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micro nutrients

Xiao Zhu, Yixuan Tu, Hainan Chen, Ampadu O Jackson, Vaibhav Patel, Kai Yin
BACKGROUND: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Luca Paoli, Andrea Vannini, Fabrizio Monaci, Stefano Loppi
The competitive behavior of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) during cation uptake was investigated in the foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina. Lichen thalli were incubated with solutions containing 10 and 100 μM of CdCl2, CuCl2, and ZnCl2 as well as 5 and 50 μM of Pb(NO3 )2 , tested individually and in combination (Cd2+ +Cu2+ +Pb2+ +Zn2+ ). The analysis of molar concentrations suggests that a competition between cations for binding sites in X. parietina does exist. The decrease in net uptake between single and mixed solutions ranged between 14 and 29% at the lowest concentration and between 38 and 68% at the highest concentration...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Joanna Pieczyńska
OBJECTIVES: The wide spectrum of clinical symptoms of celiac disease (CD) is partly due to the malnourished state caused by the malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. It has been suggested that fertility problems and obstetric complications may be a consequence of the endocrine disorders caused by selective nutrient deficiencies. The same selective nutrient deficiencies as in CD could be a reason for fertility problems in non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutrient deficiencies in CD and NCGS on fertility problems...
December 8, 2017: Nutrition
Masakazu Toyoshima, Naoki Sato
Triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch produced by micro-algae are potential sources of biofuel. Our previous studies showed that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas debaryana NIES-2212, which is a rare species of Chlamydomonas that possesses phosphatidylcholine (PC), is a seed organism for the development of biofuel producers. This alga accumulates large amounts of TAG and starch under completely photo-autotrophic conditions during stationary phase without nutrient deprivation. The present study was performed to optimize the growth conditions of this alga with regard to light intensity and CO2 concentration to improve the efficiency of TAG and starch production...
January 17, 2018: Microbiology
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C J Williamson, A M Anesio, J Cook, A Tedstone, E Poniecka, A Holland, D Fagan, M Tranter, M L Yallop
It is fundamental to understand the development of Zygnematophycean (Streptophyte) micro-algal blooms within Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) supraglacial environments, given their potential to significantly impact both physical (melt) and chemical (carbon and nutrient cycling) surface characteristics. Here we report on a space-for-time assessment of a GrIS ice-algal bloom, achieved by sampling an ∼ 85 km transect spanning the south-western GrIS bare ice zone during the 2016 ablation season. Cell abundances ranged from 0 to 1...
February 10, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fatemeh Esmaeili, Matin Ghaheri, Danial Kahrizi, Mohsen Mansouri, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Tayebeh Ghorbani, Sarre Muhammadi, Elham Rahmanian, Siavash Vaziri
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the most important biologically sourced and low-calorie sweeteners that contains a lots of Steviol glycosides. Tissue culture is the best method for propagation of stevia and micro nutrients can affect both morphological traits and steviol glycosides production. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of glutamine (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) on expression of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes and stevioside and rebaudioside A accumulation in the leaves of stevia under in vitro conditions...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Severin Mühleder, Karoline Pill, Mira Schaupper, Krystyna Labuda, Eleni Priglinger, Pablo Hofbauer, Verena Charwat, Uwe Marx, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
BACKGROUND: Co-cultures of endothelial cells with mesenchymal stem cells currently represent one of the most promising approaches in providing oxygen and nutrient supply for microvascular tissue engineering. Still, to translate this model into clinics several in vitro parameters including growth medium and scaffold degradation need to be fine-tuned. METHODS: We recently described the co-culture of adipose-derived stem cells with endothelial cells in fibrin, resulting in capillary formation in vitro as well as their perfusion in vivo...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Maxence Carrel, Verónica L Morales, Mario A Beltran, Nicolas Derlon, Rolf Kaufmann, Eberhard Morgenroth, Markus Holzner
This study investigates the functional correspondence between porescale hydrodynamics, mass transfer, pore structure and biofilm morphology during progressive biofilm colonization of a porous medium. Hydrodynamics and the structure of both the porous medium and the biofilm are experimentally measured with 3D particle tracking velocimetry and micro X-ray Computed Tomography, respectively. The analysis focuses on data obtained in a clean porous medium after 36 h of biofilm growth. Registration of the particle tracking and X-ray data sets allows to delineate the interplay between porous medium geometry, hydrodynamic and mass transfer processes on the morphology of the developing biofilm...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
Josephine J Peter, Tommaso L Watson, Michelle E Walker, Jennifer M Gardner, Tom A Lang, Anthony Borneman, Angus Forgan, Tina Tran, Vladimir Jiranek
A deficiency of nitrogenous nutrients in grape juice can cause stuck and sluggish alcoholic fermentation, which has long been a problem in winemaking. Nitrogen requirements vary between wine yeast strains, and the ability of yeast to assimilate nitrogen depends on the nature and concentration of nitrogen present in the medium. In this study a wine yeast gene deletion collection (1844 deletants in the haploid AWRI1631 background) was screened to identify genes whose deletion resulted in a reduction in the time taken to utilise all sugars when grown in a chemically defined grape juice medium supplemented with limited nitrogen (75 mg L-1 as a free amino acid mixture)...
February 7, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Asis Shrestha, Ambrose Kwaku Dziwornu, Yoshiaki Ueda, Lin-Bo Wu, Boby Mathew, Michael Frei
Manganese (Mn) is an essential micro-nutrient for plants, but flooded rice fields can accumulate high levels of Mn2+ leading to Mn toxicity. Here, we present a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify candidate loci conferring Mn toxicity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). A diversity panel of 288 genotypes was grown in hydroponic solutions in a greenhouse under optimal and toxic Mn concentrations. We applied a Mn toxicity treatment (5 ppm Mn2+, 3 weeks) at twelve days after transplanting. Mn toxicity caused moderate damage in rice in terms of biomass loss and symptom formation despite extremely high shoot Mn concentrations ranging from 2...
2018: PloS One
Kendell Pawelec, Jacob Koffler, Dena Shahriari, Angelica Rose Galvan, Mark Tuszynski, Jeff Sakamoto
In a previous study, we demonstrated a novel manufacturing approach to fabricate multi-channel scaffolds (MCS) for use in spinal cord injuries (SCI). In the present study, we extended similar materials processing technology to fabricate significantly longer (5X) porous poly caprolactone (PCL) MCS and evaluated their efficacy in 1 cm sciatic peripheral nerve injury (PNI) model. Due to the increase in MCS dimensions and the challenges that may arise in a longer nerve gap model, microstructural characterization involved MCS wall permeability to assess nutrient flow, topography to understand cell integration, and microstructural uniformity to evaluate the potential for homogeneous linear axon guidance...
February 7, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Ourania Tzoraki, Zoi Dokou, George Christodoulou, Petros Gaganis, George Karatzas
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is becoming an attractive water management option, with more than 223 sites operating in European countries. The quality of the produced water, available for drinking or irrigation processes is strongly depended on the aquifer's hydrogeochemical characteristics and on the MAR system design and operation. The objective of this project is the assessment of the operation efficiency of a MAR system in Cyprus. The coupling of alternative methodologies is used such as water quality monitoring, micro-scale sediment sorption experiments, simulation of groundwater flow and phosphate and copper transport in the subsurface using the FEFLOW model and evaluation of the observed change in the chemical composition of water due to mixing using the geochemical model PHREEQC...
January 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kristen L Nowak, Linda Fried, Anna Jovanovich, Joachim Ix, Kristine Yaffe, Zhiying You, Michel Chonchol
BACKGROUND: Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Ali Bijani, Haleh Esmaili, Reza Ghadimi, Atekeh Babazadeh, Reyhaneh Rezaei, Robert G Cumming, Seyed Reza Hosseini
Background: The study was conducted to assess reliability of modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) as a part of the Amirkola Health and Aging Project (AHAP). Methods: The study was carried out in a sample of 200 men and women aged 60 years and older. A 138-item SQFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls were completed. The reliability of SQFFQ was evaluated by comparing eighteen food groups, energy and nutrient intakes derived from both methods using Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients for food groups and nutrients, respectively...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Meena Shah, Chandna Vasandani, Beverley Adams-Huet, Abhimanyu Garg
AIMS: Despite having a high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), little is known about the relationship between nutrient intakes and T2DM in South Asians (SA) in the U.S. In addition, the available data are limited to a few macronutrients and collected using subjective measures. Therefore, we compared macro- and micro-nutrient intakes of SA migrants with and without T2DM using an objective measure. METHODS: SA in the U.S. with T2DM (n=44) and controls (n=33) reported their dietary intake using image-assisted dietary assessment method...
January 27, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Kyle McGaughy, M Toufiq Reza
In this study, septic tank waste, septage, was hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) in order to recover macro-and micro nutrients, while tracking the fate of residual heavy metals. Three different HTC temperatures i.e., 180, 220, and 260 °C at autogenous pressures and two reaction times i.e., 30 and 120 minutes were applied on both solid and liquid septages. Hydrochar and HTC process liquids were characterized using ICP, CHNS, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Treatment at 260°C for 120 minute maximized ammonia recovery, producing a liquid with 1400 mg/L of ammonia...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Heng Yang, Shan Lin, Xiaoping Lei, Cong Yuan, Yaosheng Yu, Zongsheng Zhao, Jingbo Chen
Recent studies on the seasonal regulation of the oestrous cycle in sheep have focussed mainly on the responses to photoperiod. However, the brain systems that control reproductive activity also respond to nutritional inputs, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not completely understood. One possibility is that small, non-coding RNAs, such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), have significant influence. In the present study, the amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in hypothalamus from oestrous and anestrous ewes, fed low- or high-nutrient diets, were compared using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
January 25, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xia Yuan, Bin Wen
Crassocephalum crepidioides, Conyza canadensis, and Ageratum conyzoides are alien annuals naturalized in China, which produce a large number of viable seeds every year. They widely grow in Xishuangbanna, becoming troublesome weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. As seed germination is among the most important life-stages which contribute to plant distribution and invasiveness, its adaptation to temperature and water stress were investigated in these three species. Results showed that: (1) These three species have wide temperature ranges to allow seed germination, i...
2018: PloS One
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