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Clomipramine and Stimulants

Heather B DeCaluwe, Nadja C Wielebnowski, JoGayle Howard, Katharine M Pelican, Mary Ann Ottinger
Breeding clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) ex situ has been a challenge, primarily due to extreme and often fatal male aggression toward females. This study's aim was to determine the degree to which two possible mechanisms-serotonergic pathways and circulating testosterone levels-affect aggressive behavior. Male clouded leopard behavioral and hormonal data were collected during a series of behavior tests administered before and after treatment with either an anxiety-reducing tricyclic antidepressant (clomipramine) or a GnRH agonist (deslorelin)...
September 2, 2016: Zoo Biology
Jicheng Li, Yang Li, Beilin Zhang, Xiangfeng Shen, Hua Zhao
The interrelation of depression and pain is increasingly coming under scrutiny. Although the lateral habenula (LHb) is widely implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and pain, its role in the interaction of depression and pain remains unknown. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of LHb in rat depression-pain comorbidity. Single extracellular firing recording and immunofluorescence methods were used to compare firing rates and c-Fos expression of the LHb neurons in normal and model rats...
August 20, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Bin Feng, Zhang-Jin Zhang, Rui-Ming Zhu, Guo-Zhen Yuan, Li-Yuan Luo, Grainne M McAlonan, Fang-Zhong Xu, Jiong Chen, Lan-Ying Liu, Yang-Yang Lv, Hei Kiu Wong, Ying Zhang, Li-Xia Zhu
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is thought to have potential to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding TEAS to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clomipramine would improve the efficacy of these conventional treatments in OCD. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 360 OCD patients were assigned to receive TEAS combined with CBT plus clomipramine (Group A, n = 120), TEAS combined with CBT plus placebo (Group B, n = 120), and simulated (placebo) TEAS combined with CBT plus clomipramine (Group C, n = 120) for 12 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Xiao-cang Zhu, Hui-jie Huang, Qiu-qin Han, Na Yue, Bing Li, Liu Yang, Qiong Liu, Gen-cheng Wu, Jin Yu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Baihui" (GV 20) + "Anmian" (EX-HN 16) and "Baihui" (GV 20) + "Zusanli" (ST 36) on behavior reactions and plasma ghrelin level in depression rats, so as to explore the correlation between its antidepressant effect and plasma ghrelin level. METHODS: A total of 45 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control, model, Baihui (GV 20) + Anmian (EX-HN 16), Baihui (GV 20) + Zusanli (ST 36) and medication (clomipramine) groups, with 9 rats in each group...
August 2015: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
David Castle, Peter Bosanac, Susan Rossell
OBJECTIVE: To provide a clinically-focused review of the biological treatment of treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of research on how to manage OCD patients who fail to respond adequately to first line therapies. High-dose selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine have good evidence-based data. Combinations of SSRIs have little support in clinical trials, but the combination of SSRIs and clomipramine can be helpful: careful clinical and cardiac monitoring is required...
August 2015: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
R Davis, M I Wilde
SYNOPSIS: Mirtazapine is a tetracyclic antidepressant with a novel mechanism of action; it increases noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission via blockade of central α2-adrenergic auto- and heteroreceptors. The increased release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) stimulates serotonin 5-HT1 receptors because mirtazapine directly blocks 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. The enhancement of both noradrenergic- and 5-HT1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission is thought to be responsible for the antidepressant activity of mirtazapine...
May 1996: CNS Drugs
Samantha J Thomas, Mirae Shin, Melvin G McInnis, Jolene R Bostwick
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a major health concern. More than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder with an appropriate antidepressant dose for an adequate duration fail to respond. Further, approximately half of adults with major depressive disorder fail to achieve sustained remission despite various medication trials. The utilization of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for the treatment of depression in clinical practice today is low due to their widely known adverse effects, some of which may be life threatening, and the risk for dietary and drug interactions...
April 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Katy Cooper, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Eva Kaltenthaler, Kath Dickinson, Anna Cantrell
BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE...
March 2015: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Naomi A Fineberg, Samar Reghunandanan, Helen B Simpson, Katharine A Phillips, Margaret A Richter, Keith Matthews, Dan J Stein, Jitender Sareen, Angus Brown, Debbie Sookman
This narrative review gathers together a range of international experts to critically appraise the existing trial-based evidence relating to the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults. We discuss the diagnostic evaluation and clinical characteristics followed by treatment options suitable for the clinician working from primary through to specialist psychiatric care. Robust data supports the effectiveness of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine in the short-term and the longer-term treatment and for relapse prevention...
May 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
John Otasowie, Xavier Castells, Umonoibalo P Ehimare, Clare H Smith
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood onset, which may persist into adulthood. ADHD has a significant impact on a child's daily life, affecting relationships and academic performance. Its core symptoms include developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviour. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are sometimes used as second line of treatment in the reduction of ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
V Bhagya, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Depression is a major psychiatric illness that is associated with cognitive dysfunctions. The underlying mechanism of depression-associated memory impairment is unclear. Previously, we showed altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in an animal model of depression. Although several antidepressants are beneficial in the treatment of depression, very little is known about the effects of these drugs on depression-associated learning and memory deficits. Prolonged antidepressant treatment might contribute to neuroplastic changes required for clinical outcomes...
January 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Research
M Kesic, A Tvrdeic, D Kolaric, R Stojkovic, L Cicin-Sain
BACKGROUND: A role of the serotonin (5HT) transporter, a key regulator of serotonergic transmission, in the physiology, pharmacology and genetics of pain responses has been proposed recently. The present study aimed to explore the impact of constitutive differences in the activity of the serotonin transporter, and 5HT homeostasis in general, on the modulation on pain sensitivity and analgesic responses to drugs that utilize 5HT mechanisms. METHODS: A novel genetic animal model, Wistar-Zagreb 5HT rats, obtained by selective breeding of animals for extreme activity of the platelet serotonin transporter was used...
April 2015: European Journal of Pain: EJP
G Basile, A Epifanio, R Mandraffino, G Trifirò
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is a common clinical side effect of lithium treatment, whereas parkinsonism is a very rare adverse event. A number of case series of clinical signs of reversible and permanent parkinsonism due to lithium toxicity have been previously published, but never in association with hypothyroidism. We describe a rare clinical case of concurrent reversible parkinsonism and severe hypothyroidism due to lithium toxicity. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was a 74-year-old woman chronically treated with carbonate lithium (300 mg, twice daily) and clomipramine (75 mg, once daily); she also received valsartan (160 mg) plus hydrochlorothiazide (12·5 mg), once daily...
August 2014: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Zhi-xian Yang, Fang Han, Jiong Qin, Xiao-yan Liu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment process of narcolepsy and epilepsy co-existence, and thereby to improve awareness of such cases. METHOD: The clinical manifestations of 2 cases were observed, and video-electroencephalogram (VEEG), multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) were performed. Hypocretin 1 level in cerebrospinal fluid was examined in one case. RESULT: The onset of disease of case one was started with epilepsy with myoclonic seizure...
September 2013: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Rob Butler, Raghavakurup Radhakrishnan
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments on cognitive symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? What are the effects of treatments on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
2012: Clinical Evidence
Steffi Weidt, Michael Rufer, Annette Brühl, Heide Baumann-Vogel, Aba Delsignore
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and associated with marked impairment and reduced quality of life. In the general practitioner's office as well as in the specialist's consultation, patients with OCD usually present intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviours (compulsions). OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational. Without treatment, OCD often takes a chronic course. Some basic aspects can help to identify patients suffering from OCD earlier and to initiate sufficient therapy...
July 3, 2013: Praxis
Ilia D Kostadinov, Delian P Delev, Ivanka I Kostadinova
INTRODUCTION: Tricyclic antidepressants are used in the treatment of various pain syndromes. The antidepressant clomipramine inhibits predominantly the reuptake of serotonin in the central nervous system. The mechanism of its analgesic effect is not fully understood. The AIM of the present study was to find experimentally any dose-effect dependence in the analgesic effect of clomipramine and the involvement of the 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in the mechanism of this effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were used in the study allocated to five groups (10 animals each): a saline treated control group, one positive control group treated with metamizole and three experimental groups treated with intraperitoneally administered clomipramine in doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw, respectively...
October 2012: Folia Medica
Bing Li, Chang-Jiang Yang, Na Yue, Yang Liu, Jin Yu, Yan-Qing Wang, Qiong Liu, Gen-Cheng Wu
An increased vulnerability to pain complaints, along with a simultaneous increase in experimental pain thresholds, shows the paradoxical phenomenon of pain perception in depressive patients. Clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, could also ameliorate syndromes in chronic pain patients. However, few studies have focused on the effect of antidepressants on experimental pain thresholds. By using a rat model, the learned helplessness paradigm, the present study explored the effect of clomipramine on behavioral deficits and experimental pain thresholds to different stimuli in "helpless" rats...
April 29, 2013: Neuroscience Letters
Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Janardhan Y C Reddy
Around 40-60% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder do not show adequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Augmentation strategies are recommended in people who show partial response to SSRI treatment or poor response to multiple SSRIs. In this article, the authors review the evidence for augmentation strategies. The available evidence is predominantly based on small-scale, randomized controlled trials, open-label trials and case series. Antipsychotic augmentation, especially risperidone, haloperidol, aripiprazole and cognitive-behavior therapy have shown the best evidence...
February 2013: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Marisa B Rosenberg, F Ivy Carroll, S Stevens Negus
UNLABELLED: Pain is associated with stimulation of some behaviors (eg, withdrawal reflexes) but depression of many other behaviors (eg, feeding, locomotion, positively reinforced operant behavior). Drugs that block reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine are widely used to treat depression, and they have also emerged as useful drugs for treatment of pain. This study compared effects of selective and mixed-action inhibitors of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine reuptake in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior...
March 2013: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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