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Renata Yakubov, Machiel van den Akker, Kaba Machamad, Amit Hochberg, Erez Nadir, Adi Klein
BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children relies on surveillance data about epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of children with febrile UTI, seen at the pediatric department of a large regional hospital (Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel) between January 2007 and December 2014. RESULTS: In this study period, 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
G P Senadheera, S Sri Ranganathan, G Patabendige, G H Fernando, D Gamage, R M Maneke, B M Fernandopulle
OBJECTIVES: Antibacterial resistance (ABR) is a public threat. Sri Lanka is a country with limited surveillance of ABR in the community. The WHO methodology was adapted to identify ABR in outpatient settings (nonhospitalised patients) and its link to consumption of antibiotics. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional descriptive community based study to collect ABR data from Out Patient Department (OPD) of two leading Teaching Hospitals in Colombo district. The indicator organism Escherichia coli (E...
2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
Milad Khorasani, Magnus Edinger, Dhara Raijada, Johan Bøtker, Johanna Aho, Jukka Rantanen
Hot-melt extrusion and 3D printing are enabling manufacturing approaches for patient-centred medicinal products. Hot-melt extrusion is a flexible and continuously operating technique which is a crucial part of a typical processing cycle of printed medicines. In this work we use hot-melt extrusion for manufacturing of medicinal films containing indomethacin (IND) and polycaprolactone (PCL), extruded strands with nitrofurantoin monohydrate (NFMH) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), and feedstocks for 3D printed dosage forms with nitrofurantoin anhydrate (NFAH), hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Oyebola Fasugba, Brett G Mitchell, George Mnatzaganian, Anindita Das, Peter Collignon, Anne Gardner
This study describes the antimicrobial resistance temporal trends and seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) over five years, from 2009 to 2013, and compares prevalence of resistance in hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI. A cross sectional study of E. coli UTIs from patients attending a tertiary referral hospital in Canberra, Australia was undertaken. Time series analysis was performed to illustrate resistance trends. Only the first positive E. coli UTI per patient per year was included in the analysis...
2016: PloS One
T-H Chung, S-W Yi, G-W Shin
This study evaluated antibiotic resistance and the related genes in total 47 Aeromonas veronii isolates from pet fish, eel (Anguilla japonica) and koi (Cyprinus carpio) in Korea. In comparison with the antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates from eel and koi, those of pet fish were more resistant to ceftiofur, aminoglycosides, tetracycline and nitrofurantoin. And isolates from pet fish showed high prevalences of class 1 integron, quinolones and tetracycline resistance determinants than those from eel and koi...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Joep H G Scholl, Eugène P van Puijenbroek
PURPOSE: In pharmacovigilance, the commonly used disproportionality analysis (DPA) in statistical signal detection is known to have its limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the time to onset (TTO) of ADRs in addition to DPA. METHODS: We performed a pilot study using individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for three drugs (Cervarix®, nitrofurantoin and simvastatin) from the Lareb spontaneous reporting database. TTO distributions for drug - ADR associations were compared to other ADRs for the same drug and to other drugs for the same ADR using two-sample Anderson-Darling testing...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Alike W van der Velden, Monique Roukens, Ewoudt van de Garde, Marco Lourens, Stephanie Natsch
QUALITY PROBLEM: Inappropriate antibiotic use drives development of antimicrobial resistance. Worldwide, guideline adherence for antibiotic treatment of infectious disease is far from optimal. Insight in prescribing quality is pivotal for healthcare professionals and policy makers to intervene appropriately. INITIAL ASSESSMENTS: European countries uniformly monitor antibiotic use, which is reported yearly by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control...
September 24, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Meera Tandan, Sinead Duane, Martin Cormican, Andrew W Murphy, Akke Vellinga
Current antimicrobial prescribing guidelines indicate that male and female patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated with same antimicrobials but for different durations. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in reconsultations and antimicrobial prescribing for UTI for both males and females. A total of 2557 adult suspected UTI patients participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for urinary tract infection (SIMPle) study from 30 general practices were analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Antibiotics
Wellington Francisco Rodrigues, Camila Botelho Miguel, Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Tony De Paiva Paulino, Siomar De Castro Soares, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues De Resende, Javier Emilio Lazo-Chica, Marcelo Costa Araújo, Carlo José Oliveira
Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010-2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Y L Gong, Z C Yang, S P Yin, M X Liu, C Zhang, X Q Luo, Y Z Peng
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogen isolated from severely burned patients with bloodstream infection, so as to provide reference for the clinical treatment of these patients. Methods: Blood samples of 162 severely burned patients (including 120 patients with extremely severe burn) with bloodstream infection admitted into our burn ICU from January 2011 to December 2014 were collected. Pathogens were cultured by fully automatic blood culture system, and API bacteria identification panels were used to identify pathogen...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Kirsten P J Smits, Grigory Sidorenkov, Henk J G Bilo, Margriet Bouma, Gerjan J Navis, Petra Denig
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality indicators (QIs) can be used for measuring the quality of actions of healthcare providers. This systematic review gives an overview of such QIs measuring processes of care for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identifies the QIs that have content, face, operational and/or predictive validity. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched using a strategy combining the terms "quality of care," "quality indicators" and "chronic kidney disease"...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
S Heytens, J Boelens, G Claeys, A DeSutter, T Christiaens
Treatment of cystitis in primary care is usually empirical, guided by the prior probability of causal pathogens and their susceptibility. To re-evaluate empirical treatment guidelines, the actual distribution and susceptibility of uropathogens was examined and compared with two previous surveys in Belgium over the past 20 years. Because of the alarming increase in carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, this specific resistance was explored. From May 2014 to December 2015, 120 general practitioners collected midstream urine specimens from adult pre- and postmenopausal female patients with suspected cystitis...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jared W Davis, Lynn S Jones
Nitrofurantoin has been documented as a cause of acute, sub-acute, and chronic pulmonary injury. This is a case of an 82 year-old female who presented with multiple episodes of respiratory symptoms due to recurrent pleural effusions after beginning nitrofurantoin therapy for urinary tract infection prophylaxis. Due to the rarity of pleural effusion as an adverse reaction to nitrofurantoin, the diagnosis was overlooked at first. This led to the patient undergoing multiple invasive procedures and accruing unnecessary healthcare cost before the diagnosis was made...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Kamelia M Osman, Mohamed N Ali, Ismail Radwan, Fatma ElHofy, Ahmed H Abed, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Hao Zhang, Joseph Margolick, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persisters are a small population of quiescent bacterial cells that survive exposure to bactericidal antibiotics and are responsible for many persistent infections and post-treatment relapses. However, little is known about how to effectively kill persister bacteria. Here, we found that colistin, a membrane-active antibiotic, was highly active against E. coli persisters at high concentrations (25 or 50 μg/ml). However, at a clinically relevant lower concentration (10 μg/ml) colistin had no apparent effect on E...
September 6, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rebecca L Salbu, Judith Feuer
The Beers Criteria identifies potentially inappropriate medications for patients who are 65 years of age and older. Initially published in 1991, the criteria have been updated multiple times, most recently in 2015. The Beers Criteria is a tool designed to alert health-care providers to the potential harms of specific medications so they may better tailor therapeutic regimens for their elderly patients. The expert panel of the 2015 update made changes to a number of previous recommendations and provided 2 new tables on select drug interactions and select medications requiring renal dose adjustments...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
José R Mediavilla, Amee Patrawalla, Liang Chen, Kalyan D Chavda, Barun Mathema, Christopher Vinnard, Lisa L Dever, Barry N Kreiswirth
UNLABELLED: Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States...
2016: MBio
Anna Calzi, Sara Grignolo, Ilaria Caviglia, Maria Grazia Calevo, Giuseppe Losurdo, Giorgio Piaggio, Roberto Bandettini, Elio Castagnola
UNLABELLED: To investigate antibiotic resistance among pathogens isolated from urines in a tertiary care children's hospital in Italy. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negatives isolated from urines at the Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa - Italy from 2007 to 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated. By means of CLSI criteria from 2007 to 2010, while from 2011 EUCAST criteria were adopted. Data on susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate, co-trimoxazole, cefuroxime, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and ciprofloxacin were evaluated for Escherichia coli, while for other Enterobacteriaceae data were collected for amoxicillin-clavulanate, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin and for ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Anouk E Muller, Els M Verhaegh, Stephan Harbarth, Johan W Mouton, Angela Huttner
OBJECTIVES: Nitrofurantoin has been used for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) for over 60 years. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess nitrofurantoin's efficacy and safety in the prophylaxis of UTI. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of all human controlled trials assessing nitrofurantoin for UTI prophylaxis published from 1946 to 2015. We further reviewed population-level cohort studies evaluating nitrofurantoin's toxicity...
August 16, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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