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bronchiolitis treatment

Pei-Qiong Wu, Xing Li, Wen-Hui Jiang, Gen-Quan Yin, Ai-Hua Lei, Qiang Xiao, Jian-Jun Huang, Zhi-Wei Xie, Li Deng
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an uncommon and severe sequela of chronic obstructive lung disease in children that results from an insult to the lower respiratory tract. Few prognostic factors achieved worldwide acknowledgment. In the present study, we retrospectively collected the children with respiratory adenoviral infection and identified the predictive factors of BO. In the period between Jan 2011 and December 2014, the consecutive in-hospital acute respiratory infection children with positive result for adenovirus were enrolled into the present study...
2016: SpringerPlus
Julia Reis, Jeffrey Shaman
Recent studies have shown that systems combining mathematical modeling and Bayesian inference methods can be used to generate real-time forecasts of future infectious disease incidence. Here we develop such a system to study and forecast respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection and bronchiolitis. Advanced warning of the epidemic timing and volume of RSV patient surges has the potential to reduce well-documented delays of treatment in emergency departments...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
S Vamsee Raju, Hyunki Kim, Stephen A Byzek, Li Ping Tang, John E Trombley, Patricia Jackson, Lawrence Rasmussen, J Michael Wells, Emily Falk Libby, Erik Dohm, Lindy Winter, Sharon L Samuel, Kurt R Zinn, J Edwin Blalock, Trenton R Schoeb, Mark T Dransfield, Steven M Rowe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Sophie Wecht, Mauricio Rojas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a populace of non-haematopoietic multipotent stromal cells, which have the ability to differentiate into tissue derived from a single germ layer. MSCs have been isolated from various sites, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, synovium, spleen, thymus, lung and amniotic fluid, but are most often isolated from bone marrow. MSCs have several valuable functions that make them a promising therapeutic option in the field of regenerative medicine, including the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, the migration of cells to the site of injury when administered and the ability to 'rescue' cells through the transfer of functional mitochondria...
November 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Joanna S Cohen, Naomi Hughes, Sonny Tat, James M Chamberlain, Stephen J Teach, Keith Boniface
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests that bedside lung ultrasound may have a role in the evaluation of infants with bronchiolitis. B lines, which are multiple and diffuse vertical artifacts spreading from the lung pleural interface to the edge of the ultrasound screen, have been associated with thickened interlobular septa, extravascular lung water, and diffuse parenchymal disease. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the prevalence of B lines in children younger than 24 months presenting to the emergency department with wheezing, (2) to determine the interrater reliability of lung ultrasound findings in this setting, and (3) to determine the association of B lines with atopy and other clinical findings...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Firas Rinawi, Imad Kassis, Rina Tamir, Amir Kugelman, Isaac Srugo, Dan Miron
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis in infancy is considered a risk factor for recurrent wheezing episodes in childhood. The present study assessed prevalence, clinical manifestations and risk factors for recurrent wheezing events during the first 3 years of life and persistent wheezing events beyond this age in children hospitalized as young infants with acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: Two groups of children aged 6 years were included. The study group comprised 150 children with a history of hospitalization for bronchiolitis, with the first event at <6 months of age...
September 20, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Yeongsang Jeong, Yong Hyun Bang, Yun-Kyung Kim
Migrating pulmonary lesions in children are uncommon, and most are caused by eosinophilic lung disease and parasite, fungus, and tuberculosis infections. A 12-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal chest x-ray. Serial computed tomography scans performed over several months showed a migrating pulmonary consolidation in the left lung, although the patient remained asymptomatic. Finally, surgical biopsy was performed and follicular bronchiolitis was diagnosed. The consolidation disappeared 17 months later without treatment, and the patient has remained asymptomatic...
September 18, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Julien Guihaire, Ryo Itagaki, Mandy Stubbendorff, Xiaoqin Hua, Tobias Deuse, Sebastian Ullrich, Elie Fadel, Peter Dorfmüller, Robert C Robbins, Hermann Reichenspurner, Udo Schumacher, Sonja Schrepfer
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a main cause of allograft dysfunction and mortality after lung transplantation (LTx). A better understanding of BOS pathogenesis is needed to overcome this treatment-refractory complication. Orthotopic tracheal transplantation using human bronchus was performed in Brown Norway (BN) and nude (RNU) rats. Allografts were recovered in both strains at Day 7 (BN7 , n = 6; RNU7 , n = 7) or Day 28 (BN28 , n = 6; RNU28 , n = 6). Immune response of the host against the bronchial graft was assessed...
September 10, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Veronica Mardegan, Elena Priante, Elisabetta Lolli, Paola Lago, Eugenio Baraldi
Heated, humidified high-flow delivered by nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) is increasingly used for noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants and critically ill children due to its perceived effectiveness and ease of use. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that HHHFNC and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are equally effective as postextubation support in preterm infants. HHHFNC is also used for weaning preterm infants from CPAP. Data on HHHFNC used as the primary support for treating respiratory distress syndrome are conflicting...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Vítor S Fernandes, Paz Recio, Elvira López-Oliva, María Pilar Martínez, Ana Sofía Ribeiro, María Victoria Barahona, Ana Cristina Martínez, Sara Benedito, Ángel Agis-Torres, Alberto Cabañero, Gemma M Muñoz, Albino García-Sacristán, Luis M Orensanz, Medardo Hernández
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter employed for intra- and inter-cellular communication in almost all organ systems. This study investigates the role of endogenous H2S in nerve-evoked relaxation of pig terminal bronchioles with 260 μm medium internal lumen diameter. High expression of the H2S synthesis enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the bronchiolar muscle layer and strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibers distributed along smooth muscle bundles were observed. Further, endogenous H2S generated in bronchiolar membranes was reduced by CSE inhibition...
September 4, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Christian Heim, Benjamin Motsch, Sabina Jalilova, Wanja Bernhard, Martina Ramsperger-Gleixner, Nicolai Burzlaff, Michael Weyand, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Stephan M Ensminger
BACKGROUND: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the major limiting factor for long-term survival after lung transplantation. As previously shown, donor treatment with a PHD-inhibitor activating hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) prevents graft injury both in an allogenic kidney and aortic allograft transplant model. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HIF activation with a PHD-inhibitor on the development of OB. METHODS: Fully MHC-mismatched C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor tracheas were orthotopically transplanted into CBA/J (H-2(k)) recipients...
August 30, 2016: Transplant Immunology
Desheng Sun, Yao Ouyang, Yanhui Gu, Xiansheng Liu
AIM: To evaluate whether the effect of dendritic cells (DCs) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be relieved by blocking CCL20. METHODS: 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, COPD, and COPD treated with CCL20 monoclonal antibody. In the latter two groups, COPD was induced by four-week cigarette smoke exposure and trachea injection of lipopolysaccharide solution on two occasions. CCL20 monoclonal antibody was injected intraperitoneally on the first day...
August 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
Chun-Ting Chen, Hung-Yi Lai, Shih-Ming Jung, Ching-Yi Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Shih-Tseng Lee
BACKGROUND: Neurenteric cysts are rare central nervous system lesions derived from an endodermal origin. There is no consensus concerning pathogenesis due to the paucity of occurrences. The authors report their immunohistochemical study of ten cases with neurenteric cysts and postulate its pathogenesis. METHOD: Ten patients underwent surgical treatment for neurenteric cysts from 1995 to 2015. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiological, operative, and pathological findings for these patients...
August 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Shingo Noguchi, Kazuhiro Yatera, Mitsutaka Jinbo, Sohsuke Yamada, Ikuko Shimabukuro, Kei Yamasaki, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Chiharu Yoshii, Hiroshi Mukae
We herein report a case of IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). A 73-year-old Japanese female visited our hospital for an examination following an abnormal chest X-ray in 1999. She was diagnosed with bronchiolitis and AIHA, and treatment with prednisolone was started. After seven years, she visited our department due to a cough. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated focal consolidation with ground-glass attenuations and thickened bronchial walls in the bilateral lungs...
2016: Internal Medicine
Hemang Yadav, Steve G Peters, Karina A Keogh, William J Hogan, Patricia J Erwin, Colin P West, Cassie C Kennedy
Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of azithromycin on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL and Scopus databases and included studies that compared azithromycin with placebo or no intervention in the treatment of OB or bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in patients who had undergone allogeneic HSCT...
August 26, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
V Gounant, S Brosseau, C Naltet, M-A Opsomer, M Antoine, C Danel, A Khalil, J Cadranel, G Zalcman
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are known to induce 'immune pneumonitis' in 3-6% of patients treated for lung cancer. However, their dramatic efficacy in as much as 20% of patients led to recent registrations in squamous, and then non-squamous lung carcinoma, in second line setting after failure of first-line chemotherapy, while large phase 3 trials are on-going, to assess first-line immunotherapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Pulmonary Sarcomatoid carcinomas consist of a rare subset of highly aggressive and poorly differentiated non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), with poor prognosis and chemo-resistance...
September 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Pierre-Louis Hervé, Charlotte Deloizy, Delphyne Descamps, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jenna Fix, Jason S McLellan, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory infections in children, yet no vaccine is available. The sole licensed preventive treatment against RSV is composed of a monoclonal neutralizing antibody (palivizumab), which targets a conformational epitope located on the fusion protein (F). Palivizumab reduces the burden of bronchiolitis but does not prevent infection. Thus, the development of RSV vaccines remains a priority. We previously evaluated nanorings formed by RSV nucleoprotein (N) as an RSV vaccine, as well as an immunostimulatory carrier for heterologous antigens...
August 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Daria B Napierkowski
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of respiratory tract illness in children and can lead to significant infection and death. This article discusses the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, current treatment, and prevention options to successfully diagnose and treat infections caused by RSV.
September 22, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
Todd A Florin, Amy C Plint, Joseph J Zorc
Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract...
August 20, 2016: Lancet
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