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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#1
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930546/tick-host-pathogen-systems-immunobiology-an-interactive-trio
#2
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840367/assessment-of-using-recombinant-ixodes-ricinus-av422-saliva-protein-for-confirmation-of-tick-bites-in-hunting-dogs-as-naturally-infested-hosts
#3
Darko Mihaljica, Dragana Marković, Željko Radulović, Albert Mulenga, Sanja Ćakić, Ratko Sukara, Zorana Milanović, Snežana Tomanović
Due to the recorded spreading of ticks in past years, a higher incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can be expected in the future in endemic areas, but can also pose an emerging public health concern in areas where they have not yet been recognized. Assessment of the exposure of vulnerable hosts to ticks would be a very helpful tool for TBD epidemiological studies, as well as for their proper managing. To confirm previous tick bites, the method of choice is detection of antibodies in host serum as markers developed against injected tick saliva proteins during feeding...
August 24, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798904/tick-borne-viruses-and-biological-processes-at-the-tick-host-virus-interface
#4
REVIEW
Mária Kazimírová, Saravanan Thangamani, Pavlína Bartíková, Meghan Hermance, Viera Holíková, Iveta Štibrániová, Patricia A Nuttall
Ticks are efficient vectors of arboviruses, although less than 10% of tick species are known to be virus vectors. Most tick-borne viruses (TBV) are RNA viruses some of which cause serious diseases in humans and animals world-wide. Several TBV impacting human or domesticated animal health have been found to emerge or re-emerge recently. In order to survive in nature, TBV must infect and replicate in both vertebrate and tick cells, representing very different physiological environments. Information on molecular mechanisms that allow TBV to switch between infecting and replicating in tick and vertebrate cells is scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764815/a-proteomic-insight-into-the-midgut-proteome-of-ornithodoros-moubata-females-reveals-novel-information-on-blood-digestion-in-argasid-ticks
#5
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main African vector of the human relapsing fever agent Borrelia duttoni and the African swine fever virus. Together with saliva, the tick midgut forms part of the host-tick-pathogen interface, and numerous midgut proteins play key functions in the blood digestion-related process and the infection and transmission of pathogens. This work explores the composition of the midgut proteome of unfed and fed O. moubata females with the aim to complete the biological information already obtained from the midgut transcriptome and provide a more robust and comprehensive perspective of this biological system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734839/recombinant-expression-of-ixolaris-a-kunitz-type-inhibitor-from-the-tick-salivary-gland-for-nmr-studies
#6
V S De Paula, F H S Silva, I M B Francischetti, R Q Monteiro, A P Valente
Ixolaris is an anticoagulant protein identified in the tick saliva of Ixodes scapularis. Ixolaris contains 2 Kunitz like domains and binds to Factor Xa or Factor X as a scaffold for inhibition of the Tissue Factor (TF)/Factor VIIa (FVIIa). In contrast to tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), however, Ixolaris does not bind to the active site cleft of FXa. Instead, complex formation is mediated by the FXa heparin-binding exosite. Due to its potent and long-lasting antithrombotic activity, Ixolaris is a promising agent for anticoagulant therapy...
November 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713775/salivary-tick-cystatin-omc2-targets-lysosomal-cathepsins-s-and-c-in-human-dendritic-cells
#7
Tina Zavašnik-Bergant, Robert Vidmar, Andreja Sekirnik, Marko Fonović, Jiří Salát, Lenka Grunclová, Petr Kopáček, Boris Turk
To ensure successful feeding tick saliva contains a number of inhibitory proteins that interfere with the host immune response and help to create a permissive environment for pathogen transmission. Among the potential targets of the salivary cystatins are two host cysteine proteases, cathepsin S, which is essential for antigen- and invariant chain-processing, and cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase 1, DPP1), which plays a critical role in processing and activation of the granule serine proteases. Here, the effect of salivary cystatin OmC2 from Ornithodoros moubata was studied using differentiated MUTZ-3 cells as a model of immature dendritic cells of the host skin...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693553/interaction-between-saliva-s-adenosine-and-tick-parasitism-effects-on-feeding-and-reproduction
#8
Elen Anatriello, Carlo José Freire Oliveira, Nathália Baptista Oliveira, Andressa Fisch, Cristiane Maria Milanezi, João Santana da Silva, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda-Santos, Beatriz Rossetti Ferreira
BACKGROUND: It has recently been demonstrated that saliva from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks contains adenosine (ADO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), two non-protein molecules that have significant immunomodulatory properties. These molecules can inhibit cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs), while also reducing the expression of CD40 in these cells. However, more studies are needed for a better understanding of their participation in the feeding of ticks in vivo. This work, therefore, evaluated the importance of ADO during tick infestations...
July 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690983/the-essential-role-of-tick-salivary-glands-and-saliva-in-tick-feeding-and-pathogen-transmission
#9
REVIEW
Ladislav Šimo, Maria Kazimirova, Jennifer Richardson, Sarah I Bonnet
As long-term pool feeders, ticks have developed myriad strategies to remain discreetly but solidly attached to their hosts for the duration of their blood meal. The critical biological material that dampens host defenses and facilitates the flow of blood-thus assuring adequate feeding-is tick saliva. Saliva exhibits cytolytic, vasodilator, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activity. This essential fluid is secreted by the salivary glands, which also mediate several other biological functions, including secretion of cement and hygroscopic components, as well as the watery component of blood as regards hard ticks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655871/yeast-surface-display-identifies-a-family-of-evasins-from-ticks-with-novel-polyvalent-cc-chemokine-binding-activities
#10
Kamayani Singh, Graham Davies, Yara Alenazi, James R O Eaton, Akane Kawamura, Shoumo Bhattacharya
Chemokines function via G-protein coupled receptors in a robust network to recruit immune cells to sites of inflammation. Due to the complexity of this network, targeting single chemokines or receptors has not been successful in inflammatory disease. Dog tick saliva contains polyvalent CC-chemokine binding peptides termed evasins 1 and 4, that efficiently disrupt the chemokine network in models of inflammatory disease. Here we develop yeast surface display as a tool for functionally identifying evasins, and use it to identify 10 novel polyvalent CC-chemokine binding evasin-like peptides from salivary transcriptomes of eight tick species in Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma genera...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655322/interaction-of-primary-mast-cells-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-stricto-role-in-transmission-and-dissemination-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Quentin Bernard, Zhenping Wang, Anna Di Nardo, Nathalie Boulanger
BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis is a bacterium transmitted by hard ticks, Ixodes spp. Bacteria are injected into the host skin during the tick blood meal with tick saliva. There, Borrelia and saliva interact together with skin cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, mast cells and other specific immune cells before disseminating to target organs. METHODS: To study the role of mast cells in the transmission of Lyme borreliosis, we isolated mouse primary mast cells from bone marrow and incubated them in the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) and tick salivary gland extract...
June 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611951/protease-inhibitors-in-tick-saliva-the-role-of-serpins-and-cystatins-in-tick-host-pathogen-interaction
#12
REVIEW
Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kotál, Helena Langhansová, Michail Kotsyfakis
The publication of the first tick sialome (salivary gland transcriptome) heralded a new era of research of tick protease inhibitors, which represent important constituents of the proteins secreted via tick saliva into the host. Three major groups of protease inhibitors are secreted into saliva: Kunitz inhibitors, serpins, and cystatins. Kunitz inhibitors are anti-hemostatic agents and tens of proteins with one or more Kunitz domains are known to block host coagulation and/or platelet aggregation. Serpins and cystatins are also anti-hemostatic effectors, but intriguingly, from the translational perspective, also act as pluripotent modulators of the host immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473453/in-silico-target-network-analysis-of-de-novo-discovered-tick-saliva-specific-micrornas-reveals-important-combinatorial-effects-in-their-interference-with-vertebrate-host-physiology
#13
Michael Hackenberg, David Langenberger, Alexandra Schwarz, Jan Erhart, Michail Kotsyfakis
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an important disease vector whose salivary secretions mediate blood-feeding success on vertebrate hosts, including humans. Here we describe the expression profiles and downstream analysis of de novo-discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in I. ricinus salivary glands and saliva. Eleven tick-derived libraries were sequenced to produce 67,375,557 Illumina reads. De novo prediction yielded 67 bona fide miRNAs out of which 35 are currently not present in miRBase. We report for the first time the presence of microRNAs in tick saliva, obtaining furthermore molecular indicators that those might be of exosomal origin...
August 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446245/mining-a-differential-sialotranscriptome-of-rhipicephalus-microplus-guides-antigen-discovery-to-formulate-a-vaccine-that-reduces-tick-infestations
#14
Sandra R Maruyama, Gustavo R Garcia, Felipe R Teixeira, Lucinda G Brandão, Jennifer M Anderson, José M C Ribeiro, Jesus G Valenzuela, Jana Horackova, Cecília J Veríssimo, Luciana M Katiki, Tamy M Banin, Amanda F Zangirolamo, Luiz G Gardinassi, Beatriz R Ferreira, Isabel K F de Miranda-Santos
BACKGROUND: Ticks cause massive damage to livestock and vaccines are one sustainable substitute for the acaricides currently heavily used to control infestations. To guide antigen discovery for a vaccine that targets the gamut of parasitic strategies mediated by tick saliva and enables immunological memory, we exploited a transcriptome constructed from salivary glands from all stages of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks feeding on genetically tick-resistant and susceptible bovines. RESULTS: Different levels of host anti-tick immunity affected gene expression in tick salivary glands; we thus selected four proteins encoded by genes weakly expressed in ticks attempting to feed on resistant hosts or otherwise abundantly expressed in ticks fed on susceptible hosts; these sialoproteins mediate four functions of parasitism deployed by male ticks and that do not induce antibodies in naturally infected, susceptible bovines...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438088/anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-species-infections-in-cats-european-guidelines-from-the-abcd-on-prevention-and-management
#15
Maria Grazia Pennisi, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Alan D Radford, Séverine Tasker, Sándor Belák, Diane D Addie, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Tadeusz Frymus, Tim Gruffydd-Jones, Katrin Hartmann, Marian C Horzinek, Margaret J Hosie, Albert Lloret, Hans Lutz, Fulvio Marsilio, Etienne Thiry, Uwe Truyen, Karin Möstl
Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species and Rickettsia species are vector-borne pathogens infecting a wide variety of mammals, but causing disease in very few of them. Infection in cats: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the most important feline pathogen among these rickettsial organisms, and coinfections are possible. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of these agents in cats. Clinical signs are usually reported soon after tick infestation. They are mostly non-specific, consisting of fever, anorexia and lethargy...
May 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392782/anti-biofilm-activity-of-a-self-aggregating-peptide-against-streptococcus-mutans
#16
Juliana M Ansari, Nabil M Abraham, Jenna Massaro, Kelsey Murphy, Jillian Smith-Carpenter, Erol Fikrig
Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental cavities, in large part due to its ability to adhere to teeth and create a molecular scaffold of glucan polysaccharides on the tooth surface. Disrupting the architecture of S. mutans biofilms could help undermine the establishment of biofilm communities that cause cavities and tooth decay. Here we present a synthetic peptide P1, derived from a tick antifreeze protein, which significantly reduces S. mutans biofilm formation. Incubating cells with this peptide decreased biofilm biomass by approximately 75% in both a crystal violet microplate assay and an in vitro tooth model using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382676/natural-genomic-amplification-of-cholinesterase-genes-in-animals
#17
REVIEW
Arnaud Chatonnet, Nicolas Lenfant, Pascale Marchot, Murray E Selkirk
Tight control of the concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses requires precise regulation of the number and state of the acetylcholine receptors, and of the synthesis and degradation of the neurotransmitter. In particular, the cholinesterase activity has to be controlled exquisitely. In the genome of the first experimental models used (man, mouse, zebrafish and drosophila), there are only one or two genes coding for cholinesterases, whereas there are more genes for their closest relatives the carboxylesterases...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363953/avathrin-a-novel-thrombin-inhibitor-derived-from-a-multicopy-precursor-in-the-salivary-glands-of-the-ixodid-tick-amblyomma-variegatum
#18
Janaki Krishnamoorthy Iyer, Cho Yeow Koh, Maria Kazimirova, Ladislav Roller, Chacko Jobichen, Kunchithapadam Swaminathan, Jun Mizuguchi, Sadaaki Iwanaga, Patricia A Nuttall, Mark Y Chan, R Manjunatha Kini
Tick saliva is a rich source of antihemostatic compounds. We amplified a cDNA from the salivary glands of the tropical bont tick (Amblyomma variegatum) using primers based on the variegin sequence, which we previously identified as a novel thrombin inhibitor from the same tick species. The transcript encodes a precursor protein comprising a signal peptide and 5 repeats of variegin-like sequences that could be processed into multiple short peptides. These peptides share 31 to 34% identity with variegin. Here, we structurally and functionally characterized one of these peptides named "avathrin...
July 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361038/tick-thioester-containing-proteins-and-phagocytosis-do-not-affect-transmission-of-borrelia-afzelii-from-the-competent-vector-ixodes-ricinus
#19
Veronika Urbanová, Ondřej Hajdušek, Helena Hönig Mondeková, Radek Šíma, Petr Kopáček
The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300174/ticks-elicit-variable-f%C3%A2-ibrinogenolytic-activities-upon-feeding-on-hosts-with-different-immune-backgrounds
#20
Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, Sucharita M Dutta, John F Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E Sonenshine, John D Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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