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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922232/changing-epidemiology-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#1
Semiha Bahçeci, Sait Karaman, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroğlu, Selçuk Yazıcı, Saniye Girit, Şule Ünsal-Karkıner, Demet Can
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis again becomes a major health problem due to inappropriate antibiotic use and increasing frequency of protracted bacterial bronchitis. The aim was to determine the changes in etiology of bronchiectasis. Patients who admitted to Behçet Uz Children Hospital between 2005 and 2015 (n=110) were retrospectively examined. The etiology of bronchiectasis was detected as; primary ciliary dyskinesia 26.4%, protracted bacterial bronchitis 22.8%, primary immune deficiency 11.8%, bronchiolitis obliterans 8...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906831/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-pro-inflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#2
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Holmes-Liew Cl, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy following lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in pro-inflammatory lymphocytes following transplant. It is unknown whether these pro-inflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889372/-non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-do-we-need-more-evidence
#3
G Mortamet, G Emeriaud, P Jouvet, B Fauroux, S Essouri
Respiratory failure is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, preferentially delivered by a non-invasive route (NIV), is currently the first-line treatment for respiratory failure since it is associated with a reduction in the intubation rate. This ventilatory support is increasingly used in the PICU, but its wider use contrasts with the paucity of studies in this field. This review aims to describe the main indications of NIV in acute settings: (i) bronchiolitis; (ii) postextubation respiratory failure; (iii) acute respiratory distress syndrome; (iv) pneumonia; (v) status asthmaticus; (vi) acute chest syndrome; (vii) left heart failure; (viii) exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure; (ix) upper airway obstruction and (x) end-of-life care...
November 23, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879496/death-due-to-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#4
Emran Altaf, Erik K Mitchel, Chris Berry, Altaf Hossain
Presented are 2 cases of death from pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Within the past 2 years, there have been 2 cases of rare nonneoplastic lung disease that consists of the filling of the alveoli of the lung by a periodic acid-Schiff stain-positive lipoproteinaceous material. This condition bears a certain resemblance to interstitial lung disease and/or Pneumocystitis jirovecci infection of the lungs. The presented cases were clinically diagnosed as interstitial lung disease. In the first case presented, the decedent was admitted to hospital with diagnosis of pneumonia but died in hospital despite observation and treatment...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870384/high-flow-nasal-cannula-use-outside-of-the-icu-factors-associated-with-failure
#5
Kristina A Betters, Scott E Gillespie, Judson Miller, David Kotzbauer, Kiran B Hebbar
OBJECTIVES: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) use is increasing in pediatrics. Few studies exist examining the safety of HFNC use outside the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to characterize patient qualities associated with failure of HFNC use outside the ICU. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients placed on HFNC outside the ICU from September 2011 to July 2013 was completed. Failure was defined as intubation or cardiopulmonary arrest. Two-sample tests and binary logistic regression determined significant factors associated with failed HFNC administration, both unadjusted and adjusted for hospital...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866541/-influencing-factors-for-postoperative-survival-of-patients-with-stage-iii-silicosis-treated-by-lung-transplantation
#6
W J Mao, X W Nie, W Xia, M F Zheng, R Chen, Y J He, F Liu, S G Ye, R G Lu, J Y Chen
Objective: To investigate the clinical effect, postoperative complications, and causes of death in the treatment of stage III silicosis with lung transplantation and the influencing factors for survival. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 32 patients with stage III silicosis who underwent lung transplantation in our hospital from September 2002 to September 2015. The survival, causes of death, and postoperative complications were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot survival curves, the log-rank test was used to compare the influence of each factor on survival rates, and the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the influence of each factor on survival...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833234/successful-management-of-patient-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-and-swyer-james-macleod-syndrome-with-clozapine
#7
Arpit Parmar, Rajeev Ranjan, Rajesh Sagar
Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome (SJMS) is a rare disorder characterized by infective bronchiolitis. It typically presents with a history of recurrent chest infections during childhood. Cardinal sign of the disease includes the hyperlucency of the lung fields. Till date, only a few cases have been reported of this syndrome. We report a very unusual case of SJMS along with comorbid schizophrenia in a 20-year-old female and the successful management using clozapine.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832694/long-term-follow-up-of-sulfur-mustard-related-bronchiolitis-obliterans-treatment
#8
Hamidreza Abtahi, Soheil Peiman, Morteza Foroumandi, Enayat Safavi
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the most remarkable pulmonary sequels of war-related sulfur mustard inhalation. There is little if any data about long-term efficacy of associated BO treatment. Five years spirometric records of three groups of patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases (asthma, COPD, BO) and documented sulfur mustard inhalation were evaluated. The BO patients were treated with inhaled Seretide 125-250/25 (2 puffs BID), azithromycin (250 mg, three times/week) and N-acetylcysteine (1200-1800/day)...
September 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827953/blocking-trpa1-in-respiratory-disorders-does-it-hold-a-promise
#9
REVIEW
Indranil Mukhopadhyay, Abhay Kulkarni, Neelima Khairatkar-Joshi
Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed abundantly on the C fibers that innervate almost entire respiratory tract starting from oral cavity and oropharynx, conducting airways in the trachea, bronchi, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles and upto alveolar ducts and alveoli. Functional presence of TRPA1 on non-neuronal cells got recognized recently. TRPA1 plays a well-recognized role of "chemosensor", detecting presence of exogenous irritants and endogenous pro-inflammatory mediators that are implicated in airway inflammation and sensory symptoms like chronic cough, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergic rhinitis and cystic fibrosis...
November 5, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821504/chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-biological-insights-from-pre-clinical-and-clinical-studies
#10
Kelli P A MacDonald, Geoffrey R Hill, Bruce R Blazar
With the increasingly use of mismatched, unrelated and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood stem cell donor grafts and successful treatment of older recipients, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) has emerged as the major cause of non-relapse mortality and morbidity. Chronic GVHD is characterized by lichenoid changes and fibrosis that affects a multitude of tissues, compromising organ function. Beyond steroids, effective treatment options are limited. Thus new strategies to both prevent and treat disease are urgently required...
November 7, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820964/long-term-antibiotic-treatment-for-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-in-adults-evidence-current-practice-and-future-use
#11
N Goldman, M R Loebinger, R Wilson
Bronchiectasis is defined pathologically by the permanent dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles and chronic airway inflammation. This is the outcome of a number of different aetiologies but up to half of bronchiectasis cases are labelled idiopathic. It is characterised by a chronic productive cough, haemoptysis, shortness of breath and recurrent infective exacerbations. Long-term antibiotics are used with the aim of reducing symptom severity and exacerbation frequency, improving quality of life and preventing disease progression...
December 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809884/diffuse-persistent-pulmonary-interstitial-emphysema-secondary-to-mechanical-ventilation-in-bronchiolitis
#12
Blanca Toledo Del Castillo, Isabel Gordillo, Elena Rubio García, Sarah Nicole Fernández Lafever, Rafael Gonzalez Cortés, Javier Urbano Villaescusa, Jorge López González, María José Solana García, Jesús López-Herce Cid
BACKGROUND: Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIE) is a rare disease and it is even more uncommon in full-term infants, like our patient. When conservative management is not successful, surgical treatment should be considered. In our case, ECMO support was iniciated to keep the patient ventilated in order to allow the lung to heal using lung protection strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: We report an 18-day-old male infant with bronchiolitis that required mechanical ventilation with high positive airway pressures due to severe respiratory insufficiency...
November 3, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793871/pulmonary-air-leak-syndrome-associated-with-traumatic-nasopharyngeal-suctioning
#13
Maria Chitty Lopez, Elza Pollak-Christian, Michael Keenaghan
We describe a healthy 7-month-old female infant who developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum (PM) and subcutaneous emphysema after traumatic nasopharyngeal suctioning (NPS) while hospitalised for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary air leak syndrome associated with traumatic NPS in a healthy infant affected by bronchiolitis. Although NPS is currently the mainstay of treatment in patients admitted with bronchiolitis in the USA, currently there are minimal data regarding the safety and effectiveness of the procedure in patients with bronchiolitis...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753690/bronchiectasis-and-other-chronic-lung-diseases-in-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#14
Engi F Attia, Robert F Miller, Rashida A Ferrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of pulmonary infections has declined dramatically with improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, but chronic lung disease (CLD) is an increasingly recognized but poorly understood complication in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, abnormal spirometry and chest radiographic abnormalities among HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, wherein 90% of the world's HIV-infected children live...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722041/hypoxemia-is-an-independent-predictor-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-following-respiratory-adenoviral-infection-in-children
#15
Pei-Qiong Wu, Xing Li, Wen-Hui Jiang, Gen-Quan Yin, Ai-Hua Lei, Qiang Xiao, Jian-Jun Huang, Zhi-Wei Xie, Li Deng
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an uncommon and severe sequela of chronic obstructive lung disease in children that results from an insult to the lower respiratory tract. Few prognostic factors achieved worldwide acknowledgment. In the present study, we retrospectively collected the children with respiratory adenoviral infection and identified the predictive factors of BO. In the period between Jan 2011 and December 2014, the consecutive in-hospital acute respiratory infection children with positive result for adenovirus were enrolled into the present study...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716828/retrospective-parameter-estimation-and-forecast-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-the-united-states
#16
Julia Reis, Jeffrey Shaman
Recent studies have shown that systems combining mathematical modeling and Bayesian inference methods can be used to generate real-time forecasts of future infectious disease incidence. Here we develop such a system to study and forecast respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection and bronchiolitis. Advanced warning of the epidemic timing and volume of RSV patient surges has the potential to reduce well-documented delays of treatment in emergency departments...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699245/a-ferret-model-of-copd-related-chronic-bronchitis
#17
S Vamsee Raju, Hyunki Kim, Stephen A Byzek, Li Ping Tang, John E Trombley, Patricia Jackson, Lawrence Rasmussen, J Michael Wells, Emily Falk Libby, Erik Dohm, Lindy Winter, Sharon L Samuel, Kurt R Zinn, J Edwin Blalock, Trenton R Schoeb, Mark T Dransfield, Steven M Rowe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688156/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-lung-disease
#18
Sophie Wecht, Mauricio Rojas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a populace of non-haematopoietic multipotent stromal cells, which have the ability to differentiate into tissue derived from a single germ layer. MSCs have been isolated from various sites, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, synovium, spleen, thymus, lung and amniotic fluid, but are most often isolated from bone marrow. MSCs have several valuable functions that make them a promising therapeutic option in the field of regenerative medicine, including the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, the migration of cells to the site of injury when administered and the ability to 'rescue' cells through the transfer of functional mitochondria...
November 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668919/the-utility-of-bedside-lung-ultrasound-findings-in-bronchiolitis
#19
Joanna S Cohen, Naomi Hughes, Sonny Tat, James M Chamberlain, Stephen J Teach, Keith Boniface
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests that bedside lung ultrasound may have a role in the evaluation of infants with bronchiolitis. B lines, which are multiple and diffuse vertical artifacts spreading from the lung pleural interface to the edge of the ultrasound screen, have been associated with thickened interlobular septa, extravascular lung water, and diffuse parenchymal disease. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the prevalence of B lines in children younger than 24 months presenting to the emergency department with wheezing, (2) to determine the interrater reliability of lung ultrasound findings in this setting, and (3) to determine the association of B lines with atopy and other clinical findings...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650524/bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-is-it-a-risk-factor-for-recurrent-wheezing-in-childhood
#20
Firas Rinawi, Imad Kassis, Rina Tamir, Amir Kugelman, Isaac Srugo, Dan Miron
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis in infancy is considered a risk factor for recurrent wheezing episodes in childhood. The present study assessed prevalence, clinical manifestations and risk factors for recurrent wheezing events during the first 3 years of life and persistent wheezing events beyond this age in children hospitalized as young infants with acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: Two groups of children aged 6 years were included. The study group comprised 150 children with a history of hospitalization for bronchiolitis, with the first event at <6 months of age...
September 20, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
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