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malnutrition and liver transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709718/body-composition-assessed-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-predicts-early-infectious-complications-after-liver-transplantation
#1
C Lindqvist, A Majeed, S Wahlin
BACKGROUND: It is challenging to identify malnutrition, which is a risk factor for poor outcome in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition among patients listed for liver transplantation, as assessed by different methods, and also to relate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to short-term post-transplant outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of 106 patients who underwent liver transplantation in 2009-2012...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650268/biliary-atresia-indications-and-timing-of-liver-transplantation-and-optimization-of-pre-transplant-care
#2
Shikha S Sundaram, Cara L Mack, Amy G Feldman, Ronald J Sokol
Biliary Atresia is a progressive, fibro-obliterative disorder of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts in infancy. The majority of affected children will eventually develop end-stage liver disease and require liver transplantation. Indications for liver transplant in biliary atresia include failed Kasai portoenterostomy, significant and recalcitrant malnutrition, recurrent cholangitis, and the progressive manifestations of portal hypertension. Extra-hepatic complications of this disease, such as hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension, are also indications for liver transplantation...
September 21, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515775/sarcopenia-from-mechanism-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Srinivasan Dasarathy, Manuela Merli
Sarcopenia or loss of skeletal muscle mass is the major component of malnutrition and is a frequent complication in cirrhosis that adversely affects clinical outcomes. These include survival, quality of life, development of other complications and post liver transplantation survival. Radiological image analysis is currently utilized to diagnose sarcopenia in cirrhosis. Nutrient supplementation and physical activity are used to counter sarcopenia but have not been consistently effective because the underlying molecular and metabolic abnormalities persist or are not influenced by these treatments...
December 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500148/nutrition-assessment-and-its-effect-on-various-clinical-variables-among-patients-undergoing-liver-transplant
#4
Neha Bakshi, Kalyani Singh
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients undergoing liver transplantation and has been associated to various clinical variables and outcome of the surgery. METHODS: We recruited 54 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplant (LT) as study sample. Nutrition assessment was performed by body mass index (BMI), BMI for ascites, albumin, subjective global assessment (SGA) and anthropometry [mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and triceps skin-fold (TSF)], Hand Grip strength, and phase angle of the body...
August 2016: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27305413/trace-elements-in-plasma-and-nutritional-assessment-in-patients-with-compensated-cirrhosis-on-a-liver-transplant-list
#5
Thays Santana Guerra, Nelci Fenalt Hoehr, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira Boin, Raquel Silveira Bello Stucchi
BACKGROUND: - In chronic liver disease, trace element levels in plasma are usually low. However, the specific cause and functional implications of this abnormality are yet not well understood. These element levels may decrease as a result of abnormal liver function in patients with cirrhosis and/or malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the nutritional status and the profile of trace elements in plasma of patients with cirrhosis on a liver transplant list and to correlate them with disease severity...
April 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239424/malnutrition-and-sarcopenia-predict-post-liver-transplantation-outcomes-independently-of-the-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-score
#6
Maria Kalafateli, Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Yan Choi Yau, Ali O Mohammad, Simran Arora, Susana Rodrigues, Marie de Vos, Kassiani Papadimitriou, Douglas Thorburn, James O'Beirne, David Patch, Massimo Pinzani, Marsha Y Morgan, Banwari Agarwal, Dominic Yu, Andrew K Burroughs, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
BACKGROUND: Although malnutrition and sarcopenia are prevalent in cirrhosis, their impact on outcomes following liver transplantation is not well documented. METHODS: The associations of nutritional status and sarcopenia with post-transplant infections, requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care (ICU) and hospital stay, and 1 year mortality were assessed in 232 consecutive transplant recipients. Nutritional status and sarcopenia were assessed using the Royal Free Hospital-Global Assessment (RFH-GA) tool and the L3-psoas muscle index (L3-PMI) on CT, respectively...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023701/role-of-nutrition-and-muscle-in-cirrhosis
#7
REVIEW
Ragesh B Thandassery, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Most widely recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) constitute common complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Despite the important role that malnutrition and sarcopenia play in the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, they are frequently overlooked, in part because nutritional assessment can be a difficult task in patients with cirrhosis due to fluid retention and/or overweight...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007276/ita-mngie-an-italian-regional-and-national-survey-for-mitochondrial-neuro-gastro-intestinal-encephalomyopathy
#8
Roberto D'Angelo, Rita Rinaldi, Valerio Carelli, Elisa Boschetti, Leonardo Caporali, Mariantonietta Capristo, Carlo Casali, Giovanna Cenacchi, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Raffaele Lodi, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Loris Pironi, Marta Stanzani, Caterina Tonon, Roberto D'Alessandro, Roberto De Giorgio
Mitochondrial neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare and unavoidably fatal disease due to mutations in thymidine phosphorylase (TP). Clinically it is characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction, malnutrition/cachexia and neurological manifestations. MNGIE diagnosis remains a challenge mainly because of the complexity and rarity of the disease. Thus, our purposes were to promote a better knowledge of the disease in Emilia-Romagna region (ERR) by creating an accurate and dedicated network; to establish the minimal prevalence of MNGIE in Italy starting from ERR...
July 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003598/a-review-on-pregnancy-after-intestinal-transplantation
#9
Augusto Lauro, Cal S Matsumoto, Ignazio R Marino, Vincenzo Berghella
The largest experience of pregnancy after solid organ transplantation is recorded in renal and liver recipients. Intestinal/multivisceral transplantation has shown steady improvements in graft and patient survival over the past 20 years and is rapidly becoming more established: the first pregnancy after this procedure was described 10 years ago, and so far eight cases of pregnancies with 100% successful live births have been reported worldwide. Specifically to this procedure, there are 2 factors to be considered in case of pregnancy: absorptive function of transplanted bowel and higher need of immune-suppressants...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974417/cause-and-management-of-muscle-wasting-in-chronic-liver-disease
#10
Srinivasan Dasarathy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcopenia or loss of skeletal muscle mass is the major component of malnutrition and occurs in the majority of patients with liver disease. Lower muscle contractile function also contributes to the adverse consequences of sarcopenia. There are no effective therapies to prevent or reverse sarcopenia in liver disease. This review will discuss the advances in diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment options for sarcopenia in liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Sarcopenia increases mortality and risk of development of other complications of cirrhosis, and worsens postliver transplant outcomes while quality of life is decreased...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847265/review-article-sarcopenia-in-cirrhosis-aetiology-implications-and-potential-therapeutic-interventions
#11
REVIEW
M Sinclair, P J Gow, M Grossmann, P W Angus
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass) is common in cirrhosis and is associated with poor outcomes. Current teaching recommends the use of protein supplementation and exercise, however, this fails to address many other factors which contribute to muscle loss in this setting. AIMS: To summarise existing knowledge regarding the aetiology of sarcopenia in cirrhosis, diagnostic modalities and the clinical significance of this condition. In addition to discuss recent research findings that may allow the development of more effective treatments...
April 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835324/phenylketonuria-translating-research-into-novel-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Gladys Ho, John Christodoulou
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with a rate of incidence of 1 in 10,000 in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene are the major cause of PKU, due to the loss of the catalytic activity of the enzyme product PAH. Newborn screening for PKU allows early intervention, avoiding irreparable neurological damage and intellectual disability that would arise from untreated PKU. The current primary treatment of PKU is the limitation of dietary protein intake, which in the long term may be associated with poor compliance in some cases and other health problems due to malnutrition...
April 2014: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819518/nutrition-therapy-integral-part-of-liver-transplant-care
#13
REVIEW
Lucilene Rezende Anastácio, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia
Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26771047/a-prospective-audit-of-preprocedural-fasting-practices-on-a-transplant-ward-when-fasting-becomes-starving
#14
Helen Vidot, Kate Teevan, Sharon Carey, Simone Strasser, Nicholas Shackel
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and duration of preprocedural medically ordered fasting during a period of hospitalisation in an Australian population of patients with hepatic cirrhosis or following liver transplantation and to identify potential solutions to reduce fasting times. BACKGROUND: Protein-energy malnutrition is a common finding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can impact significantly on survival and quality of life. Protein and energy requirements in patients with cirrhosis are higher than those of healthy individuals...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725059/the-royal-free-hospital-nutritional-prioritizing-tool-is-an-independent-predictor-of-deterioration-of-liver-function-and-survival-in-cirrhosis
#15
Sarah Maria Borhofen, Carmen Gerner, Jennifer Lehmann, Rolf Fimmers, Jan Görtzen, Beate Hey, Franziska Geiser, Christian P Strassburg, Jonel Trebicka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition might affect survival and severity of complications in cirrhotic patients. However, adequate evaluation of the nutritional status is a difficult task since the common assessment tools are either inappropriate or too complicated. A simpler method could evaluate the patient's risk for malnutrition instead of the nutritional status itself. This study evaluated the prediction of clinical deterioration and transplant-free survival in patients with chronic liver disease by two nutritional risk scores...
June 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605281/the-management-of-perioperative-nutrition-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease-undergoing-liver-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Qi-Kun Zhang, Meng-Long Wang
Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption...
October 2015: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26566519/evaluation-of-malnutrition-risk-after-liver-transplantation-using-the-nutritional-screening-tools
#17
Hee-Sook Lim, Hyung-Chul Kim, Yoon-Hyung Park, Soon-Kyung Kim
Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status by using nutritional screening tools [Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)] in patients before and after liver transplantation. We analyzed medical record, blood test, nutrient intake and malnutrition rate just before transplantation and at discharge, and at 3, 6, 12 months after transplantation respectively...
October 2015: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26517301/functional-decline-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-awaiting-liver-transplantation-results-from-the-functional-assessment-in-liver-transplantation-frailt-study
#18
Jennifer C Lai, Jennifer L Dodge, Saunak Sen, Kenneth Covinsky, Sandy Feng
UNLABELLED: Cirrhosis is characterized by sarcopenia and malnutrition, leading to progressive functional decline. We aimed to objectively measure functional decline in patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation and its association with waiting list mortality. Consecutive adults listed for liver transplantation with laboratory Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) ≥12 at a single center underwent functional status assessments at every outpatient visit using the Short Physical Performance Battery (0 = impaired to 12 = robust), consisting of gait, chair stands, and balance tests...
February 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26205310/perturbation-of-acyl-ghrelin-profile-after-liver-transplantation
#19
Kohei Murakami, Shuji Takiguchi, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Yukinori Kurokawa, Makoto Yamasaki, Hiroaki Nagano, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
BACKGROUND: A significant problem to be solved for patients after liver transplantation (LT) is malnutrition with anorexia in the early posttransplant period. We hypothesized that this problem was due to the change in ghrelin metabolism during LT. The aim of this study was to examine the balance of acyl ghrelin (AG) and desacyl ghrelin and the dependence of the regulation mechanism on hepatic-related enzymes in patients during LT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AG, desacyl ghrelin, and acyl/total ghrelin (A/T) concentrations in blood samples were measured in 15 patients with liver failure (LF), 15 patients after LT, and 10 controls...
December 2015: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26205222/predictive-equations-are-inaccurate-in-the-estimation-of-the-resting-energy-expenditure-of-children-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#20
Andrea Carpenter, Vicky Lee Ng, Karen Chapman, Simon C Ling, Marialena Mouzaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition is common in children with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The inability to accurately estimate energy needs of these patients may contribute to their poor nutrition status. In clinical practice, predictive equations are used to calculate resting energy expenditure (cREE). The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of commonly used equations in pediatric patients with ESLD. METHODS: Retrospective study performed at the Hospital for Sick Children...
July 23, 2015: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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