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omnipresent neurons

Parisa Abedi Khoozani, Gunnar Blohm
Reference frame Transformations (RFTs) are crucial components of sensorimotor transformations in the brain. Stochasticity in RFTs has been suggested to add noise to the transformed signal due to variability in transformation parameter estimates (e.g. angle) as well as the stochastic nature of computations in spiking networks of neurons. Here, we varied the RFT angle together with the associated variability and evaluated the behavioral impact in a reaching task that required variability-dependent visual-proprioceptive multi-sensory integration...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
BACKGROUND: Lithium is the lightest metal and the only mood stabilizer that has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). As a small ion, lithium is omnipresent, and consequently, its molecular mechanisms and targets are widespread. Currently, lithium is a crucial pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute mood episodes, prophylactic therapy, and suicide prevention in BD. Besides, lithium blood level is the most widely used biomarker in clinical psychiatry...
June 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anders Enjin
Humidity is an omnipresent climatic factor that influences the fitness, reproductive behavior and geographic distribution of animals. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment. Although the sensory neurons of this elusive sense were first described more than fifty years ago, the transduction mechanism of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains unknown. Recent work has uncovered some of the key molecules involved, opening up for novel approaches to study hygrosensory transduction...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
John O'Brien
Essentially all animals with nervous systems utilize electrical synapses as a core element of communication. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions between neurons, provide rapid, bidirectional communication that accomplishes tasks distinct from and complementary to chemical synapses. These include coordination of neuron activity, suppression of voltage noise, establishment of electrical pathways that define circuits, and modulation of high order network behavior. In keeping with the omnipresent demand to alter neural network function in order to respond to environmental cues and perform tasks, electrical synapses exhibit extensive plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Benedikt Zoefel, Jordi Costa-Faidella, Peter Lakatos, Charles E Schroeder, Rufin VanRullen
Neural entrainment, the alignment between neural oscillations and rhythmic stimulation, is omnipresent in current theories of speech processing - nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we hypothesized that laminar recordings in non-human primates provide us with important insight into these mechanisms, in particular with respect to processing in cortical layers. We presented one monkey with human everyday speech sounds and recorded neural (as current-source density, CSD) oscillations in primary auditory cortex (A1)...
April 15, 2017: NeuroImage
Hannah Bos, Markus Diesmann, Moritz Helias
Oscillations are omnipresent in neural population signals, like multi-unit recordings, EEG/MEG, and the local field potential. They have been linked to the population firing rate of neurons, with individual neurons firing in a close-to-irregular fashion at low rates. Using a combination of mean-field and linear response theory we predict the spectra generated in a layered microcircuit model of V1, composed of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons and based on connectivity compiled from anatomical and electrophysiological studies...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Sebastian Curti, John O'Brien
Electrical synapses are an omnipresent feature of nervous systems, from the simple nerve nets of cnidarians to complex brains of mammals. Formed by gap junction channels between neurons, electrical synapses allow direct transmission of voltage signals between coupled cells. The relative simplicity of this arrangement belies the sophistication of these synapses. Coupling via electrical synapses can be regulated by a variety of mechanisms on times scales ranging from milliseconds to days, and active properties of the coupled neurons can impart emergent properties such as signal amplification, phase shifts and frequency-selective transmission...
May 24, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
Dieter Rehder
Vanadium is the 21st most abundant element in the Earth's crust and the 2nd-to-most abundant transition metal in sea water. The element is ubiquitous also in freshwater and nutrients. The average body load of a human individual amounts to 1 mg. The omnipresence of vanadium hampers checks directed towards its essentiality. However, since vanadate can be considered a close blueprint of phosphate with respect to its built-up, vanadate likely takes over a regulatory function in metabolic processes depending on phosphate...
2013: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
Samuel J Fountain
Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is omnipresent in biology. It is therefore no surprise that organisms have evolved multifaceted roles for ATP, exploiting its abundance and restriction of passive diffusion across biological membranes. A striking role is the emergence of ATP as a bona fide transmitter molecule, whereby the movement of ATP across membranes serves as a chemical message through a direct ligand-receptor interaction. P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast responses to the transmitter ATP in mammalian cells including central and sensory neurons, vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and leukocytes...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexander G Karczmar
Macromolecular cholinergic pathways are involved in the regulation of addiction, emotions, and motivations, as described at this ISCM. Indeed, in view of the omnipresence in the brain of cholinergic pathways and of their connections with other transmitters' sites and pathways, their involvement in all known human and animal behaviors could be expected and numerous current reports describe such cholinergic correlates. This minireview describes the current status and the future of the cholinergic impact on behavior and emotions, and particularly on one important human phenomenon, the "self" or the "I" (it is only speculative to impute the self to animals)...
July 2014: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Christopher J D Austin, Jan Kahlert, Michael Kassiou, Louis M Rendina
The translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18 kDa transmembrane protein primarily found in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it forms a key part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Omnipresent in almost all tissues, TSPO up-regulation has been connected to neuronal damage and inflammation, making the protein an important bio-imaging marker for disease progression. More recently, TSPO has attracted attention as a possible molecular target for tumour imaging and chemotherapy. In this review we summarize TSPO's molecular characteristics and highlight research progress in recent years in the field of TSPO-targeted cancer diagnostics and treatments...
July 2013: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Julie Goulet, J Leo van Hemmen, Sarah N Jung, Boris P Chagnaud, Björn Scholze, Jacob Engelmann
Fish and aquatic frogs detect minute water motion by means of a specialized mechanosensory system, the lateral line. Ubiquitous in fish, the lateral-line system is characterized by hair-cell based sensory structures across the fish's surface called neuromasts. These neuromasts occur free-standing on the skin as superficial neuromasts (SN) or are recessed into canals as canal neuromasts. SNs respond to rapid changes of water velocity in a small layer of fluid around the fish, including the so-called boundary layer...
May 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Djordje Miljković, Gordana Timotijević, Marija Mostarica Stojković
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell population within the CNS of mammals. Their glial role is perfectly performed in the healthy CNS as they support functions of neurons. The omnipresence of astrocytes throughout the white and grey matter and their intimate relation with blood vessels of the CNS, as well as numerous immunity-related actions that these cells are capable of, imply that astrocytes should have a prominent role in neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The role of astrocytes in MS is rather ambiguous, as they have the capacity to both stimulate and restrain neuroinflammation and tissue destruction...
December 1, 2011: FEBS Letters
E Pöppel
Temporal perception comprises subjective phenomena such as simultaneity, successiveness, temporal order, subjective present, temporal continuity and subjective duration. These elementary temporal experiences are hierarchically related to each other. Functional system states with a duration of 30 ms are implemented by neuronal oscillations and they provide a mechanism to define successiveness. These system states are also responsible for the identification of basic events. For a sequential representation of several events time tags are allocated, resulting in an ordinal representation of such events...
May 1997: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Colette M Maurer, Helia B Schönthaler, Kaspar P Mueller, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Mutations in ubiquitously expressed metabolic genes often lead to CNS-specific effects, presumably because of the high metabolic demands of neurons. However, mutations in omnipresent metabolic pathways can conceivably also result in cell type-specific effects because of cell-specific requirements for intermediate products. One such example is the zebrafish noir mutant, which we found to be mutated in the pdhb gene, coding for the E1 beta subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This vision mutant is described as blind and was isolated because of its vision defect-related darker appearance...
September 8, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A M Sebastião, J A Ribeiro
The 'omnipresence' of adenosine in all nervous system cells (neurons and glia) together with the intensive release of adenosine following insults, makes adenosine as a sort of 'maestro' of synapses leading to the homeostatic coordination of brain function. Besides direct actions of adenosine on the neurosecretory mechanisms, where adenosine operates to tune neurotransmitter release, receptor-receptor interactions as well as interplays between adenosine receptors and transporters occur as part of the adenosine's attempt to fine tuning synaptic transmission...
September 2009: Current Neuropharmacology
Axel Hutt, Andre Longtin
The neuronal mechanisms of general anesthesia are still poorly understood. Besides several characteristic features of anesthesia observed in experiments, a prominent effect is the bi-phasic change of power in the observed electroencephalogram (EEG), i.e. the initial increase and subsequent decrease of the EEG-power in several frequency bands while increasing the concentration of the anaesthetic agent. The present work aims to derive analytical conditions for this bi-phasic spectral behavior by the study of a neural population model...
March 2010: Cognitive Neurodynamics
H Steven Scholte, Sennay Ghebreab, Lourens Waldorp, Arnold W M Smeulders, Victor A F Lamme
The visual appearance of natural scenes is governed by a surprisingly simple hidden structure. The distributions of contrast values in natural images generally follow a Weibull distribution, with beta and gamma as free parameters. Beta and gamma seem to structure the space of natural images in an ecologically meaningful way, in particular with respect to the fragmentation and texture similarity within an image. Since it is often assumed that the brain exploits structural regularities in natural image statistics to efficiently encode and analyze visual input, we here ask ourselves whether the brain approximates the beta and gamma values underlying the contrast distributions of natural images...
2009: Journal of Vision
Frantisek Baluska, Markus Schlicht, Dieter Volkmann, Stefano Mancuso
The plant hormone auxin is secreted in root apices via phospholipase Dzeta2 (PLDzeta2) activity which produces specific population of phosphatidic acid that stimulates secretion of vesicles enriched with auxin. These vesicles were reported to be localized at plant synapses which are active in auxin secretion, especially at the transition zone of the root apex. There are several implications of this vesicular secretion of auxin. In root apices, auxin emerges as plant neurotransmitter-like signal molecule which coordinates activities of adjacent cells via electric and chemical signaling...
April 2008: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ana M Sebastião, Joaquim A Ribeiro
The adenosine receptors (ARs) in the nervous system act as a kind of "go-between" to regulate the release of neurotransmitters (this includes all known neurotransmitters) and the action of neuromodulators (e.g., neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors). Receptor-receptor interactions and AR-transporter interplay occur as part of the adenosine's attempt to control synaptic transmission. A(2A)ARs are more abundant in the striatum and A(1)ARs in the hippocampus, but both receptors interfere with the efficiency and plasticity-regulated synaptic transmission in most brain areas...
2009: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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