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Harald Hannerz, Ann Dyreborg Larsen, Anne Helene Garde
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test if incidences of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and usage of antihypertensive drugs are independent of weekly working hours (WWH) among full-time employees in Denmark. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on WWH from participants of the Danish labour force surveys, 1999-2013, were linked on an individual level to national registers with data on socioeconomic status (SES), industry, emigrations, redeemed prescriptions, hospital contacts and deaths...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Jeffrey M Levsky, Linda B Haramati, Daniel M Spevack, Mark A Menegus, Terence Chen, Sarah Mizrachi, Durline Brown-Manhertz, Samantha Selesny, Rikah Lerer, Deborah J White, Jonathan N Tobin, Cynthia C Taub, Mario J Garcia
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare early emergency department (ED) use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and stress echocardiography (SE) head-to-head. BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA has been promoted as the early ED chest pain triage imaging method of choice, whereas SE is often overlooked in this setting and involves no ionizing radiation. METHODS: The authors randomized 400 consecutive low- to intermediate-risk ED acute chest pain patients without known coronary artery disease and a negative initial serum troponin level to immediate coronary CTA (n = 201) or SE (n = 199)...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Brittany L Adler, James W Russell, Laura K Hummers, Zsuzsanna H McMahan
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is a known complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that can affect vascular tone, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, heart rate, and blood pressure control. We sought to quantify autonomic symptom burden in SSc, and to define the characteristics of patients with SSc and autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Patients with SSc were consecutively recruited during routine clinical visits at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and asked to complete the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score (COMPASS)-31 questionnaire, a validated tool to assess symptoms of autonomic dysfunction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Guy Steuer, Dario Prais, Huda Mussaffi, Meir Mei-Zahav, Ophir Bar-On, Hagit Levine, Yulia Gendler, Hannah Blau, Patrick Stafler
BACKGROUND: Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are effective but forceful inhalation required to fluidize the powder may be difficult for children and patients with airway disease. Inspiromatic is a new generation active DPI that actively suspends drugs in synchrony with inhalation. We evaluated safety and efficacy of Formoterol delivery via Inspiromatic, compared to Aerolizer, a conventional DPI, in pediatric asthmatic subjects. METHODS: A phase I/II, randomized, single-center, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, cross-over study...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Stefano Ghio, Federico Fortuni, Alessandra Greco, Annalisa Turco, Carlo Lombardi, Laura Scelsi, Claudia Raineri, Benedetta Matrone, Eleonora Vullo, Stefania Guida, Roberto Badagliacca, Luigi Oltrona Visconti
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in exploring the concept of right ventricular functional reserve in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, it is still unclear how it should be assessed. Aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of the changes in cardiac output and in pulmonary pressure during dobutamine stress echocardiography in pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography was performed in 55 patients and 28 controls...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Peter H Brubaker, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, Pablo Corres, Aitor Martinez Aguirre-Betolaza, Sara Maldonado-Martin
The study aimed to assess whether the Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) can detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in overweight/obese people with hypertension (HTN) after an exercise intervention evaluating the equation presented in the previous research by Jurio-Iriarte et al. Participants (N= 248) performed a peak cardiorespiratory exercise test (CPET) and MSWT before and after 16-weeks of different types of aerobic exercise intervention. The formula of Jurio-Iriarte et al. was used to predict peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak )...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Jacquie R Baker, Justin R Paturel, Kurt Kimpinski
PURPOSE: Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), is a cardinal feature of autonomic dysfunction. The cortical autonomic network (CAN) is a network of brain regions associated with autonomic function. Therefore, our objective was to investigate whether impairment of CAN structures is involved in the pathophysiology of NOH. METHODS: Fifteen controls (63{plus minus}13 years) and fifteen NOH patients (67{plus minus}6 years; p=0.2) with peripheral autonomic dysfunction completed standard tests of parasympathetic [Deep Breathing (DB)] and sympathetic [Valsalva maneuver (VM)] activation during a functional MRI...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Xiangqun Zhang, Wenli Jing
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia, which is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. microRNA (miRNA/miR)‑122 has been reported to be related with heart diseases, however, the functional role of miR‑122 in atrial fibrillation is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of miR‑122 in atrial fibrillation. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following three groups: Control, sham‑operation and AF. Mice in the AF group received transesophageal rapid atrial stimulation for the induction of AF...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Laura M Kleinschmidt, Christopher S Hanley, John M Sahrmann, Luis R Padilla
  The immobilization properties and cardiopulmonary effects following intramuscular administration of one of two chemical immobilization agents were compared in the Haitian giant galliwasp ( Celestus warreni) in a prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial. Adult, clinically healthy galliwasps ( n = 30) were given a randomly assigned single intramuscular injection of either 15 mg/kg alfaxalone ( n = 15) or 40 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride ( n = 15). Heart rate, respiratory rate, and depth classification stage were recorded every 5 min; cloacal temperature was recorded every 15 min to ensure maintenance within this species' preferred optimal temperature range (75-85°F, 24-29°C)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ginevra Sacripanti, Nhat Minh Nguyen, Leonardo Lorenzini, Sabina Frascarelli, Alessandro Saba, Riccardo Zucchi, Sandra Ghelardoni
3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2) is an endogenous derivative of thyroid hormone that has been suggested to regulate energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption with a mechanism that involves the activation of mitochondrial function. In this study, we focused on the cardiac effects of T2, which have been poorly investigated so far, by using both in vitro and ex vivo models. As a comparison, the response to T3 and T4 was also determined. Rat cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were used to determine T2, T3, and T4 uptake by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Manal M Alem, Abdullah M Alshehri, Peter Mb Cahusac, Matthew R Walters
Background: The xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol improves endothelial function in different populations, including patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Its effect on arterial stiffness parameters is less clear. We investigated the effect of short-term low-dose allopurinol therapy on arterial stiffness in Saudi patients with stable mild-moderate CHF. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 73 patients with mild-moderate CHF...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
Fernando Soveral D'aviz, Ana Paula Farina, Matheus Albino Souza, Doglas Cecchin
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial reduction achieved with reciprocating instruments such as Reciproc® R25 (VDW GMBH, Munich, Germany) and Reciproc® R25 combined with rotary file Mtwo 40.04 (VDW GMBH) during root canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Fifty mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary molars were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis broth culture and then an initial bacterial sample was collected from the root canal with paper cones and plated on brain-heart infusion agar...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
MaryAnn Zhang, Daniel H Solomon, Rishi J Desai, Eun Ha Kang, Jun Liu, Tuhina Neogi, Seoyoung C Kim
Background -Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI), allopurinol and febuxostat, are the mainstay of urate lowering treatment for gout and may have different effects on cardiovascular risk in patients with gout. Methods -Using U.S. Medicare claims data (2008-2013), we conducted a cohort study for comparative cardiovascular safety of initiating febuxostat versus allopurinol among gout patients aged ≥65 years. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of hospitalization for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke...
June 13, 2018: Circulation
Paul Kligfield, Fabio Badilini, Isabelle Denjoy, Saeed Babaeizadeh, Elaine Clark, Johan De Bie, Brian Devine, Fabrice Extramiana, Gianluca Generali, Richard Gregg, Eric Helfenbein, Jan Kors, Remo Leber, Peter Macfarlane, Pierre Maison-Blanche, Ian Rowlandson, Ramun Schmid, Martino Vaglio, Gerard van Herpen, Joel Xue, Brian Young, Cynthia L Green
BACKGROUND: Automated measurements of electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals by current-generation digital electrocardiographs are critical to computer-based ECG diagnostic statements, to serial comparison of ECGs, and to epidemiological studies of ECG findings in populations. A previous study demonstrated generally small but often significant systematic differences among 4 algorithms widely used for automated ECG in the United States and that measurement differences could be related to the degree of abnormality of the underlying tracing...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Anat Lavie, Maya Ram, Shaul Lev, Yair Blecher, Uri Amikam, Yael Shulman, Tomer Avnon, Eran Weiner, Ariel Many
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is among the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The clinical utility of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in preeclampsia (e.g., Swan-Ganz catheter) is controversial. Thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC) and Doppler echocardiography are noninvasive techniques but they both have important limitations. NICaS™ (NI Medical, PetachTikva, Israel) is a noninvasive cardiac system for determining cardiac output (CO) that utilizes regional impedance cardiography (RIC) by noninvasively measuring the impedance signal in the periphery...
June 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
N Turri-Silva, D M Garner, S H Moosavi, A L Ricci-Vitor, D G D Christofaro, J Netto Junior, L M Vanzella, L C M Vanderlei
Despite the various standard non-linear measurements used in autonomic modulation (AM) assessments usually being applied to long time-series, such analyses can sometimes be applied to shorter term series. To overcome this disadvantage, chaotic global methods were formulated by putting together heart rate variability (HRV) linear methods. Chaos provides information about vegetative function control related to cardiovascular risks. Applying this method can be useful to investigate the complexity of the health condition after resistance training protocols, as a therapeutic intervention in AM in metabolic syndrome individuals (MetS)...
June 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Sebastian N Politis, David Mazurais, Arianna Servili, Jose-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Joanna J Miest, Jonna Tomkiewicz, Ian A E Butts
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a euryhaline species, that has adapted to cope with both, hyper- and hypo-osmotic environments. This study investigates the effect of salinity, from a morphological and molecular point of view on European eel larvae reared from 0 to 12 days post hatch (dph). Offspring reared in 36 practical salinity units (psu; control), were compared with larvae reared in six scenarios, where salinity was decreased on 0 or 3 dph and in rates of 1, 2 or 4 psu/day, towards iso-osmotic conditions...
2018: PloS One
Michinari Hieda, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Dan-Dan Sun, Yoshiyuki Okada, Rosemary S Parker, Monique A Roberts-Reeves, Beverley Adams-Huet, David B Nelson, Benjamin D Levine, Qi Fu
Women with a history of gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD) are at increased risk for developing perinatal cardiovascular complications (e.g., gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, etc.) in subsequent pregnancies. The underlying mechanisms remain uncertain, but impaired maternal left ventricular function may be one contributing factor for these complications. We evaluated the time course of changes in left ventricular function before, during and after pregnancy in women with prior GHD. Sixteen women with a history of GHD (the high-risk group), and 25 women without such a history (controls) were enrolled...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Min Gao, Xiao Lu, Wei Chen, Gui-Hong Xiao, Yijin Zhang, Rongbin Yu, Jianan Li
Effects of a 12-week physiological ischemic training (PIT) programme on safety of training and quality of life (QOL) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated with heart failure were evaluated. A total of 30 patients with CHD complicated with heart failure were randomized to either an intervention group (n=15) or to controls (n=15) after baseline testing. A 12-week, 5 times a week, maximum subjective force group PIT was conducted. Safety of the training was measured with ECG and heart rate and blood pressure, QOL was measured using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured with peripheral blood...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Evelyne Kloter, Katja Barrueto, Sabine D Klein, Felix Scholkmann, Ursula Wolf
An increasing cancer incidence affecting any age and social class is putting serious strain on populations and health care systems around the world. This systematic literature search aims (i) to examine the correlation of heart rate variability (HRV) and cancer patients' prognosis, (ii) to examine the relationship of HRV and clinicopathological features, and (iii) to compare HRV between different patient groups, and between patient and control groups. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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