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Diabetes. Metabolism disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430372/retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-thickness-is-reduced-in-metabolic-syndrome
#1
R Zarei, P Anvari, Y Eslami, G Fakhraie, M Mohammadi, A Jamali, M Afarideh, A Ghajar, S Heydarzade, A Esteghamati, S Moghimi
AIMS: To investigate retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from March 2014 to January 2016. All participants underwent anthropometric and serological biochemical measurements, ophthalmological examination, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Individuals with elevated intraocular pressure, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and other ocular disorders were excluded...
April 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429920/the-association-of-dietary-patterns-and-the-incidence-of-insulin-resistance-after-a-3-year-follow-up-tehran-lipid-and-glucose-study
#2
Tayebeh Doostvandi, Zahra Bahadoran, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Zhaleh Tahmasebinejad, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) among an urban Iranian population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In this longitudinal study, 802 adult men and women were studied within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of followup. The usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and major dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429895/interleukin-6-and-resistin-in-relation-to-anthropometric-measurements-in-school-children
#3
Carolina Del Pilar Escalona-Villasmil, Jorymar Yoselyn Leal-Montiel, Pablo Antonio Ortega-Fernindez, Carlos Javier Chavez
The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related me- tabolic diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the serum levels of interleukin-6 and resistin in relation to anthropometric measurements in school children...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429555/management-of-mineral-and-bone-disorders-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#4
Matthew J Damasiewicz, Peter R Ebeling
The management of post-transplantation bone disease is a complex problem that remains under-appreciated in clinical practice. In these patients, pre-existing metabolic bone disorder is further impacted by the use of immunosuppressive medications (glucocorticoids and calcineurin-inhibitors), variable post-transplantation renal allograft function and post-transplantation diabetes mellitus. The treatment of post-transplantation bone loss should begin pre-transplantation. All patients active on transplant waiting lists should be screened for bone disease...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429469/high-body-mass-and-kidney-dysfunction-relate-to-worse-nerve-function-even-in-adults-without-neuropathy
#5
Rens Hanewinckel, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Judith Drenthen, Pieter A van Doorn
Polyneuropathy is a prevalent and disabling disorder. Despite extensive evaluation, the cause often remains unknown. Factors that predispose for the development of polyneuropathy need to be identified. We investigated the effect of anthropometric and metabolic factors on peripheral nerve function in 908 participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study without any symptoms or signs of polyneuropathy. Participants underwent nerve conduction studies of the sural and peroneal nerve. Data on age, height, weight, waist circumference, diabetes, lipid levels, hypertension and kidney function were collected...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#6
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428363/phlpp-a-putative-cellular-target-during-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey, Poonam Kakkar
Progressive research in the past decade converges to the impact of PHLPP (Pleckstrin homology domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase) in regulating the cellular metabolism through PI3K/Akt inhibition. Defects in the PKB/Akt signaling coordinates with impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, identified during T2D, obesity and cardiovascular disorders which brings in the relevance of PHLPPs in the metabolic paradigm. In this review, we discuss the impact of PHLPP isoforms in insulin signaling and its associated cellular events including mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, autophagy and cell death...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427839/the-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-older-adults-in-ecuador-results-of-the-sabe-survey
#8
Carlos H Orces, Enrique Lopez Gavilanez
AIMS: To describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance among non-diabetic participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey was used to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants...
April 11, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427374/prenatal-determinants-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescence-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1986-study
#9
Marjaana Tikanmäki, Tuija Tammelin, Marja Vääräsmäki, Marika Sipola-Leppänen, Satu Miettola, Anneli Pouta, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. METHODS: Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426445/small-dense-ldl-an-update
#10
Philipp A Gerber, Dragana Nikolic, Manfredi Rizzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the latest findings on small, dense LDL (sdLDL) atherogenic particles, including their associations with other biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased sdLDL levels have been reported not only in different metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, but also in patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis as well as hypothyroidism. A wide range of lipid-lowering, as well as other drug classes, including novel antidiabetic agents and nutraceuticals, exert favourable effects on these atherogenic particles...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425868/pomegranate-as-a-possible-treatment-in-reducing-risk-of-developing-wound-healing-obesity-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Manaf AlMatar, Md Rashedul Islam, Othman Albari, Işıl Var, Fatih Köksal
Four distinguished although overlying stages make up the methodical procedure of wound healing, which are hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Multiple sclerosis (MS) comprises a persistent inflammatory infection of the central nervous system, and is related to demyelination, neurodegeneration, as well as susceptibility to oxidative pressure. Obesity signifies a swiftly developing danger to the wellbeing of populations in a rising number of nations. Usually called diabetes mellitus (DM) by medical practitioners, diabetes details a collection of metabolic diseases within which the individual has raised blood glucose, either due to an insufficiency of insulin generation, or the lack of suitable response by the body to insulin, or both...
April 19, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421791/association-of-4-hydroxynonenal-with-classical-adipokines-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-chinese-non-diabetic-obese-population
#12
Lin Guo, Xi-Mei Zhang, Yun-Bo Zhang, Xiang Huang, Mei-Hua Chi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Oxidative stress plays an etiological role in a variety of obesity-related metabolic disorders. 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is the most abundant and reactive aldehydic product derived from the peroxidation of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with diverse biological effects that are not well detailed. Obesity is associated with decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations and increased production of lipid peroxidation products, including 4-HNE, in adipose tissue...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421037/lipid-processing-in-the-brain-a-key-regulator-of-systemic-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Kimberley D Bruce, Andrea Zsombok, Robert H Eckel
Metabolic disorders, particularly aberrations in lipid homeostasis, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia often manifest together as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders, the prevalence of the MetS continues to rise. It is becoming increasingly apparent that intermediary metabolism within the central nervous system is a major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. In particular, lipid metabolism within the brain is tightly regulated to maintain neuronal structure and function and may signal nutrient status to modulate metabolism in key peripheral tissues such as the liver...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420820/high-insulin-impaired-ovarian-function-in-early-pregnant-mice-and-the-role-of-autophagy-in-this-process
#14
Yan Su, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Chen Zhang, Wenqi Chen, Yingxiong Wang, Rufei Gao
Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. In this study, we first explored whether high insulin levels directly affected ovarian functioning during embryo implantation...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420204/fructose-intake-serum-uric-acid-and-cardiometabolic-disorders-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Cristiana Caliceti, Donato Calabria, Aldo Roda, Arrigo F G Cicero
There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL)...
April 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420094/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-new-insights-and-potential-new-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Hironori Kitade, Guanliang Chen, Yinhua Ni, Tsuguhito Ota
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders worldwide. It is associated with clinical states such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, and covers a wide range of liver changes, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic disorders, such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and inflammation, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, but the underlying mechanisms, including those that drive disease progression, are not fully understood...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420093/potential-role-of-free-fatty-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis-and-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Yosuke Shikama, Yasusei Kudo, Naozumi Ishimaru, Makoto Funaki
Clinical studies have shown that metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia are associated with increased risk of oral-related diseases, such as periodontitis and Sjögren's syndrome. Although changes in the immune system are critical in both of these metabolic disorders and oral-related diseases, the mechanism underlying the interaction between these diseases remains largely unknown. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are known to be associated with higher concentrations of free fatty acids in blood...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416368/nutritional-management-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review-study
#18
REVIEW
Zeinab Faghfoori, Siavash Fazelian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Reza Goodarzi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, which leads to reproductive, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. Due to the presence of insulin resistance, PCOS increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies such as breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown but environmental factors such as dietary habits play an important role in prevention and treatment and lifestyle modifications are the most important therapeutic strategies in these patients...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416283/activation-of-irf1-in-human-adipocytes-leads-to-phenotypes-associated-with-metabolic-disease
#19
Max Friesen, Raymond Camahort, Youn-Kyoung Lee, Fang Xia, Robert E Gerszten, Eugene P Rhee, Rahul C Deo, Chad A Cowan
The striking rise of obesity-related metabolic disorders has focused attention on adipocytes as critical mediators of disease phenotypes. To better understand the role played by excess adipose in metabolic dysfunction it is crucial to decipher the transcriptional underpinnings of the low-grade adipose inflammation characteristic of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Through employing a comparative transcriptomics approach, we identified IRF1 as differentially regulated between primary and in vitro-derived genetically matched adipocytes...
April 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415836/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-where-we-are-and-where-we-are-going
#20
Wang-Soo Lee, Jaetaek Kim
The global burden of diabetes mellitus and its related complications are currently increasing. Diabetes mellitus affects the heart through various mechanisms including microvascular impairment, metabolic disturbance, subcellular component abnormalities, cardiac autonomic dysfunction, and a maladaptive immune response. Eventually, diabetes mellitus can cause functional and structural changes in the myocardium without coronary artery disease, a disorder known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). There are many diagnostic tools and management options for DCM, although it is difficult to detect its development and effectively prevent its progression...
April 18, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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