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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453975/synaptic-plasticity-in-dendrites-complications-and-coping-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Bartlett W Mel, Jackie Schiller, Panayiota Poirazi
The elaborate morphology, nonlinear membrane mechanisms and spatiotemporally varying synaptic activation patterns of dendrites complicate the expression, compartmentalization and modulation of synaptic plasticity. To grapple with this complexity, we start with the observation that neurons in different brain areas face markedly different learning problems, and dendrites of different neuron types contribute to the cell's input-output function in markedly different ways. By committing to specific assumptions regarding a neuron's learning problem and its input-output function, specific inferences can be drawn regarding the synaptic plasticity mechanisms and outcomes that we 'ought' to expect for that neuron...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449047/what-s-buzzing-on-your-feed-health-authorities-use-of-facebook-to-combat-zika-in-singapore
#2
Santosh Vijaykumar, Rianne Wally Meurzec, Karthikayen Jayasundar, Claudia Pagliari, Yohan Fernandopulle
In 2016, Singapore grappled with one of the largest Zika outbreaks in Southeast Asia. This study examines the use of Facebook for Zika-related outreach by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the National Environmental Agency (NEA) from March 1, 2015, to September 1, 2016, and public response to this effort. Despite nearly equivalent outreach, MOH's Facebook posts received more likes (µ = 3.49) and shares (µ = 30.11), whereas NEA's posts received more comments (µ = 4.55), with NEA posting mostly on prevention (N = 30) and MOH on situational updates (N = 24)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403243/within-season-variability-of-fighting-behaviour-in-an-australian-alpine-grasshopper
#3
Giselle Muschett, Kate D L Umbers, Marie E Herberstein
Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402827/structural-racism-and-health-inequities-in-the-usa-evidence-and-interventions
#4
REVIEW
Zinzi D Bailey, Nancy Krieger, Madina Agénor, Jasmine Graves, Natalia Linos, Mary T Bassett
Despite growing interest in understanding how social factors drive poor health outcomes, many academics, policy makers, scientists, elected officials, journalists, and others responsible for defining and responding to the public discourse remain reluctant to identify racism as a root cause of racial health inequities. In this conceptual report, the third in a Series on equity and equality in health in the USA, we use a contemporary and historical perspective to discuss research and interventions that grapple with the implications of what is known as structural racism on population health and health inequities...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399003/a-comprehensive-response-the-role-of-nonstate-actors-in-the-global-plan
#5
Robert J Vitillo, Francesca Merico, Anna S Levine, Taylor Buonocore
Nonstate actors-especially faith-based organizations, other nongovernmental organizations, groups of people living with HIV and AIDS, and private sector organizations-have been deeply committed to supporting governments reach the goals of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). This article highlights the role and contributions of select faith-based organizations and some private sector and philanthropic partners, as well as the work of other organizations...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379862/vermont-hub-and-spoke-model-of-care-for-opioid-use-disorder-development-implementation-and-impact
#6
John R Brooklyn, Stacey C Sigmon
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are reaching epidemic proportions in the United States, and many geographic areas struggle with a persistent shortage in availability of opioid agonist treatment. Over the past 5 years, Vermont addiction medicine physicians and public health leaders have responded to these challenges by developing an integrated hub-and-spoke opioid treatment network. METHODS: In the present report, we review the development, implementation, and impact of this novel hub-and-spoke model for expanding OUD treatment in Vermont...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372961/big-data-and-machine-learning-strategies-for-driving-this-bus-a-summary-of-the-2016-intersociety-summer-conference
#7
Jonathan B Kruskal, Seth Berkowitz, J Raymond Geis, Woojin Kim, Paul Nagy, Keith Dreyer
The 38th radiology Intersociety Committee reviewed the current state and future direction of clinical data science and its application to radiology practice. The assembled participants discussed the need to use current technology to better generate and demonstrate radiologists' value for our patients and referring providers. The attendants grappled with the potentially disruptive applications of machine learning to image analysis. Although the prospect of algorithms' interpreting images automatically initially shakes the core of the radiology profession, the group emerged with tremendous optimism about the future of radiology...
March 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369460/from-reads-to-operational-taxonomic-units-an-ensemble-processing-pipeline-for-miseq-amplicon-sequencing-data
#8
Mohamed Mysara, Mercy Njima, Natalie Leys, Jeroen Raes, Pieter Monsieurs
The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided microbial ecologists with an efficient approach to assess bacterial diversity at an unseen depth, particularly with the recent advances in the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. However, analyzing such high-throughput data is posing important computational challenges, requiring specialized bioinformatics solutions at different stages during the processing pipeline, such as assembly of paired-end reads, chimera removal, correction of sequencing errors, and clustering of those sequences into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs)...
February 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350334/conceptions-of-contraceptive-use-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-lessons-for-programming
#9
Catherine Ndinda, Tidings Ndhlovu, Nene Ernest Khalema
Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317390/failing-to-protect-humanitarian-workers-lessons-from-britain-and-voluntary-aid-detachments-in-the-second-world-war
#10
Amol A Verma
This paper draws on official records of international and British organizations, newspaper reports, and volunteer memoirs to study the failure to protect humanitarian workers in the Second World War. The Second World War saw a significant expansion in the use of air warfare and flying missiles and these technological advances posed a grave threat to civilians and humanitarian workers. In this context, the International Committee of the Red Cross advocated unsuccessfully to restrict air warfare and create safe hospital zones...
March 19, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316785/narrative-change-narrative-stability-and-structural-constraint-the-case-of-prisoner-reentry-narratives
#11
David J Harding, Cheyney C Dobson, Jessica J B Wyse, Jeffrey D Morenoff
Cultural sociologists and other social scientists have increasingly used the concept of narrative as a theoretical tool to understand how individuals make sense of the links between their past, present, and future, how individuals construct social identities from cultural building blocks, and how culture shapes social action and individual behavior. Despite its richness, we contend that the narratives literature has yet to grapple with narrative change and stability when structural constraints or barriers challenge personal narratives and narrative identities...
March 2017: American Journal of Cultural Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306140/dietary-and-nutritional-change-in-india-implications-for-strategies-policies-and-interventions
#12
Bhavani Shankar, Sutapa Agrawal, Amy R Beaudreault, Laxmaiah Avula, Reynaldo Martorell, Saskia Osendarp, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mireille Seneclauze Mclean
Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301706/facts-values-and-journalism
#13
Susan Gilbert
At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285278/use-of-sex-selection-techniques-for-social-reasons-a-menace
#14
Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi, Sanjay Zodpey, Preeti Negandhi, Rakesh Gupta
Sex selection skewed towards males is a malady that our society is grappling with. The desire to have a child of preferred gender has encouraged people to move beyond the ambit of traditions and explore scientific methods. Despite the controversies around sex-selection for social reasons and strong regulatory mechanisms in place, the demand for such measures has not gone down. On the contrary, traditional practice of consuming indigenous medicines during pregnancy for a male child continues. Recent research highlights the harms of this practice in the form of birth defects and stillbirths...
February 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252088/astronomers-grapple-with-new-era-of-fast-radio-bursts
#15
Elizabeth Gibney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220459/-how-would-you-call-this-in-english-being-reflective-about-translations-in-international-cross-cultural-qualitative-research
#16
Esther Helmich, Sayra Cristancho, Laura Diachun, Lorelei Lingard
INTRODUCTION: Medical education researchers increasingly collaborate in international teams, collecting data in different languages and from different parts of the world, and then disseminating them in English-language journals. Although this requires an ever-present need to translate, it often occurs uncritically. With this paper we aim to enhance researchers' awareness and reflexivity regarding translations in qualitative research. METHODS: In an international study, we carried out interviews in both Dutch and English...
April 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213725/toward-a-unique-definition-of-the-mutation-rate
#17
Qi Zheng
In around 1943, while writing a classic paper with Luria, Delbrück envisioned two kinds of mutation rates: One was expressed as mutations per bacterium per unit time, the other as mutations per bacterium per division cycle. Due to minor mathematical errors, the precise connection between the two concepts remained elusive for Delbrück. As a result, researchers and educators alike are still grappling with the definition of the mutation rate. Within the context of microbial mutation, the current author proposes an idealized model to bring new clarity to the distinction between the two forms of the mutation rate that Delbrück once attempted to define and characterize...
February 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194734/physical-and-physiological-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Francisco Javier Díaz Lara, Alexandro Andrade, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
BACKGROUND: Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling combat sport that has intermittency as its core element; in other words, actions of high, moderate and low intensity are interspersed during matches, requiring a high level of conditioning to support optimal levels of performance for the total match time. The athletes perform from four to six matches during a day of competition, and this number may increase if the open-class competition, which is held parallel to the competition by weight class, is considered...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173984/into-the-void-regulating-pesticide-use-in-colorado-s-commercial-cannabis-markets
#19
Todd Subritzky, Simone Pettigrew, Simon Lenton
BACKGROUND: In 2014, Colorado implemented the world's first seed-to-sale recreational cannabis market under a commercial model. This paper aims to provide a thick descriptive account that gives insight into the issues and complexities of Colorado's pioneering and evolving attempt to regulate the use of pesticides on commercial cannabis plantations. METHODS: The paper examines multiple data sets including: (i) Colorado State Government documents; (ii) recreational cannabis regulations; (iii) mass and niche media publications (n=175); (iv) face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, including seniors, regulators and industry executives (n=8); and (v) field notes from relevant conferences and cultivation facility tours in Denver in October, 2016...
February 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170324/myanmar-grapples-with-its-high-tuberculosis-burden
#20
Sophie Cousins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Lancet
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