In the genome of the first experimental models used (man, mouse, zebrafish and drosophila), there are only one or two genes coding for cholinesterases, whereas there are more genes for their closest relatives the carboxylesterases...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363953/avathrin-a-novel-thrombin-inhibitor-derived-from-a-multi-copy-precursor-in-the-salivary-glands-of-the-ixodid-tick-amblyomma-variegatum
#6
Janaki Krishnamoorthy Iyer, Cho Yeow Koh, Maria Kazimirova, Ladislav Roller, Chacko Jobichen, Kunchithapadam Swaminathan, Jun Mizuguchi, Sadaaki Iwanaga, Patricia A Nuttall, Mark Y Chan, R Manjunatha Kini
Tick saliva is a rich source of antihemostatic compounds. We amplified a cDNA from the salivary glands of the tropical bont tick (Amblyomma variegatum) using primers based on the variegin sequence, which we previously identified as a novel thrombin inhibitor from the same tick species. The transcript encodes a precursor protein comprising a signal peptide and 5 repeats of variegin-like sequences that could be processed into multiple short peptides. These peptides share 31 to 34% identity with variegin. Here, we structurally and functionally characterized one of these peptides named "avathrin...
March 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361038/tick-thioester-containing-proteins-and-phagocytosis-do-not-affect-transmission-of-borrelia-afzelii-from-the-competent-vector-ixodes-ricinus
#7
Veronika Urbanová, Ondřej Hajdušek, Helena Hönig Mondeková, Radek Šíma, Petr Kopáček
The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300174/ticks-elicit-variable-f%C3%A2-ibrinogenolytic-activities-upon-feeding-on-hosts-with-different-immune-backgrounds
#8
Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, Sucharita M Dutta, John F Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E Sonenshine, John D Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288696/immune-recognition-of-salivary-proteins-from-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-differs-according-to-the-genotype-of-the-bovine-host
#9
Gustavo Rocha Garcia, Sandra Regina Maruyama, Kristina T Nelson, José Marcos Chaves Ribeiro, Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi, Antonio Augusto Mendes Maia, Beatriz Rossetti Ferreira, Frans N J Kooyman, Isabel K F de Miranda Santos
BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes...
March 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287618/metabolomics-of-the-tick-borrelia-interaction-during-the-nymphal-tick-blood-meal
#10
J Charles Hoxmeier, Amy C Fleshman, Corey D Broeckling, Jessica E Prenni, Marc C Dolan, Kenneth L Gage, Lars Eisen
The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273338/prevalence-of-type-i-sensitization-to-alpha-gal-in-forest-service-employees-and-hunters
#11
Jörg Fischer, Elena Lupberger, Johanna Hebsaker, Gunnar Blumenstock, Elisabeth Aichinger, Amir S Yazdi, Doris Reick, Rainer Oehme, Tilo Biedermann
BACKGROUND: The production of IgE molecules specific to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) is known to induce delayed anaphylaxis against mammalian meat. Tick bites constitute the primary sensitization source, as ticks transfer alpha-gal in their saliva to a host during a bite. The reported prevalence of alpha-gal-specific IgE (alpha-gal-sIgE) positivity varies between different populations from diverse geographic regions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of alpha-gal-sIgE positivity in a population of forest service employees who are highly exposed to ticks in comparison with a residential population and a historic sample...
March 8, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213103/expression-and-characterization-of-haemathrins-madanin-like-thrombin-inhibitors-isolated-from-the-salivary-gland-of-tick-haemaphysalis-bispinosa-acari-ixodidae
#12
Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Guillaume Blanchet, Simran Kaur, R Manjunatha Kini, Robin Doley
Saliva of hematophagous animals, such as ticks, is an excellent source of anticoagulant proteins and polypeptides. Here we describe the identification and characterization of two thrombin inhibitors named as haemathrin 1 and 2 from the salivary gland of tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa using genomic approach. Haemathrins are cysteine-less peptide anticoagulants, which share about 65-70% identity with madanins, and belong to inhibitor I53 superfamily of inhibitors of the MEROPS database. Haemathrins were overexpressed in E...
April 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119040/ixodes-ricinus-immunogenic-saliva-protein-homologue-to-amblyomma-americanum-av422-determining-its-potential-for-use-in-tick-bite-confirmation
#13
Darko Mihaljica, Dragana Marković, Željko Radulović, Albert Mulenga, Sanja Ćakić, Ratko Sukara, Jelena Samardžić, Snežana Tomanović
Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I...
January 10, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055573/guidelines-for-the-detection-of-babesia-and-theileria-parasites
#14
Laetitia Lempereur, Relja Beck, Isabel Fonseca, Cátia Marques, Ana Duarte, Marcos Santos, Sara Zúquete, Jacinto Gomes, Gernot Walder, Ana Domingos, Sandra Antunes, Gad Baneth, Cornelia Silaghi, Patricia Holman, Annetta Zintl
The genera Babesia and Theileria (phylum Apicomplexa, order Piroplasmida) are mainly transmitted by Ixodid ticks in which the sexual part of their life cycle followed by sporogony takes place. They include protozoan parasites that infect erythrocytes of a variety of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals, with some Babesia spp. also infecting humans. Babesia sporozoites transmitted in the tick's saliva during the bloodmeal directly infect erythrocytes, where they asexually multiply to produce pear-shaped merozoites in the process of merogony; whereas a pre-erythrocytic schizogonic life stage in leukocytes is found in Theileria and precedes merogony in the erythrocytes...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049606/an-insight-into-the-sialome-of-hyalomma-excavatum
#15
José M C Ribeiro, Mirko Slovák, Ivo M B Francischetti
Tick saliva contains hundreds or thousands of proteins that help blood feeding by impairing their hosts' hemostasis, inflammation and immunity. Salivary gland transcriptomes allow the disclosure of this pharmacologically active potion that consists of several multi-gene families, many of which are tick-specific. We here report the "de novo" assembly of ∼138 million reads deriving from a cDNA library from salivary glands of adult male and female Hyalomma excavatum leading to the public deposition of 5337 coding sequences to GenBank...
February 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956779/inhibition-of-bovine-platelets-aggregation-in-response-to-hyalomma-anatolicum-salivary-gland-proteins-peptides
#16
Surbhi, Nirmal Sangwan, Arun K Sangwan, Vijender Singh, Ankit Kumar
AIM: Ticks are obligate ectoparasites that have an impact on wide range of vertebrates and also act as a potential vector for the transmission of tropical theileriosis, babesiosis, etc., causing significant loss to livestock production worldwide. While feeding, they introduce their saliva containing different bioactive molecules into the host. These molecules have the capability to counteract the host hemostatic mechanism to suck host blood successfully. Therefore, the study was aimed to isolate anti-platelet aggregating peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE) of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks, a commonly available tick in India...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955695/exon-intron-structure-and-sequence-variation-of-the-calreticulin-gene-among-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-group-ticks
#17
Daniele Porretta, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Valentina Mastrantonio, Roberta Iatta, Domenico Otranto, Sandra Urbanelli
BACKGROUND: Calreticulin proteins (CRTs) are important components of tick saliva, which is involved in the blood meal success, pathogen transmission and host allergic responses. The characterization of the genes encoding for salivary proteins, such as CRTs, is pivotal to understand the mechanisms of tick-host interaction during blood meal and to develop tick control strategies based on their inhibition. In hard ticks, crt genes were shown to have only one intron with conserved position among species...
December 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845251/heparan-sulfate-heparin-glycosaminoglycan-binding-alters-inhibitory-profile-and-enhances-anticoagulant-function-of-conserved-amblyomma-americanum-tick-saliva-serpin-19
#18
Željko M Radulović, Albert Mulenga
Some serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulators of essential life pathways bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to enhance inhibitory functions and achieve physiologically relevant rates. This study demonstrates that highly conserved Amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19 (AAS19), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of hemostasis and inflammation system proteases and anticoagulant, can bind heparan sulfate/heparin (HS)GAGs and that this interaction alters its function. Substrate hydrolysis and unpaired t-test analyses revealed that HSGAG binding caused rAAS19 inhibitory activity to: (i) significantly increase against blood clotting factors (f) IIa (thrombin) and fIXa, (ii) significantly reduce against fXa and fXIIa and (iii) moderate to no effect against trypsin, kallikrein, papain, and plasmin...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744637/bacteriological-analysis-of-saliva-from-partially-or-fully-engorged-female-adult-rhipicephalus-microplus-by-next-generation-sequencing
#19
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
January 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623398/characterization-of-the-early-local-immune-response-to-ixodes-ricinus-tick-bites-in-human-skin
#20
Martin Glatz, Terry Means, Josef Haas, Allen C Steere, Robert R Müllegger
Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (<24 hours of tick attachment) were characterized by a predominance of macrophages and dendritic cells, elevated mRNA levels of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4) and neutrophil chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL8), of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-5...
March 2017: Experimental Dermatology
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