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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662449/multiple-transceptors-for-macro-and-micro-nutrients-control-diverse-cellular-properties-through-the-pka-pathway-in-yeast-a-paradigm-for-the-rapidly-expanding-world-of-eukaryotic-nutrient-transceptors-up-to-those-in-human-cells
#1
REVIEW
Fenella Steyfkens, Zhiqiang Zhang, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Johan M Thevelein
The nutrient composition of the medium has dramatic effects on many cellular properties in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . In addition to the well-known specific responses to starvation for an essential nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphate, the presence of fermentable sugar or a respirative carbon source leads to predominance of fermentation or respiration, respectively. Fermenting and respiring cells also show strong differences in other properties, like storage carbohydrate levels, general stress tolerance and cellular growth rate...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660859/permafrost-thaw-and-climate-warming-may-decrease-the-co-2-carbon-and-metal-concentration-in-peat-soil-waters-of-the-western-siberia-lowland
#2
T V Raudina, S V Loiko, A Lim, R M Manasypov, L S Shirokova, G I Istigechev, D M Kuzmina, S P Kulizhsky, S N Vorobyev, O S Pokrovsky
Soil pore waters are a vital component of the ecosystem as they are efficient tracers of mineral weathering, plant litter leaching, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. In the permafrost environment, maximal hydraulic connectivity and element transport from soils to rivers and lakes occurs via supra-permafrost flow (i.e. water, gases, suspended matter, and solutes migration over the permafrost table). To assess possible consequences of permafrost thaw and climate warming on carbon and Green House gases (GHG) dynamics we used a "substituting space for time" approach in the largest frozen peatland of the world...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656237/vascularized-microfluidic-organ-chips-for-drug-screening-disease-models-and-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Tatsuya Osaki, Vivek Sivathanu, Roger D Kamm
Vascularization of micro-tissues in vitro has enabled formation of tissues larger than those limited by diffusion with appropriate nutrient/gas exchange as well as waste elimination. Furthermore, angiocrine signaling from the vasculature may be essential in mimicking organ-level functions in these micro-tissues. In drug screening applications, the presence of an appropriate blood-organ barrier in the form of a vasculature and its supporting cells (pericytes, appropriate stromal cells) may be essential to reproducing organ-scale drug delivery pharmacokinetics...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652809/characterization-of-chlorella-sorokiniana-utex-1230
#4
Alessandro Marco Lizzul, Aitor Lekuona-Amundarain, Saul Purton, Luiza Cintra Campos
This paper characterizes the strain Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 within a laboratory setting using a 1 L bubble column. The findings show that productivity can be trebled under mixotrophic conditions (from 0.2 g·L−1 ·d−1 to 0.66 g·L−1 ·d−1 ) with the addition of sodium acetate. The results also indicate that both the growth rate and final yield increase with the cultivation temperature, with most parameters showing an optimum in the range of 30–35 °C...
April 13, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652527/contributions-to-advances-in-blend-pellet-products-bpp-research-on-molecular-structure-and-molecular-nutrition-interaction-by-advanced-synchrotron-and-globar-molecular-micro-spectroscopy
#5
VÍctor H Guevara-Oquendo, Peiqiang Yu
To date, advanced synchrotron-based and globar-sourced techniques are almost unknown to food and feed scientists. There has been little application of these advanced techniques to study blend pellet products at a molecular level. This article aims to provide recent research on advanced synchrotron and globar vibrational molecular spectroscopy contributions to advances in blend pellet products research on molecular structure and molecular nutrition interaction. How processing induced molecular structure changes in relation to nutrient availability and utilization of the blend pellet products...
April 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643500/impact-of-a-vegan-diet-on-the-human-salivary-microbiota
#6
Tue H Hansen, Timo Kern, Emilie G Bak, Alireza Kashani, Kristine H Allin, Trine Nielsen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen
Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625298/edna-based-bioassessment-of-coastal-sediments-impacted-by-an-oil-spill
#7
Yuwei Xie, Xiaowei Zhang, Jianghua Yang, Seonjin Kim, Seongjin Hong, John P Giesy, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, Hongxia Yu, Jong Seong Khim
Oil spills offshore can cause long-term ecological effects on coastal marine ecosystems. Despite their important ecological roles in the cycling of energy and nutrients in food webs, effects on bacteria, protists or arthropods are often neglected. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding was applied to characterize changes in the structure of micro- and macro-biota communities of surface sediments over a 7-year period since the occurrence of Hebei Spirit oil spill on December 7, 2007. Alterations in diversities and structures of micro- and macro-biota were observed in the contaminated area where concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were greater...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596620/biofilm-growth-and-control-in-cooling-water-industrial-systems
#8
F Di Pippo, L Di Gregorio, R Congestri, V Tandoi, S Rossetti
Matrix-embedded, surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, profusely colonise industrial cooling water systems, where the availability of nutrients and organic matter favours rapid microbial proliferation and their adhesion to surfaces in the evaporative fill material, heat exchangers, water reservoir and cooling water sections and pipelines. The extensive growth of biofilms can promote micro-biofouling and microbially induced corrosion (MIC) as well as pose health problems associated with the presence of pathogens like Legionella pneumophila...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573631/emerging-contaminants-and-nutrients-synergistically-affect-the-spread-of-class-1-integron-integrase-inti1-and-sul1-genes-within-stable-streambed-bacterial-communities
#9
Jèssica Subirats, Xisca Timoner, Alexandre Sànchez-Melsió, José Luis Balcázar, Vicenç Acuña, Sergi Sabater, Carles M Borrego
Wastewater effluents increase the nutrient load of receiving streams while introducing a myriad of anthropogenic chemical pollutants that challenge the resident aquatic (micro)biota. Disentangling the effects of both kind of stressors and their potential interaction on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities requires highly controlled manipulative experiments. In this work, we investigated the effects of a combined regime of nutrients (at low, medium and high concentrations) and a mixture of emerging contaminants (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, and methylparaben) on the bacterial composition, abundance and antibiotic resistance profile of biofilms grown in artificial streams...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562647/individual-versus-combinatorial-effects-of-silicon-phosphate-and-iron-deficiency-on-the-growth-of-lowland-and-upland-rice-varieties
#10
Nanthana Chaiwong, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Nadia Bouain, Benoit Lacombe, Hatem Rouached
Mineral nutrient homeostasis is essential for plant growth and development. Recent research has demonstrated that the occurrence of interactions among the mechanisms regulating the homeostasis of different nutrients in plants is a general rule rather than an exception. Therefore, it is important to understand how plants regulate the homeostasis of these elements and how multiple mineral nutrient signals are wired to influence plant growth. Silicon (Si) is not directly involved in plant metabolism but it is an essential element for a high and sustainable production of crops, especially rice, because of its high content in the total shoot dry weight...
March 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550504/tonb-dependent-transport-by-the-gut-microbiota-novel-aspects-of-an-old-problem
#11
REVIEW
David N Bolam, Bert van den Berg
The lower human gastro-intestinal tract is inhabited by an extremely high density of micro-organisms, collectively termed the colonic microbiota. Just two bacterial phyla dominate this habitat, the Gram-positive Firmicutes and the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes. The colon is further characterised by a relative lack of small, easily accessible nutrients such as simple sugars, lipids and amino acids. Instead, a plethora of diet-derived and host polysaccharides constitute the main source of nutrients. Due to their size and complexity, the uptake of such glycans for metabolic utilisation is an energy-dependent process, which in Bacteroides spp...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548456/effects-of-macro-nutrient-micro-nutrient-composition-and-cooking-conditions-on-in-vitro-digestibility-of-meat-and-aquatic-dietary-proteins
#12
Jiaqiang Luo, Cheryl Taylor, Thomas Nebl, Ken Ng, Louise E Bennett
Animal and aquatic meats represent important sources of dietary protein and micro-nutrients. Although red and processed meats carry some risks for human health, sensory and nutritional advantages drive meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand how meat processing and cooking influence healthiness. The research aim was to investigate relationships of meat composition (proximates, amino acids and minerals) and cooking conditions (raw, 90 s microwave, 200 °C oven for 10 or 30 min) on protein digestibility, for a selection of four animal (beef, chicken, pork, kangaroo) and four aquatic meats (salmon, trout, prawn, oyster)...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540481/energetics-underlying-hemin-extraction-from-human-hemoglobin-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Megan Sjodt, Ramsay Macdonald, Joanna D Marshall, Joseph Clayton, John S Olson, Martin L Phillips, David A Gell, Jeff Wereszczynski, Robert T Clubb
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections in the United States. It actively acquires the essential nutrient iron from human hemoglobin (Hb) using the iron-regulated surface-determinant (Isd) system. This process is initiated when the closely related bacterial IsdB and IsdH receptors bind to Hb and extract its hemin through a conserved tri-domain unit that contains two NEAr iron Transporter (NEAT) domains that are connected by a helical linker domain. Previously, we demonstrated that the tri-domain unit within IsdH (IsdHN2N3 ) triggers hemin release by distorting Hb's F-helix...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537059/-update-on-the-adverse-effects-during-therapy-with-a-ketogenic-diet-in-paediatric-refractory-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535324/the-boring-billion-a-slingshot-for-complex-life-on-earth
#15
Indrani Mukherjee, Ross R Large, Ross Corkrey, Leonid V Danyushevsky
The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530017/microencapsulation-extends-mycelial-viability-of-streptomyces-lividans-66-and-increases-enzyme-production
#16
Boris Zacchetti, Agathoklis Andrianos, Dino van Dissel, Evelien de Ruiter, Gilles P van Wezel, Dennis Claessen
BACKGROUND: Filamentous bacteria of the genus Streptomyces produce a large arsenal of industrially relevant antibiotics and enzymes. The industrial production of these molecules occurs in large fermenters, where many streptomycetes form dense mycelial networks called pellets. Pellets are characterized by slow growth and inefficient nutrient transfer and therefore regarded as undesirable from the perspective of productivity. Although non-pelleting strains have increased growth rates, their morphology also leads to a dramatic increase in the viscosity of the culture broth, which negatively impacts the process dynamics...
March 12, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514391/use-of-glucose-biosensors-to-measure-extracellular-glucose-exudation-by-intertidal-microphytobenthos-in-southern-tasmania
#17
Andrew McMinn, Shihong Lee
Micro glucose biosensors were used to measure net extracellular glucose produced by natural microphytobenthos and three diatom cultures (Amphora coffeaefirmis, Navicula menisculus, Nitzschia longissimi) from southern Tasmania, Australia. They were exposed to a light gradient in either nutrient-replete or nutrient-limiting conditions. Glucose exudation in the natural communities increased with increased light but the response in the cultures was variable. Similarly, nutrient-replete conditions elicited lower rates of glucose exudation in the natural communities but produced variable species-specific responses in the cultures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502845/physical-stability-microstructure-and-micro-rheological-properties-of-water-in-oil-in-water-w-o-w-emulsions-stabilized-by-porcine-gelatin
#18
Qiaomei Zhu, Shuang Qiu, Hongwei Zhang, Yongqiang Cheng, Lijun Yin
Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions could be utilized for fat-reduced food formulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients. However, due to thermodynamic instability, it is difficult to prepare stable double emulsions. The purpose of this study was to improve the stability of W/O/W double emulsions containing 2.0 M MgCl2 by adding porcine gelatin in the inner water phase. The impact of gelatin on the physical stability, microstructure and micro-rheological properties of W/O/W emulsions was investigated...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499534/effects-of-intake-interruptions-on-dune-infiltration-systems-in-the-netherlands-their-quantification-and-mitigation
#19
Pieter J Stuyfzand, Martin L van der Schans
In the coastal dunes of the Western Netherlands, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is applied for drinking water supply since 1957. The MAR systems belong to the Aquifer Transfer Recovery (ATR) type, because recharge and recovery are operated without interruption. This makes these systems very vulnerable to intake interruptions, which are expected to increase in frequency and duration due to climate change. Such interruptions are problematic, because: (i) groundwater recovery from dunes needs to continue to supply fresh drinking water to the Western Netherlands; (ii) risks of salt water intrusion are high, and (iii) MAR bordering wet dune slacks with an EU Natura 2000 status cannot survive for long without MAR...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497906/adherence-to-a-low-fodmap-diet-in-relation-to-symptoms-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-iranian-adults
#20
Helia Pourmand, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Parvane Saneei, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: Most studies assessing the influence of a low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms were clinical trials with a small sample size. OBJECTIVE: This study was done to examine the association between adherence to a low FODMAP diet and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in Iranian adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on 3362 Iranian adults were collected...
March 1, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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