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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075040/n-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline-mediates-the-anti-fibrotic-properties-of-captopril-in-unilateral-ureteric-obstructed-balb-c-mice
#1
Gary Cw Chan, Hao Jia Wu, Kam Wa Chan, Stella Yiu, Ailis Zou, Xiao Ru Huang, Hui Yao Lan, Kar Neng Lai, Sydney Cw Tang
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are widely employed to deter the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Besides controlling hypertension and reduction of intra-glomerular pressure, ACEi appear to have anti-fibrotic effects in the renal cortex. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), an endogenous tetrapeptide that is degraded by ACE, has also been shown to ameliorate the pro-fibrotic phenotype displayed in CKD in our recent study. Whether the anti-fibrotic properties of ACEi are mediated by Ac-SDKP has not been fully investigated...
January 11, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058556/surgical-treatment-of-malignant-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma-retrospective-case-series
#2
Veljko Strajina, Benzon M Dy, David R Farley, Melanie L Richards, Travis J McKenzie, Keith C Bible, Florencia G Que, David M Nagorney, William F Young, Geoffrey B Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neoplasms; about 10% are malignant. Literature regarding possible benefit from resection is extremely limited. METHODS: A 20 year review of all patients undergoing surgery for malignant PPGL at the Mayo Clinic Rochester Campus between 1994 and June 2014 was performed. RESULTS: We identified 34 patients undergoing surgery for malignant PPGL. Median follow up was 6 and 5 years survival was 90% (median 11 years)...
January 5, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057444/redefining-beta-blocker-use-in-hypertension-selecting-the-right-beta-blocker-and-the-right-patient
#3
REVIEW
Samuel J Mann
Randomized controlled trials have concluded that the cardiovascular outcome of first-step treatment of hypertension with traditional vasoconstricting beta-blockers is inferior to treatment with other antihypertensive drug classes. Beta-blocker use is also associated with undesirable side effects. Consequently, some recent guidelines consider beta-blockers an inferior option for first-step treatment of hypertension. Despite this, beta-blockers are still widely prescribed, and likely overused, in the management of hypertension...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045241/evidence-for-and-risks-of-endovascular-treatment-of-asymptomatic-acute-type-b-aortic-dissection
#4
Rachel E Clough, Christoph A Nienaber
Acute aortic dissection is a challenging disease to manage. Type B aortic dissection has traditionally been divided temporally into acute and chronic cases but more recently this classification has been modified to include a sub-acute phase. Computed tomography is the imaging technique used most frequently in diagnosis and management. Active management of blood pressure is essential and should include beta-blockade unless contra-indicated. In-hospital outcomes are generally acceptable in patients with medically managed acute uncomplicated type B aortic dissection, with up to 90% of patients surviving to hospital discharge but by 5-years up to 50% of patients are dead with a significant proportion dying from aortic rupture...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039238/effect-of-beta-blockers-on-perioperative-outcomes-in-vascular-and-endovascular-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
S Hajibandeh, S Hajibandeh, S A Antoniou, F Torella, G A Antoniou
BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of perioperative beta-blocker use in vascular and endovascular surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards. The review protocol was registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration number:CRD42016038111). We searched electronic databases to identify all randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating outcomes of patients undergoing vascular and endovascular surgery with or without perioperative beta blockade...
January 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032851/is-perioperative-beta-blockade-effective-and-safe-in-patients-undergoing-noncardiac-surgery
#6
Andrés Armstrong, Gabriel Rada, Fernando Altermatt
Beta-blockade in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery has been widely recommended as a way to reduce cardiovascular adverse events during the perioperative period. However, studies have shown contradictory results. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified 22 systematic reviews comprising 131 studies addressing the question of this article, including 112 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach...
December 27, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031536/use-of-non-selective-%C3%AE-blockers-is-associated-with-decreased-tumor-proliferative-indices-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#7
Alexa Montoya, Clarissa N Amaya, Andres Belmont, Nabih Diab, Richard Trevino, Geri Villanueva, Steven Rains, Luis A Sanchez, Nabeel Badri, Salman Otoukesh, Ali Khammanivong, Danielle Liss, Sarah T Baca, Renato J Aguilera, Erin B Dickerson, Alireza Torabi, Alok K Dwivedi, Aamer Abbas, Karinn Chambers, Brad A Bryan, Zeina Nahleh
Previous studies suggest beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonists (β-blockers) decrease breast cancer progression, tumor metastasis, and patient mortality; however the mechanism for this is unknown. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue revealed overexpression of β1-AR and β3-AR in breast cancer. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 404 breast cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of β-blocker usage on tumor proliferation. Our analysis revealed that non-selective β-blockers, but not selective β-blockers, reduced tumor proliferation by 66% (p < 0...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019045/autonomic-modulation-for-the-treatment-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-therapeutic-use-of-percutaneous-stellate-ganglion-blocks
#8
Marat Fudim, Richard Boortz-Marx, Chetan B Patel, Albert Y Sun, Jonathan P Piccini
Ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical storm are commonly encountered emergency conditions in cardiac and surgical intensive care units. In most cases, recurrent ventricular arrhythmias or electrical storm are associated with a heightened sympathetic tone. These arrhythmias can be difficult to treat and may be refractory to beta-blockade, antiarrhythmic therapy, sedation, and mechanical hemodynamic support. While monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and PVC-triggered polymorphic ventricular tachycardia may sometimes be amenable to successful ablation, some patients may be too critically ill to make such an approach feasible...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011945/orexin-a-modulates-ins-1e-cell-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-and-transient-receptor-potential-channels
#9
M Skrzypski, N Khajavi, S Mergler, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008308/the-protective-role-of-microrna-200c-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathologies-is-induced-by-beta-amyloid-triggered-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Qi Wu, Xiaoyang Ye, Yi Xiong, Haili Zhu, Jianting Miao, Wei Zhang, Jun Wan
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that repress the expression of their target proteins. The roles of microRNAs in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not clear. In this study we show that miR-200c represses the expression of PTEN protein. PTEN downregulation by miR-200c supports the survival and differentiation of cultured neurons. AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease signified by beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregation and deposition. In a mouse model of AD that is induced by APPswe and PS1ΔE9 double transgenes, we found Aβ deposition results in neuronal ER stress that induces miR200c...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004151/reciprocal-regulation-of-mtor-complexes-in-pancreatic-islets-from-humans-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Ting Yuan, Sahar Rafizadeh, Kanaka Durga Devi Gorrepati, Blaz Lupse, Jose Oberholzer, Kathrin Maedler, Amin Ardestani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of nutritional status at the cellular and organismic level. While mTORC1 mediates beta cell growth and expansion, its hyperactivation has been observed in pancreatic islets from animal models of type 2 diabetes and leads to beta cell loss. We sought to determine whether such mTORC1 activation occurs in humans with type 2 diabetes or in metabolically stressed human islets and whether mTORC1 blockade can restore beta cell function of diabetic islets...
December 21, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999715/secretory-paraspinal-paraganglioma-of-thoracolumar-spine-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Saad Akhtar, Sidra Sattar, Ehsan Bari, Naila Kayani, Sarosh Moeen
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine secreting tumors of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, however, when present extra-adrenally they are called paragangliomas. Paragangliomas rarely produce catecholamine in excess, which is evident by clinical symptoms, urine, and blood biochemistry. Total resection of these tumors can lead to complete clinical and biochemical resolution. This case report presents the clinical features, radiological findings, and neurological outcome in a middle-aged female with a secretory paraganglioma...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987372/six1-maintains-tumor-basal-cells-via-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-and-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-esophageal-cancer
#13
Takao Nishimura, Masashi Tamaoki, Rie Komatsuzaki, Naohide Oue, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Masayuki Komatsu, Kazuhiko Aoyagi, Keiko Minashi, Fumiko Chiwaki, Hisashi Shinohara, Yuji Tachimori, Wataru Yasui, Manabu Muto, Teruhiko Yoshida, Yoshiharu Sakai, Hiroki Sasaki
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Although improvement in both surgical techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been achieved, the 5-year survival rate of locally advanced tumors was, at best, still 55%. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms of the malignancy is eagerly awaited. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) has been reported to have critical biological roles for cancer cell stemness, whereas little is known about it in ESCC...
December 17, 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984253/does-heart-rate-really-matter-to-patients-with-heart-failure
#14
Robert J H Miller, Jonathan G Howlett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Measurement of heart rate (HR) and rhythm is used to identify patients at increased risk of disease progression, guide selection of treatments and gauge response to therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Lowering HR with a pure HR lowering agent (ivabradine) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and sinus rate more than 70 beats/min despite beta blockade has been shown to improve outcomes. Additionally, coadministration of ivabradine and beta blockade may enhance symptoms and HR control...
December 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975209/critical-role-for-glp-1-in-symptomatic-post-bariatric-hypoglycaemia
#15
Colleen M Craig, Li-Fen Liu, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Tracey L McLaughlin
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Post-bariatric hypoglycaemia (PBH) is a rare, but severe, metabolic disorder arising months to years after bariatric surgery. It is characterised by symptomatic postprandial hypoglycaemia, with inappropriately elevated insulin concentrations. The relative contribution of exaggerated incretin hormone signalling to dysregulated insulin secretion and symptomatic hypoglycaemia is a subject of ongoing inquiry. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that PBH and associated symptoms are primarily mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
December 14, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943113/significance-and-clinical-characteristics-of-atrial-fibrillation-post-epicardial-access
#16
Alan Sugrue, Ammar M Killu, David O Hodge, Christopher J McLeod, Thomas M Munger, Siva K Mulpuru, Douglas L Packer, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J Asirvatham, Paul A Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial access (EpiAcc) has become an important adjunct for ventricular tachycardia (VT) or premature ventricular complex (PVC) ablation. We hypothesized that post-procedural pericarditis may lead to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), and therefore assessed the incidence and clinical impact of post-procedural AF in patients undergoing EpiAcc. METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent EpiAcc as part of an ablation procedure between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2014 at Mayo Clinic Rochester...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940637/an-optimized-chromatographic-strategy-for-multiplexing-in-parallel-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-insights-from-quantitation-of-activated-kinases
#17
Anatoly Urisman, Rebecca S Levin, John D Gordan, James T Webber, Hilda Hernandez, Yasushi Ishihama, Kevan M Shokat, Alma L Burlingame
Reliable quantitation of protein abundances in defined sets of cellular proteins is critical to numerous biological applications. Traditional immunodetection-based methods are limited by the quality and availability of specific antibodies, especially for site-specific post-translational modifications. Targeted proteomic methods, including the recently developed parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mass spectrometry, have enabled accurate quantitative measurements of up to a few hundred specific target peptides...
December 11, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919827/pkc%C3%AE-ii-mediated-cross-talk-of-trpv1-cb2-modulates-the-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoclast-overactivity
#18
Giulia Bellini, Marco Torella, Iolanda Manzo, Chiara Tortora, Livio Luongo, Francesca Punzo, Nicola Colacurci, Bruno Nobili, Sabatino Maione, Francesca Rossi
In this study, we investigated the role of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoclast overactivity. Receptorial and enzymatic component of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system are expressed in bone cells, and dysregulated when bone mass is reduced. Moreover, blockade or desensitization of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and/or stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) are beneficial for reducing number and activity of the bone cells modulating resorption, the osteoclasts...
January 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#19
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899427/a-56-year-old-woman-with-breathlessness
#20
Alastair J Moss, Marc R Dweck, Peter D O'Kane
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 56-year-old female with adult-onset asthma was admitted to the cardiology service with intermittent left-sided chest pain and progressive dyspnoea. Twelve months prior to this admission, she had received a course of prednisolone for bilateral anterior uveitis. Physical examination was unremarkable with blood sampling revealing a marked eosinophilia (eosinophil count 17.3×10(9)/L) and a perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody staining pattern on indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (myeloperoxidase antibodies 83 IU/mL)...
November 29, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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