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Diabetes. Metabolism disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676870/-which-place-for-thiazide-and-thiazide-like-diuretics-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
A J Scheen, J M Krzesinski
The use of thiazides as antihypertensive agents has been challenged because associated metabolic adverse events, including new-onset diabetes. However, these metabolic disturbances are less marked with low-dose of hydrochlorothiazide and with thiazide-like diuretics such as chlorthalidone and indapamide. In post hoc analyses of subgroups of patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes, thiazide(-like) diuretics resulted in a significant reduction in cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure compared to placebo...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674722/implications-of-publicly-available-genomic-data-resources-in-searching-for-therapeutic-targets-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Sungwon Jung
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two major conditions that are related to metabolic disorders and affect a large population. Although there have been significant efforts to identify their therapeutic targets, few benefits have come from comprehensive molecular profiling. This limited availability of comprehensive molecular profiling of obesity and T2D may be due to multiple challenges, as these conditions involve multiple organs and collecting tissue samples from subjects is more difficult in obesity and T2D than in other diseases, where surgical treatments are popular choices...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674279/association-of-melatonin-mtnr1b-variants-with-type-2-diabetes-in-gujarat-population
#3
Roma Patel, Nirali Rathwa, Sayantani Pramanik Palit, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Melatonin is a circadian rhythm regulator and any imbalance in its levels can be related to various metabolic disorders. Melatonin and the genetic variants of Melatonin Receptor 1B (MTNR1B) are reported to be associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate i) plasma melatonin levels ii) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTNR1B and iii) Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis in T2D patients. METHODS: Plasma and PBMCs were separated from venous blood of 478 diabetes patients and 502 controls...
April 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673926/the-investigations-of-genetic-determinants-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Behdokht Fathi Dizaji
Metabolic syndrome is the aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Family and twin studies, heritability spectrum for its components and different prevalence among ethnicities, have provided genetic susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome. The investigations of genetic base for the disorder have recognized numerous chromosomes, various DNA polymorphisms in candidate genes and many gene variants, that are associated with metabolic syndrome as an entity or its traits, which mostly are related to lipid metabolism...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673860/the-endogenous-circadian-clock-programs-animals-to-eat-at-certain-times-of-the-24-hour-day-what-if-we-ignore-the-clock
#5
Peng Jiang, Fred W Turek
The discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock, which functions in virtually every cell throughout the body to coordinate biological processes to anticipate and better adapt to daily rhythmic changes in the environment, is one of the major biomedical breakthroughs in the 20th century. Twenty years after this breakthrough, the biomedical community is now at a new frontier to incorporate the circadian clock mechanisms into many areas of biomedical research, as studies continue to reveal an important role of the circadian clock in a wide range of biological functions and diseases...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673244/changes-in-body-composition-blood-lipid-profile-and-growth-factor-hormone-in-a-patient-with-prader-willi-syndrome-during-24-weeks-of-complex-exercise-a-single-case-study
#6
Hee Joung Joung, In Soo Lim
PURPOSE: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive appetite with progressive obesity and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Excessive eating causes progressive obesity with increased risk of morbidities and mortality. Although GH treatment has beneficial effects on patients with PWS, adverse events have occurred during GH treatment. Exercise potentially has a positive effect on obesity management. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of 24-week complex exercise program on changes in body composition, blood lipid profiles, and growth factor hormone levels in a patient with PWS...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670837/assessing-the-effect-of-high-performance-inulin-supplementation-via-klf5-mrna-expression-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trail
#8
Abed Ghavami, Neda Roshanravan, Shahriar Alipour, Meisam Barati, Behzad Mansoori, Faezeh Ghalichi, Elyas Nattagh-Eshtivan, Alireza Ostadrahimi
Purpose: The worldwide prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes is increasing rapidly. Currently, the complications of diabetes are the major health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high performance (HP) inulin supplementation on glucose homeostasis via KLF5 mRNA expression in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In the present clinical trial conducted for a duration of 6 weeks, 46 volunteers diabetic patients referring to diabetes clinic in Tabriz, Iran, were randomly assigned into intervention (n= 23, consuming 10 gr/d HP inulin) and control groups (n= 23, consuming 10 gr/ d starch)...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670661/effect-of-zishen-jiangtang-pill-a-chinese-herbal-product-on-rats-with-diabetic-osteoporosis
#9
Huilin Li, Shufang Chu, Hengxia Zhao, Deliang Liu, Xuemei Liu, Xi Qu, Jianpin Chen, Zengyin Li, Jinhua Li
Diabetic osteoporosis (DO) is a complication of diabetes. Zishen Jiangtang Pill (ZJP) is a Chinese herbal product which has been used in clinic to maintain blood glucose level and bone density for decades. However, the evidence about its mechanism on diabetes and osteoporosis is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate therapeutic effect of ZJP on DO in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced rats. Rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: one control group (CON), one model group (MOD), and two ZJP treatment groups (1...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670459/neutrophils-release-metalloproteinases-during-adhesion-in-the-presence-of-insulin-but-cathepsin-g-in-the-presence-of-glucagon
#10
Natalia V Fedorova, Alexander L Ksenofontov, Marina V Serebryakova, Vladimir I Stadnichuk, Tatjana V Gaponova, Ludmila A Baratova, Galina F Sud'ina, Svetlana I Galkina
In patients with reperfusion after ischemia and early development of diabetes, neutrophils can attach to blood vessel walls and release their aggressive bactericide agents, which damage the vascular walls. Insulin and 17 β -estradiol (E2) relieve the vascular complications observed in metabolic disorders. In contrast, glucagon plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes. We studied the effect of hormones on neutrophil secretion during adhesion to fibronectin. Amino acid analysis revealed that proteins secreted by neutrophils are characterized by a stable amino acid profile enriched with glutamate, leucine, lysine, and arginine...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#11
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669464/adiponectin-and-chemerin-contrary-adipokines-in-regulating-reproduction-and-metabolic-disorders
#12
Anusha Singh, Mayank Choubey, Puran Bora, Amitabh Krishna
Metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are one of the most familiar risk factors in the present time among every age-group. It is associated with altered levels of adipokines such as adiponectin, chemerin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and so on. Adiponectin is one of the adipocyte-specific protein with novel applications pertaining to metabolism by promoting insulin sensitivity and regulating glucose and fatty acid catabolism, while chemerin is considered as an inhibitor of insulin signaling and glucose catabolism...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669317/palmitate-activates-ccl4-expression-in-human-monocytic-cells-via-tlr4-myd88-dependent-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-pi3k-signaling-systems
#13
Shihab Kochumon, Ajit Wilson, Betty Chandy, Steve Shenouda, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Sardar Sindhu, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation which plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Saturated free fatty acids (SFAs) levels are found to be elevated in obesity and T2D. Chemokines are known to have potent inflammatory functions in a wide range of biological processes linked to immunological disorders. Since CCL4 (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), plays an important role in the migration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, we investigated the expression of CCL4 in monocytic cells/macrophages following activation with free fatty acid palmitate...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664677/silac-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-livers-of-spontaneous-obese-and-diabetic-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Junlong Wang, Shimeng Xu, Jing Gao, Linqiang Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Wenhui Yang, Yunhai Li, Shasha Liao, Hu Zhou, Pingsheng Liu, Bin Liang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a severely metabolic disorder that affects above 10% worldwide population. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2DM. Liver is an essential metabolic organ that plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of liver in the transition of obesity to diabetes are not fully understood. Nonhuman primate (NHP) rhesus monkey is an appropriate animal for research of human diseases...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663894/coenzyme-q10-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-current-state-of-the-problem
#15
Vladlena I Zozina, Serghei Covantev, Olga A Goroshko, Liudmila M Krasnykh, Vladimir G Kukes
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation...
April 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661926/disruptions-in-gut-microbial-host-co-metabolism-and-the-development-of-metabolic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661439/frequency-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-before-and-after-liver-transplantation
#17
A Moura Neto, T G Bovi, C M Righetto, A R Fiore, L T Lot, S R Perales, E C de Ataide, I F S F Boin
BACKGROUND: There is mutual influence between the liver and thyroid hormone metabolism. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) also have an increased prevalence of thyroid disorders (TDs). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of TD before and after liver transplantation (LT) in a population of patients with DM as a whole and when categorized by sex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving interview and medical record analysis of 46 consecutive patients followed at the diabetes mellitus and liver transplantation unit of a tertiary university hospital...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659851/causes-of-death-at-the-university-of-ghana-hospital-in-accra-a-37-year-review-1979-2015
#18
Edward K Sutherland, Gloria A Ansa, Frank Baiden, Enoch N B Quaye, Afua A Amoabeng, Christian Amenuveve
Background: An analysis of the causes of death in developing countries is needed to improve healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of the causes of death at the University of Ghana Hospital from 1979 to 2015. Methods: Data were extracted from the electronic database of the University of Ghana Hospital. Diseases were grouped into three broad groups of causes of death as per the Global Burden of Disease cause list, with some diseases of epidemiological importance outlined and analysed by age, gender and time in years...
April 5, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659630/body-mass-index-of-92-027-patients-acutely-admitted-to-general-hospitals-in-denmark-associated-clinical-characteristics-and-30-day-mortality
#19
Sigrid Bjerge Gribsholt, Lars Pedersen, Bjørn Richelsen, Olaf Dekkers, Reimar Wernich Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Data are sparse on the range of BMI among patients acutely admitted to general hospitals. We investigated BMI values and associated patient characteristics, reasons for hospital admission, and mortality in Denmark. METHODS: We identified all persons with an acute inpatient admission 2011-2014 in Central Denmark Region and assessed BMI measurements recorded in the Clinical Information System. We used cross-sectional and cohort analyses to examine the BMI distribution and its association with demographic characteristics, comorbidities, medication use, tobacco smoking, reasons for admission, and 30-day mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659562/organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-modulates-multiple-cardiometabolic-traits-through-effects-on-hepatic-thiamine-content
#20
Xiaomin Liang, Sook Wah Yee, Huan-Chieh Chien, Eugene C Chen, Qi Luo, Ling Zou, Meiling Piao, Arias Mifune, Ligong Chen, Meredith E Calvert, Sarah King, Frode Norheim, Janna Abad, Ronald M Krauss, Kathleen M Giacomini
A constellation of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dysregulated lipids, and elevations in blood glucose levels, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Analysis of data from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated that reduced-function polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter, OCT1 (SLC22A1), are significantly associated with higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the mechanism linking OCT1 to these metabolic traits remains puzzling...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
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