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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759060/mechanical-response-of-collagen-networks-to-nonuniform-microscale-loads
#1
Brian Burkel, Jacob Notbohm
As force is applied to fibrous proteins such as collagen or fibrin, the fibers respond by bending, stretching, or buckling, which together bring about a nonlinear relationship between force and displacement. The nonlinearity is typically understood in terms of strain stiffening in uniform extension or shear, but there remains a critical lack of data on how fibrous materials respond to other more complicated loadings. Here we study the mechanics of collagen networks in response to nonuniform loads applied on the local scale of the fibers...
July 31, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714788/acute-effects-and-perceptions-of-deep-oscillation-therapy-for-improving-hamstring-flexibility
#2
Zachary K Winkelmann, Ethan J Roberts, Kenneth E Games
CONTEXT: Hamstring inflexibility is typically treated using therapeutic massage, stretching, and soft tissue mobilization. An alternative intervention is deep oscillation therapy (DOT). Currently, there is a lack of evidence to support DOT's effectiveness to improve flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of DOT to improve hamstring flexibility. DESIGN: Randomized single-cohort. SETTING: Research laboratory...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702845/regulation-of-cardiac-ca-2-and-ion-channels-by-shear-mechanotransduction
#3
REVIEW
Joon-Chul Kim, Min-Jeong Son, Jun Wang, Sun-Hee Woo
Cardiac contraction is controlled by a Ca(2+) signaling sequence that includes L-type Ca(2+) current-gated opening of Ca(2+) release channels (ryanodine receptors) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Local Ca(2+) signaling in the atrium differs from that in the ventricle because atrial myocytes lack transverse tubules and have more abundant corbular SR. Myocardium is subjected to a variety of forces with each contraction, such as stretch, shear stress, and afterload, and adapts to those mechanical stresses...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667050/regional-heterogeneity-in-the-mechanisms-of-myogenic-tone-in-hamster-arterioles
#4
William F Jackson, Erika M Boerman
Myogenic tone is an important feature of arterioles and resistance arteries, but the mechanisms responsible for this hallmark characteristic remain unclear. We utilized pharmacological inhibitors to compare the roles played by phospholipase C (PLC; 10 μM U73122), inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptors (IP3R; 100 μM 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborane, 2-APB), protein kinase C (PKC; 10μM Bisindolylmaleimide I), angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R; 1μM losartan), Rho-kinase (10nM-30μM Y27632 or 300nM H1152), stretch-activated ion channels (10nM-1μM Gd(3+) or 5μM spider venom toxin GsMTx-4) and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (0...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549188/eif5a-facilitates-translation-termination-globally-and-promotes-the-elongation-of-many-non-polyproline-specific-tripeptide-sequences
#5
Vicent Pelechano, Paula Alepuz
eIF5A is an essential protein involved in protein synthesis, cell proliferation and animal development. High eIF5A expression is observed in many tumor types and has been linked to cancer metastasis. Recent studies have shown that eIF5A facilitates the translation elongation of stretches of consecutive prolines. Activated eIF5A binds to the empty E-site of stalled ribosomes, where it is thought to interact with the peptidyl-tRNA situated at the P-site. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of ribosome stalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A depleted cells using 5Pseq...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487080/astrocytic-expression-of-the-rna-regulator-hur-accentuates-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-acute-phase
#6
Thaddaeus Kwan, Candace L Floyd, Jason Patel, Amanda Mohaimany-Aponte, Peter H King
We recently showed that the RNA regulator, HuR, is translocated to the cytoplasm in astrocytes in the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI), consistent with its activation. HuR positively modulates expression of many pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-12, which are present at high levels in the early phase of SCI and exacerbate tissue damage. Knockdown of HuR in astrocytes blunts expression of these factors in an in vitro stretch injury model of CNS trauma. In this report, we further investigate the impact of HuR in early SCI using a mouse model in which human HuR is transgenically expressed in astrocytes...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435258/quantum-dots-modulate-intracellular-ca-2-level-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#7
Huijuan Yin, Jacopo M Fontana, Johan Solandt, Johnny Israelsson Jussi, Hao Xu, Hjalmar Brismar, Ying Fu
While adverse effects of nanoparticles on lung health have previously been proposed, few studies have addressed the direct effects of nanoparticle exposure on the airway epithelium. In this work, we examine the response of the pulmonary airway to nanoparticles by measuring intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in the Calu-3 epithelial layer stimulated by 3-mercaptopropionic-acid (3MPA) coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (QDs). Simultaneous transient transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decrease and global [Ca(2+)]i increase in Calu-3 epithelial layer, accompanied by cell displacements, contraction, and expansion, were observed under QD deposition...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395147/acute-effect-of-stretching-modalities-on-global-coordination-and-kicking-accuracy-in-12-13year-old-soccer-players
#8
Mohamed Frikha, Mohammad S Derbel, Nesrine Chaâri, Adnene Gharbi, Karim Chamari
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of stretching procedures on global coordination and accuracy in instep soccer kicks achieved in different stress conditions. Twenty male young soccer players completed the global coordination test (GC), the instep kicking accuracy test in free (FKA) and in time-pressure (TPKA) conditions, either after static (SS), dynamic (DS), ballistic (BS) or no-stretching (CTR) protocols, on nonconsecutive days and in a randomized order. After performing a 5min standardized intensity jogging (70% of MAV), followed by stretching exercises for 10min, each participant completed, successively, the GC, FKA and TPKA tests...
April 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371936/efficacy-of-task-specific-training-on-physical-activity-levels-of-people-with-stroke-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Júlia Caetano Martins, Larissa Tavares Aguiar, Sylvie Nadeau, Aline Alvim Scianni, Luci Fuscaldi Teixeira-Salmela, Christina Danielli Coelho De Morais Faria
Background: The majority of people after stroke demonstrate mobility limitations, which may reduce their physical activity levels. Task-specific training has shown to be an effective intervention to improve mobility in individuals with stroke, however, little is known about the impact of this intervention on levels of physical activity. Objectives: The main objective will be to investigate the efficacy of a task-specific training, focused on both upper and lower limbs, in improving physical activity levels and mobility in individuals with stroke...
March 23, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329908/re-evaluating-the-roles-of-myosin-18a%C3%AE-and-f-actin-in-determining-golgi-morphology
#10
Kyle Bruun, Jordan R Beach, Sarah M Heissler, Kirsten Remmert, James R Sellers, John A Hammer
The peri-centrosomal localization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus depends largely on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the microtubule motor protein dynein. Recent studies proposed that myosin 18Aα (M18Aα) also contributes to Golgi morphology by binding the Golgi protein GOLPH3 and walking along adjacent actin filaments to stretch the Golgi into its classic ribbon structure. Biochemical analyses have shown, however, that M18A is not an actin-activated ATPase and lacks motor activity. Our goal, therefore, was to define the precise molecular mechanism by which M18Aα determines Golgi morphology...
March 22, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137981/sudden-cardiac-death-the-pro-arrhythmic-interaction-of-an-acute-loading-with-an-underlying-substrate
#11
George R Sutherland
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a complex phenomenon, occurring either in apparently normal individuals or in those where there is a recognized underlying cardiac abnormality. In both groups, the lethal arrhythmia has frequently been related to the physiologic trigger of either exercise or stress. Prior research into SCD has focused mainly on a combination of identifying either vulnerable myocardial substrates; pharmacological approaches to altering electrical activation/repolarisation in substrates; or the suppression of induced lethal arrhythmias with implantable defibrillators...
January 29, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088761/amplification-of-unscheduled-dna-synthesis-signal-enables-fluorescence-based-single-cell-quantification-of-transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision-repair
#12
Franziska Wienholz, Wim Vermeulen, Jurgen A Marteijn
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) comprises two damage recognition pathways: global genome NER (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), which remove a wide variety of helix-distorting lesions including UV-induced damage. During NER, a short stretch of single-stranded DNA containing damage is excised and the resulting gap is filled by DNA synthesis in a process called unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). UDS is measured by quantifying the incorporation of nucleotide analogues into repair patches to provide a measure of NER activity...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013045/the-mechanism-underlying-ler-mediated-alleviation-of-gene-repression-by-h-ns
#13
Minsang Shin
Secretion of effector proteins in Enteropathogeneic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is mediated by a specialized type III secretion system, components of which are encoded in the LEE operons 1 to 5. H-NS, a global repressor in E. coli, silences the expression of LEE operons. Ler, a master regulator in LEE operons, shares 24% amnio acid identity and 44% amino acid similarity to H-NS. Interestingly, rather than a gene silencer, its main role has been characterized as an antagonizing protein that relieves H-NS-mediated transcriptional silencing...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#14
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
January 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941488/no-differences-between-alter-g-trainer-and-active-and-passive-recovery-strategies-on-isokinetic-strength-systemic-oxidative-stress-and-perceived-muscle-soreness-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#15
Matthew B Cooke, Carrie Nix, Lori Greenwood, Mike Greenwood
The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes as well as weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between three recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15±3.53yrs, 75.75±11.91kg, 180.52±7.3cm) were randomly matched by VO2 peak (53...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782631/conformation-specific-spectroscopy-of-alkyl-benzyl-radicals-effects-of-a-radical-center-on-the-ch-stretch-infrared-spectrum-of-an-alkyl-chain
#16
Joseph A Korn, Daniel P Tabor, Edwin L Sibert, Timothy S Zwier
An important initial step in the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels is the abstraction of hydrogen from alkylbenzenes to form resonance-stabilized alkyl benzyl radicals. This work uses, for the first time, double resonance spectroscopy methods to explore the conformation-specific vibronic and infrared spectroscopy of the α-ethylbenzyl (αEtBz) and α-propylbenzyl (αPrBz) radicals. Local mode Hamiltonian modeling enables assignment of the alkyl CH stretch IR spectra, accounting for Fermi resonance that complicates aliphatic alkyl CH stretch IR spectroscopy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531064/mechanical-activation-of-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptors-causes-actin-remodelling-and-myogenic-responsiveness-in-skeletal-muscle-arterioles
#17
Kwangseok Hong, Guiling Zhao, Zhongkui Hong, Zhe Sun, Yan Yang, Philip S Clifford, Michael J Davis, Gerald A Meininger, Michael A Hill
KEY POINTS: Candesartan, an inverse agonist of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1 R), causes a concentration-dependent inhibition of pressure-dependent myogenic tone consistent with previous reports of mechanosensitivity of this G protein-coupled receptor. Mechanoactivation of the AT1 R occurs independently of local angiotensin II production and the type 2 angiotensin receptor. Mechanoactivation of the AT1 R stimulates actin polymerization by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism, but independently of a change in intracellular Ca(2+) ...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514482/measurement-of-strains-experienced-by-viscerofugal-nerve-cell-bodies-during-mechanosensitive-firing-using-digital-image-correlation
#18
Gwen Palmer, Timothy J Hibberd, Tiina Roose, Simon J H Brookes, Mark Taylor
Mechanosensory neurons detect physical events in the local environments of the tissues that they innervate. Studies of mechanosensitivity of neurons or nerve endings in the gut have related their firing to strain, wall tension, or pressure. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique from materials engineering that can be adapted to measure the local physical environments of afferent neurons at high resolution. Flat-sheet preparations of guinea pig distal colon were set up with arrays of tissue markers in vitro...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454124/relations-between-recent-past-leisure-activities-with-risks-of-dementia-and-cognitive-functions-after-stroke
#19
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Eugene Lo, Michael Tang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Nicole Tanner, Natalie Chau, Lorraine Law, Lin Shi, Winnie C W Chu, Jie Yang, Yun-Yun Xiong, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie Soo, Thomas W H Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Linda C W Lam, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. METHODS: Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372127/nutrient-variability-and-its-influence-on-nitrogen-processes-in-a-highly-turbid-tropical-estuary-bangpakong-gulf-of-thailand
#20
Adriano A Bordalo, Kashane Chalermwat, Catarina Teixeira
Estuarine ecosystems in SE Asia have been poorly studied when compared to other tropical environments. Important gaps exist particularly in the understanding of their biogeochemical function and contribution to global change. In this work we looked into N-turnover in the water column and sediments of the Bangpakong estuary (13°N). A seasonal sampling program was performed along the salinity gradient covering different stretches of the estuary (68km). Key physical and chemical characteristics were also monitored in order to unravel possible environmental controls...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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