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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#1
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427111/-in-vitro-activity-of-mecillinam-against-urine-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-outpatient-departments-in-germany
#2
Michael Kresken, Barbara Körber-Irrgang, Kurt G Naber
National and international guidelines recommend fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxoline, and pivmecillinam as first-line agents for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Escherichia coli is by far the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections. Pivmecillinam (X-SYSTO(®)) is an oral prodrug of mecillinam, a penicillin derivative that was reintroduced to the German market in March 2016. This study aimed to investigate the proportion of mecillinam-resistant strains among E...
April 20, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412931/prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-beef-cattle-at-slaughter-and-beef-carcasses-at-retail-shops-in-ethiopia
#3
Rosa Abdissa, Woynshet Haile, Akafete Teklu Fite, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Getahun E Agga, Bedaso Mammo Edao, Fanos Tadesse, Mesula Geloye Korsa, Takele Beyene, Tariku Jibat Beyene, Lieven De Zutter, Eric Cox, Bruno Maria Goddeeris
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. METHODS: Various samples were collected from beef cattle at slaughter/processing plants, carcass at retail shops and humans at health centers. E. coli O157: H7 was isolated, identified and characterized for antimicrobial resistance, using standard microbiological methods...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410918/comparison-of-urinary-tract-infection-antibiograms-stratified-by-emergency-department-patient-disposition
#4
Lee Grodin, Alyssa Conigliaro, Song-Yi Lee, Michael Rose, Richard Sinert
OBJECTIVE: Institutional antibiograms guide Emergency Department (ED) clinicians' empiric antibiotic selection. For this study, we created and compared antibiograms of ED patients stratified by disposition (admitted or discharged). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at two hospitals for 2014, comparing antibiograms limited to Escherichia coli urinary tract infections. Study-Specific Antibiograms, created for the study, excluded polymicrobial samples and multiple cultures from the same patient...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390962/in-vitro-activity-of-fosfomycin-trometamol-and-other-oral-antibiotics-against-multi-drug-resistant-uropathogens
#5
Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Giulia La Rosa, Gaetano Maugeri, Tiziana Zingali, Carla Caio, Andrea Novelli, Stefania Stefani
Clinical midstream and urinary catheter isolates (n=106) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus were tested against fosfomycin using the agar dilution method, the broth microdilution method and the gradient test described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the gradient test alone...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383394/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-as-a-uropathogen-in-an-irish-setting
#6
Aisling T Looney, Elaine J Redmond, Naomi M Davey, Padraig J Daly, Carole Troy, Brian F Carey, Ivor M Cullen
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in the community and in the hospital setting. Their treatment is complicated by drug-resistant pathogens and the colonization by microbes of indwelling urinary catheters. This study assessed the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) uropathogens isolated for 5 consecutive years at University Hospital Waterford between 2010 and 2014. We created 4 clinically relevant subdivisions, based on urine source: hospital inpatients, patients from the Emergency Department, patients referred from their General Practitioner, and Nursing Home patients...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377310/risk-factors-for-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-community-in-denmark-a-case-control-study
#7
Mette Søgaard, Uffe Heide-Jørgensen, Jan P Vandenbroucke, Henrik C Schønheyder, Christina Mje Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE: To verify the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and nitrofurantoin, which have appeared as novel risk factors for carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, as risk factors for ESBL E.coli urinary tract infection (UTI). We included known risk factors to ascertain whether our findings are comparable with previous studies. METHODS: Population-based case-control study including 339 cases with community-onset ESBL E...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325856/prevalence-of-undiagnosed-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-and-associated-risk-factors-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-at-two-tertiary-centres-in-cairo-egypt
#8
Mohamed Abdel-Aziz Elzayat, Ashton Barnett-Vanes, Mohamed Farag Elmorsy Dabour, Feng Cheng
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy is poorly understood in Egypt-a country with a high birth rate. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of ASB among pregnant women booking at El Hussein and Sayed Galal Hospitals in Al-Azhar University in Egypt; and to observe the relationship between ASB prevalence and risk factors such as socioeconomic level and personal hygiene. SETTING: Obstetrics and gynaecology clinics of 2 university hospitals in the capital of Egypt...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323886/contribution-of-urinary-tract-infection-to-the-burden-of-febrile-illnesses-in-young-children-in-rural-kenya
#9
Wechuli Geoffrey Masika, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Thomas L Holland, Janice Armstrong
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features of UTI in young children may not localize to the urinary tract and closely resemble other febrile illnesses. In malaria endemic areas, a child presenting with fever is often treated presumptively for malaria without investigation for UTI. Delayed or inadequate treatment of UTI increases the risk of bacteremia and renal scarring in young children and subsequently complications as hypertension and end stage renal disease in adulthood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323552/helicobacter-pylori-eradication-in-the-swedish-population
#10
Eva Doorakkers, Jesper Lagergren, Vijaya Krishna Gajulapuri, Steven Callens, Lars Engstrand, Nele Brusselaers
OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and its eradication aims to prevent these conditions. The recommended eradication regimen is triple therapy, consisting of a proton-pump inhibitor in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole for 7 days. Yet, other antibiotic regimens are sometimes prescribed. We aimed to assess the use of eradication therapy for H. pylori in the Swedish population during the last decade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based study used data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316632/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-fosfomycin-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-ontario
#11
Louise Perrault, Sybil Dahan, Ange Christelle Iliza, Jacques LeLorier, George G Zhanel
Background and Objective. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics traditionally used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) is rising in Canada. We compared the cost-per-patient in Ontario of including fosfomycin (an antibiotic with a low resistance profile) as an option for first-line empirical treatment of uUTIs with current cost of treatment with sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and nitrofurantoin. Methods. A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-minimization analysis. All possible outcomes of a uUTI caused by bacterial species treated with either sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin were included...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306135/how-common-are-pulmonary-and-hepatic-adverse-effects-in-older-adults-prescribed-nitrofurantoin
#12
Karin Claussen, Edward Stocks, Deepa Bhat, Jason Fish, Craig D Rubin
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of serious pulmonary and hepatic adverse events (AEs) in persons aged 65 and older prescribed nitrofurantoin. DESIGN: Retrospective electronic health record (EHR) audit of nitrofurantoin prescriptions and associated AEs. SETTING: Urban academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: All inpatients and outpatients aged 65 and older prescribed nitrofurantoin from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295441/fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-cystitis-in-the-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-population
#13
Ashley A Loethen, Luiza Kerstenetzky, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen E Leverson, Jeannina A Smith, Margaret R Jorgenson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of fosfomycin (FOS) at the single-dose regimen approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as well as off-label multidose regimens for the treatment of cystitis after abdominal solid organ transplant (aSOT). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Adult inpatients with history of aSOT receiving FOS between January 1, 2009, and April 30, 2015, for the treatment of cystitis...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288183/maternal-use-of-drug-substrates-of-placental-transporters-and-the-effect-of-transporter-mediated-drug-interactions-on-the-risk-of-congenital-anomalies
#14
Aizati N A Daud, Jorieke E H Bergman, Monika P Oktora, Wilhelmina S Kerstjens-Frederikse, Henk Groen, Jens H Bos, Eelko Hak, Bob Wilffert
BACKGROUND: A number of transporter proteins are expressed in the placenta, and they facilitate the placental transfer of drugs. The inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was previously found to be associated with an increase in the risk of congenital anomalies caused by drug substrates of this transporter. We now explore the role of other placental transporter proteins. METHODS: A population-based case-referent study was performed using cases with congenital anomalies (N = 5,131) from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands, a registry of congenital anomalies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285420/fosfomycin-and-comparator-activity-against-select-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-and-enterococcus-urinary-tract-infection-isolates-from-the-united-states-in-2012
#15
Tiffany R Keepers, Marcela Gomez, Chris Celeri, Kevin M Krause, Donald Biek, Ian Critchley
INTRODUCTION: Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum cell wall active agent that inhibits the MurA enzyme involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and is FDA-approved for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in women. Data regarding the susceptibility of recent UTI isolates to fosfomycin are limited. METHODS: This study compared the fosfomycin susceptibility of 658 US UTI isolates with susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT)...
March 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276834/drug-induced-liver-injury-due-to-antibiotics
#16
Einar S Björnsson
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with abnormal liver tests and normal hepatobiliary imaging. Of all known liver diseases, the diagnosis of DILI is probably one of the most difficult one to be established. In all major studies on DILI, antibiotics are the most common type of drugs that have been reported. The clinical phenotype of different types of antibiotics associated with liver injury is highly variable. Some widely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate have been shown to have a delayed onset on liver injury and recently cefazolin has been found to lead to liver injury 1-3 weeks after exposure of a single infusion...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274327/antipsychotic-drug-use-associated-with-urinary-tract-infections-in-older-women
#17
Astrid M van Strien, Patrick C Souverein, Carolina Karen J P W Keijsers, Eibert R Heerdink, Hieronymus Jeroen J Derijks, Rob J van Marum
OBJECTIVES: Antipsychotic drugs are frequently prescribed to elderly patients, but they are associated with serious adverse effects. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association between use of antipsychotics by elderly women and the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). COHORT STUDY SETTING: Dispensing data were obtained from the PHARMO Database Network for the period 1998-2008. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory Dutch women (≥65 years) with current and past use of antipsychotics...
April 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272142/early-development-identification-of-mode-of-action-and-use-of-dantrolene-sodium-the-role-of-keith-ellis-ph-d
#18
Neil A Pollock, Roslyn G Machon, Henry Rosenberg
Dantrolene-a nitrofurantoin derivative-was developed by Snyder et al. in 1967. After initial discovery of its muscle relaxation potential, investigations in a number of species demonstrated dose-dependent reductions in skeletal muscle tone that were long lasting, relatively nontoxic, and free of adverse effects such as respiratory impairment. Ellis et al. then published a number of papers investigating the means by which dantrolene produced these effects. Using a series of classic physiologic models, Ellis investigated potential sites of action for the new drug, eventually narrowing this down to the intracellular calcium-release mechanism...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271212/influence-of-select-antibiotics-on-vibrio-fischeri-and-desmodesmus-subspicatus-at-%C3%AE-g%C3%A2-l-1-concentrations
#19
E C de Vasconcelos, C R Dalke, C M R de Oliveira
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is a contemporary reality and it is necessary to understand more about the effects of this presence on organisms. The purpose of this work was to assess the ecotoxicity of antibiotics metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, and sulphamethoxazole (single and mixture) in Vibrio fischeri and Desmodesmus subspicatus at μg L(-1) concentrations. The evaluation of the toxic effect of the antibiotics on V. fischeri and D. subspicatus was based on fluorescence and bioluminescence tests, respectively, using nominal concentrations...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270957/prevalence-of-uropathogen-and-their-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-among-diabetic-patients
#20
Demiss Nigussie, Anteneh Amsalu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health problem in Ethiopia. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and occasionally life-threatening condition among diabetic patients. Despite, all these problems, antibiotics are prescribed empirically which may adversely affect antibiotic resistance so far. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and their antibiotic resistance pattern among diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
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