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omnipresent neurons

Hannah Bos, Markus Diesmann, Moritz Helias
Oscillations are omnipresent in neural population signals, like multi-unit recordings, EEG/MEG, and the local field potential. They have been linked to the population firing rate of neurons, with individual neurons firing in a close-to-irregular fashion at low rates. Using a combination of mean-field and linear response theory we predict the spectra generated in a layered microcircuit model of V1, composed of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons and based on connectivity compiled from anatomical and electrophysiological studies...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Sebastian Curti, John O'Brien
Electrical synapses are an omnipresent feature of nervous systems, from the simple nerve nets of cnidarians to complex brains of mammals. Formed by gap junction channels between neurons, electrical synapses allow direct transmission of voltage signals between coupled cells. The relative simplicity of this arrangement belies the sophistication of these synapses. Coupling via electrical synapses can be regulated by a variety of mechanisms on times scales ranging from milliseconds to days, and active properties of the coupled neurons can impart emergent properties such as signal amplification, phase shifts and frequency-selective transmission...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Dieter Rehder
Vanadium is the 21st most abundant element in the Earth's crust and the 2nd-to-most abundant transition metal in sea water. The element is ubiquitous also in freshwater and nutrients. The average body load of a human individual amounts to 1 mg. The omnipresence of vanadium hampers checks directed towards its essentiality. However, since vanadate can be considered a close blueprint of phosphate with respect to its built-up, vanadate likely takes over a regulatory function in metabolic processes depending on phosphate...
2013: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
Samuel J Fountain
Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is omnipresent in biology. It is therefore no surprise that organisms have evolved multifaceted roles for ATP, exploiting its abundance and restriction of passive diffusion across biological membranes. A striking role is the emergence of ATP as a bona fide transmitter molecule, whereby the movement of ATP across membranes serves as a chemical message through a direct ligand-receptor interaction. P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast responses to the transmitter ATP in mammalian cells including central and sensory neurons, vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and leukocytes...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexander G Karczmar
Macromolecular cholinergic pathways are involved in the regulation of addiction, emotions, and motivations, as described at this ISCM. Indeed, in view of the omnipresence in the brain of cholinergic pathways and of their connections with other transmitters' sites and pathways, their involvement in all known human and animal behaviors could be expected and numerous current reports describe such cholinergic correlates. This minireview describes the current status and the future of the cholinergic impact on behavior and emotions, and particularly on one important human phenomenon, the "self" or the "I" (it is only speculative to impute the self to animals)...
July 2014: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Christopher J D Austin, Jan Kahlert, Michael Kassiou, Louis M Rendina
The translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18 kDa transmembrane protein primarily found in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it forms a key part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Omnipresent in almost all tissues, TSPO up-regulation has been connected to neuronal damage and inflammation, making the protein an important bio-imaging marker for disease progression. More recently, TSPO has attracted attention as a possible molecular target for tumour imaging and chemotherapy. In this review we summarize TSPO's molecular characteristics and highlight research progress in recent years in the field of TSPO-targeted cancer diagnostics and treatments...
July 2013: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Julie Goulet, J Leo van Hemmen, Sarah N Jung, Boris P Chagnaud, Björn Scholze, Jacob Engelmann
Fish and aquatic frogs detect minute water motion by means of a specialized mechanosensory system, the lateral line. Ubiquitous in fish, the lateral-line system is characterized by hair-cell based sensory structures across the fish's surface called neuromasts. These neuromasts occur free-standing on the skin as superficial neuromasts (SN) or are recessed into canals as canal neuromasts. SNs respond to rapid changes of water velocity in a small layer of fluid around the fish, including the so-called boundary layer...
May 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Djordje Miljković, Gordana Timotijević, Marija Mostarica Stojković
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell population within the CNS of mammals. Their glial role is perfectly performed in the healthy CNS as they support functions of neurons. The omnipresence of astrocytes throughout the white and grey matter and their intimate relation with blood vessels of the CNS, as well as numerous immunity-related actions that these cells are capable of, imply that astrocytes should have a prominent role in neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The role of astrocytes in MS is rather ambiguous, as they have the capacity to both stimulate and restrain neuroinflammation and tissue destruction...
December 1, 2011: FEBS Letters
E Pöppel
Temporal perception comprises subjective phenomena such as simultaneity, successiveness, temporal order, subjective present, temporal continuity and subjective duration. These elementary temporal experiences are hierarchically related to each other. Functional system states with a duration of 30 ms are implemented by neuronal oscillations and they provide a mechanism to define successiveness. These system states are also responsible for the identification of basic events. For a sequential representation of several events time tags are allocated, resulting in an ordinal representation of such events...
May 1997: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Colette M Maurer, Helia B Schönthaler, Kaspar P Mueller, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Mutations in ubiquitously expressed metabolic genes often lead to CNS-specific effects, presumably because of the high metabolic demands of neurons. However, mutations in omnipresent metabolic pathways can conceivably also result in cell type-specific effects because of cell-specific requirements for intermediate products. One such example is the zebrafish noir mutant, which we found to be mutated in the pdhb gene, coding for the E1 beta subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This vision mutant is described as blind and was isolated because of its vision defect-related darker appearance...
September 8, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A M Sebastião, J A Ribeiro
The 'omnipresence' of adenosine in all nervous system cells (neurons and glia) together with the intensive release of adenosine following insults, makes adenosine as a sort of 'maestro' of synapses leading to the homeostatic coordination of brain function. Besides direct actions of adenosine on the neurosecretory mechanisms, where adenosine operates to tune neurotransmitter release, receptor-receptor interactions as well as interplays between adenosine receptors and transporters occur as part of the adenosine's attempt to fine tuning synaptic transmission...
September 2009: Current Neuropharmacology
Axel Hutt, Andre Longtin
The neuronal mechanisms of general anesthesia are still poorly understood. Besides several characteristic features of anesthesia observed in experiments, a prominent effect is the bi-phasic change of power in the observed electroencephalogram (EEG), i.e. the initial increase and subsequent decrease of the EEG-power in several frequency bands while increasing the concentration of the anaesthetic agent. The present work aims to derive analytical conditions for this bi-phasic spectral behavior by the study of a neural population model...
March 2010: Cognitive Neurodynamics
H Steven Scholte, Sennay Ghebreab, Lourens Waldorp, Arnold W M Smeulders, Victor A F Lamme
The visual appearance of natural scenes is governed by a surprisingly simple hidden structure. The distributions of contrast values in natural images generally follow a Weibull distribution, with beta and gamma as free parameters. Beta and gamma seem to structure the space of natural images in an ecologically meaningful way, in particular with respect to the fragmentation and texture similarity within an image. Since it is often assumed that the brain exploits structural regularities in natural image statistics to efficiently encode and analyze visual input, we here ask ourselves whether the brain approximates the beta and gamma values underlying the contrast distributions of natural images...
2009: Journal of Vision
Frantisek Baluska, Markus Schlicht, Dieter Volkmann, Stefano Mancuso
The plant hormone auxin is secreted in root apices via phospholipase Dzeta2 (PLDzeta2) activity which produces specific population of phosphatidic acid that stimulates secretion of vesicles enriched with auxin. These vesicles were reported to be localized at plant synapses which are active in auxin secretion, especially at the transition zone of the root apex. There are several implications of this vesicular secretion of auxin. In root apices, auxin emerges as plant neurotransmitter-like signal molecule which coordinates activities of adjacent cells via electric and chemical signaling...
April 2008: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ana M Sebastião, Joaquim A Ribeiro
The adenosine receptors (ARs) in the nervous system act as a kind of "go-between" to regulate the release of neurotransmitters (this includes all known neurotransmitters) and the action of neuromodulators (e.g., neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors). Receptor-receptor interactions and AR-transporter interplay occur as part of the adenosine's attempt to control synaptic transmission. A(2A)ARs are more abundant in the striatum and A(1)ARs in the hippocampus, but both receptors interfere with the efficiency and plasticity-regulated synaptic transmission in most brain areas...
2009: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Ernst Pöppel
Neuronal oscillations of different frequencies are hypothesized to be basic for temporal perception; this theoretical concept provides the frame to discuss two temporal mechanisms that are thought to be essential for cognitive processing. One such mechanism operates with periods of oscillations in the range of some tens of milliseconds, and is used for complexity reduction of temporally and spatially distributed neuronal activities. Experimental evidence comes from studies on temporal-order threshold, choice reaction time, single-cell activities, evoked responses in neuronal populations or latency distributions of oculomotor responses...
July 12, 2009: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Masashi Sakai, Sohei Chimoto, Ling Qin, Yu Sato
We investigated how the primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons encode the two major requisites for auditory scene analysis, i.e., spectral and temporal information. Single-unit activities in awake cats AI were studied by presenting 0.5-s-long tone bursts and click trains. First of all, the neurons (n=92) were classified into 3 types based on the time-course of excitatory responses to tone bursts: 1) phasic cells (P-cells; 26%), giving only transient responses; 2) tonic cells (T-cells; 34%), giving sustained responses with little or no adaptation; and 3) phasic-tonic cells (PT-cells; 40%), giving sustained responses with some tendency of adaptation...
April 10, 2009: Brain Research
Alexei Verkhratsky, Miroslava Anderova, Alexandr Chvatal
Calcium ions are the probably the most ancient, the most universal and omnipresent intracellular signalling molecules, which are involved in regulation of a host of cellular functional reactions. In the nervous system Ca2+ signalling is intimately involved in information transfer and integration within neural circuits. Local Ca2+ signals or Ca2+ microdomains control neurotransmitter release; more global Ca2+ signals regulate synaptic strength and accomplish postsynaptic processing. In the glial syncytium Ca2+ ions provide for glial "Ca2+ excitability", convey long-range signalling by means of propagating Ca2+ waves and control the release of gliotransmitters...
2009: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Ann Massie, Lieselotte Cnops, Ilse Smolders, Robert McCullumsmith, Ron Kooijman, Shin Kwak, Lutgarde Arckens, Yvette Michotte
Excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4), a member of the high-affinity Na+/K+-dependent glutamate transporter family, is highly enriched in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, although it is not restricted to these cells. The detailed expression of EAAT4 protein in different adult rat fore- and midbrain regions was examined. Despite moderate expression levels compared with the cerebellum, EAAT4 protein was omnipresent throughout the fore- and midbrain. With antibodies raised against the N-terminal mouse EAAT4 sequence, the highest protein expression levels were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, paranigral nucleus, habenulo-interpeduncular system, supraoptic nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, subiculum, and superficial layers of the superior colliculus...
November 10, 2008: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Christine Klein, Michael G Schlossmacher
The identification of single genes linked to heritable forms of Parkinson disease (PD) has challenged the previously held view of a nongenetic etiology for this progressive movement disorder. Detailed analyses of individuals with mutations in SNCA, Parkin, PINK1, DJ1 or LRRK2 have greatly advanced our knowledge of preclinical and clinical, morphological, and pathological changes in PD. These genetic breakthroughs have had profound implications for scientists, neurologists and patients alike. Such advances have provided unique opportunities to pursue the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration in models of PD pathogenesis, thereby reinforcing the significance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction...
March 2006: Nature Clinical Practice. Neurology
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