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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188992/tracking-the-catalytic-cycle-of-adenylate-kinase-by-ultraviolet-photodissociation-mass-spectrometry
#1
M Rachel Mehaffey, Michael B Cammarata, Jennifer S Brodbelt
The complex interplay of dynamic protein plasticity and specific side-chain interactions with substrate molecules that allows enzymes to catalyze reactions has yet to be fully unraveled. Top-down ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry is used to track conformational fluctuations of phosphotransferase adenylate kinase (AK) throughout its active reaction cycle by characterization of complexes containing AK and one of four adenosine phosphate ligands. Variations in efficiencies of UVPD backbone cleavages were consistently observed for three α-helices and the adenosine binding regions for AK complexes representing different steps of the catalytic cycle, implying that these stretches of the protein sample various structural microstates as the enzyme undergoes global open-to-closed transitions...
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069491/a-review-on-variation-of-natural-radioactivity-along-the-southeast-coast-of-tamil-nadu-for-the-past-4-decades-1974-2016
#2
G Sankaran Pillai, S Chandrasekaran, K Sivasubramanian, R Baskaran, B Venkatraman
This review deals with natural radioactivity variation along the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu for the past four decades (1974-2016). About 40 research works have been conducted along the coast since 1974 in various environmental matrices using a variety of experimental methods. For these measurements researchers are adopted different experimental methods. The measured gamma dose rate ranged from 30 to 8700 nGy/h. The mean specific activity of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K was found to be 58.8 ± 28.7, 465.2 ± 147...
October 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067810/a-solid-state-intrinsically-stretchable-polymer-solar-cell
#3
Lu Li, Jiajie Liang, Huier Gao, Ying Li, Xiaofan Niu, Xiaodan Zhu, Yan Xiong, Qibing Pei
An organic solar cell based on a bulk heterojunction of a conjugated polymer and a methanofullerene PC61BM or PC71BM exhibits a complex morphology that controls both its photovoltaic and mechanical compliance (flexibility and stretchability). Here, the donor-acceptor blend of poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene) (PTB7) and PC71BM containing a small amount of diiodooctane (DIO) in the spin-casting solution is reported to exhibit elastic deformability. The blend comprises nanometer-size, nanocrystalline grains that are relatively uniformly distributed...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941060/capillarity-composited-recycled-paper-graphene-scaffold-for-lithium-sulfur-batteries-with-enhanced-capacity-and-extended-lifespan
#4
Yunya Zhang, Zan Gao, Xiaodong Li
An effective strategy to tackle the twin crises of global deforestation and fossil fuel depletion is to recycle biomass materials for energy storage devices. This study reports a unique and innovative solution to capitalize on a currently overlooked resource to produce high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries from recycled paper. The recycled paper fibers are creatively composited with graphene oxide sheets via a capillary adsorption method. The recycled paper/graphene oxide hybrid is then converted to activated paper carbon/reduced graphene oxide (APC/graphene) scaffold for sulfur infiltration...
September 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851517/an-integrative-appraisal-of-mechano-electric-feedback-mechanisms-in-the-heart
#5
Viviane Timmermann, Lars A Dejgaard, Kristina H Haugaa, Andrew G Edwards, Joakim Sundnes, Andrew D McCulloch, Samuel T Wall
Mechanically-induced alterations in cardiac electrophysiology are referred to as mechano-electric feedback (MEF), and play an important role in electrical regulation of cardiac performance. The influence of mechanical stress and strain on electrophysiology has been investigated at all levels, however the role of MEF in arrhythmia remains poorly understood. During the normal contraction of the heart, mechano-sensitive processes are an implicit component of cardiac activity. Under abnormal mechanical events, stretch-activated mechanisms may contribute to local or global changes in electrophysiology (EP)...
August 26, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838185/intradermal-administration-of-fractional-doses-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-a-dose-sparing-option-for-polio-immunization
#6
Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Diana Chang Blanc, Alejandro Ramirez Gonzalez, Darin Zehrung, Courtney Jarrahian, Grace Macklin, Roland W Sutter
A fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) administered by the intradermal route delivers one fifth of the full vaccine dose administered by the intramuscular route and offers a potential dose-sparing strategy to stretch the limited global IPV supply while further improving population immunity. Multiple studies have assessed immunogenicity of intradermal fIPV compared with the full intramuscular dose and demonstrated encouraging results. Novel intradermal devices, including intradermal adapters and disposable-syringe jet injectors, have also been developed and evaluated as alternatives to traditional Bacillus Calmette-Guérin needles and syringes for the administration of fIPV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838159/a-supply-and-demand-management-perspective-on-the-accelerated-global-introductions-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-in-a-constrained-supply-market
#7
Ian Lewis, Ann Ottosen, Jennifer Rubin, Diana Chang Blanc, Simona Zipursky, Emily Wootton
A total of 105 countries have introduced IPV as of September 2016 of which 85 have procured the vaccine through UNICEF. The Global Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 called for the rapid introduction of at least one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedules in 126 all OPV-using countries by the end of 2015. At the time of initiating the procurement process, demand was estimated based on global modeling rather than individual country indications. In its capacity as procurement agency for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF set out to secure access to IPV supply for around 100 countries...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759060/mechanical-response-of-collagen-networks-to-nonuniform-microscale-loads
#8
Brian Burkel, Jacob Notbohm
As force is applied to fibrous proteins such as collagen or fibrin, the fibers respond by bending, stretching, or buckling, which together bring about a nonlinear relationship between force and displacement. The nonlinearity is typically understood in terms of strain stiffening in uniform extension or shear, but there remains a critical lack of data on how fibrous materials respond to other more complicated loadings. Here we study the mechanics of collagen networks in response to nonuniform loads applied on the local scale of the fibers...
August 30, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714788/acute-effects-and-perceptions-of-deep-oscillation-therapy-for-improving-hamstring-flexibility
#9
Zachary K Winkelmann, Ethan J Roberts, Kenneth E Games
CONTEXT: Hamstring inflexibility is typically treated using therapeutic massage, stretching, and soft tissue mobilization. An alternative intervention is deep oscillation therapy (DOT). Currently, there is a lack of evidence to support DOT's effectiveness to improve flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of DOT to improve hamstring flexibility. DESIGN: Randomized single-cohort. SETTING: Research laboratory...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702845/regulation-of-cardiac-ca-2-and-ion-channels-by-shear-mechanotransduction
#10
REVIEW
Joon-Chul Kim, Min-Jeong Son, Jun Wang, Sun-Hee Woo
Cardiac contraction is controlled by a Ca(2+) signaling sequence that includes L-type Ca(2+) current-gated opening of Ca(2+) release channels (ryanodine receptors) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Local Ca(2+) signaling in the atrium differs from that in the ventricle because atrial myocytes lack transverse tubules and have more abundant corbular SR. Myocardium is subjected to a variety of forces with each contraction, such as stretch, shear stress, and afterload, and adapts to those mechanical stresses...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667050/regional-heterogeneity-in-the-mechanisms-of-myogenic-tone-in-hamster-arterioles
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William F Jackson, Erika M Boerman
Myogenic tone is an important feature of arterioles and resistance arteries, but the mechanisms responsible for this hallmark characteristic remain unclear. We used pharmacological inhibitors to compare the roles played by phospholipase C (PLC; 10 μM U73122), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs; 100 μM 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane), protein kinase C (10 μM bisindolylmaleimide I), angiotensin II type 1 receptors (1 μM losartan), Rho kinase (10 nM-30 μM Y27632 or 300 nM H1152), stretch-activated ion channels (10 nM-1 μM Gd(3+) or 5 μM spider venom toxin GsMTx-4) and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (0...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549188/eif5a-facilitates-translation-termination-globally-and-promotes-the-elongation-of-many-non-polyproline-specific-tripeptide-sequences
#12
Vicent Pelechano, Paula Alepuz
eIF5A is an essential protein involved in protein synthesis, cell proliferation and animal development. High eIF5A expression is observed in many tumor types and has been linked to cancer metastasis. Recent studies have shown that eIF5A facilitates the translation elongation of stretches of consecutive prolines. Activated eIF5A binds to the empty E-site of stalled ribosomes, where it is thought to interact with the peptidyl-tRNA situated at the P-site. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of ribosome stalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A depleted cells using 5Pseq...
July 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487080/astrocytic-expression-of-the-rna-regulator-hur-accentuates-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-acute-phase
#13
Thaddaeus Kwan, Candace L Floyd, Jason Patel, Amanda Mohaimany-Aponte, Peter H King
We recently showed that the RNA regulator, HuR, is translocated to the cytoplasm in astrocytes in the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI), consistent with its activation. HuR positively modulates expression of many pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-12, which are present at high levels in the early phase of SCI and exacerbate tissue damage. Knockdown of HuR in astrocytes blunts expression of these factors in an in vitro stretch injury model of CNS trauma. In this report, we further investigate the impact of HuR in early SCI using a mouse model in which human HuR is transgenically expressed in astrocytes...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435258/quantum-dots-modulate-intracellular-ca-2-level-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#14
Huijuan Yin, Jacopo M Fontana, Johan Solandt, Johnny Israelsson Jussi, Hao Xu, Hjalmar Brismar, Ying Fu
While adverse effects of nanoparticles on lung health have previously been proposed, few studies have addressed the direct effects of nanoparticle exposure on the airway epithelium. In this work, we examine the response of the pulmonary airway to nanoparticles by measuring intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in the Calu-3 epithelial layer stimulated by 3-mercaptopropionic-acid (3MPA) coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (QDs). Simultaneous transient transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decrease and global [Ca(2+)]i increase in Calu-3 epithelial layer, accompanied by cell displacements, contraction, and expansion, were observed under QD deposition...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395147/acute-effect-of-stretching-modalities-on-global-coordination-and-kicking-accuracy-in-12-13year-old-soccer-players
#15
Mohamed Frikha, Mohammad S Derbel, Nesrine Chaâri, Adnene Gharbi, Karim Chamari
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of stretching procedures on global coordination and accuracy in instep soccer kicks achieved in different stress conditions. Twenty male young soccer players completed the global coordination test (GC), the instep kicking accuracy test in free (FKA) and in time-pressure (TPKA) conditions, either after static (SS), dynamic (DS), ballistic (BS) or no-stretching (CTR) protocols, on nonconsecutive days and in a randomized order. After performing a 5min standardized intensity jogging (70% of MAV), followed by stretching exercises for 10min, each participant completed, successively, the GC, FKA and TPKA tests...
April 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371936/efficacy-of-task-specific-training-on-physical-activity-levels-of-people-with-stroke-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Júlia Caetano Martins, Larissa Tavares Aguiar, Sylvie Nadeau, Aline Alvim Scianni, Luci Fuscaldi Teixeira-Salmela, Christina Danielli Coelho De Morais Faria
Background: The majority of people after stroke demonstrate mobility limitations, which may reduce their physical activity levels. Task-specific training has been shown to be an effective intervention to improve mobility in individuals with stroke, however, little is known about the impact of this intervention on levels of physical activity. Objectives: The main objective is to investigate the efficacy of task-specific training, focused on both upper and lower limbs, in improving physical activity levels and mobility in individuals with stroke...
June 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329908/re-evaluating-the-roles-of-myosin-18a%C3%AE-and-f-actin-in-determining-golgi-morphology
#17
Kyle Bruun, Jordan R Beach, Sarah M Heissler, Kirsten Remmert, James R Sellers, John A Hammer
The peri-centrosomal localization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus depends largely on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the microtubule motor protein dynein. Recent studies proposed that myosin 18Aα (M18Aα) also contributes to Golgi morphology by binding the Golgi protein GOLPH3 and walking along adjacent actin filaments to stretch the Golgi into its classic ribbon structure. Biochemical analyses have shown, however, that M18A is not an actin-activated ATPase and lacks motor activity. Our goal, therefore, was to define the precise molecular mechanism by which M18Aα determines Golgi morphology...
March 22, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137981/sudden-cardiac-death-the-pro-arrhythmic-interaction-of-an-acute-loading-with-an-underlying-substrate
#18
George R Sutherland
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a complex phenomenon, occurring either in apparently normal individuals or in those where there is a recognized underlying cardiac abnormality. In both groups, the lethal arrhythmia has frequently been related to the physiologic trigger of either exercise or stress. Prior research into SCD has focused mainly on a combination of identifying either vulnerable myocardial substrates; pharmacological approaches to altering electrical activation/repolarisation in substrates; or the suppression of induced lethal arrhythmias with implantable defibrillators...
October 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088761/amplification-of-unscheduled-dna-synthesis-signal-enables-fluorescence-based-single-cell-quantification-of-transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision-repair
#19
Franziska Wienholz, Wim Vermeulen, Jurgen A Marteijn
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) comprises two damage recognition pathways: global genome NER (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), which remove a wide variety of helix-distorting lesions including UV-induced damage. During NER, a short stretch of single-stranded DNA containing damage is excised and the resulting gap is filled by DNA synthesis in a process called unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). UDS is measured by quantifying the incorporation of nucleotide analogues into repair patches to provide a measure of NER activity...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013045/the-mechanism-underlying-ler-mediated-alleviation-of-gene-repression-by-h-ns
#20
Minsang Shin
Secretion of effector proteins in Enteropathogeneic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is mediated by a specialized type III secretion system, components of which are encoded in the LEE operons 1 to 5. H-NS, a global repressor in E. coli, silences the expression of LEE operons. Ler, a master regulator in LEE operons, shares 24% amnio acid identity and 44% amino acid similarity to H-NS. Interestingly, rather than a gene silencer, its main role has been characterized as an antagonizing protein that relieves H-NS-mediated transcriptional silencing...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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