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Diabetes. Metabolism disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925069/vasopressin-and-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
Ray El Boustany
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite the progress accomplished in therapy, the prevalence of renal disorders remains high. Some modifiable factors driving the increase in incidence of CKD, in diabetes and other settings, might have been overlooked. Consistent evidence supports a role for vasopressin, hydration state, and urine concentration in kidney health. SUMMARY: Plasma vasopressin is elevated in diabetes, even if metabolic control is good...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923291/inflammation-of-brown-beige-adipose-tissues-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#2
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922422/a-review-of-the-effects-of-capsicum-annuum-l-and-its-constituent-capsaicin-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Setareh Sanati, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Objectives: Metabolic syndrome, a coexisting of high blood glucose, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease occurrence and mortality. Recently, there is a rising demand for herbal drugs which have less adverse effects and have shown more beneficial effects in comparison with synthetic options. Red pepper, with the scientific name of Capsicum annuum , belongs to the Solanaceae family. The lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects of C...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921793/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-metabolic-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Rose Ghemrawi, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu, Carole Arnold
Metabolic disorders have become among the most serious threats to human health, leading to severe chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, despite the fact that each of these diseases has different physiological and clinical symptoms, they appear to share certain pathological traits such as intracellular stress and inflammation induced by metabolic disturbance stemmed from over nutrition frequently aggravated by a modern, sedentary life style...
June 19, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921717/dysregulation-of-nad-metabolism-induces-a-schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-program
#5
Yo Sasaki, Amber R Hackett, Sungsu Kim, Amy Strickland, Jeffrey Milbrandt
The Schwann cell (SC) is the major component of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that provides metabolic and functional support for peripheral axons. The emerging roles of SC mitochondrial function for PNS development and axonal stability indicate the importance of SC metabolism in nerve function and in peripheral neuropathies associated with metabolic disorders. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) is a crucial molecule in the regulation of cellular metabolism and redox homeostasis. Here, we investigated the roles of NAD+ metabolism in SC functions in vivo by mutating NAMPT, the rate-limiting enzyme of NAD+ biosynthesis, specifically in SCs...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914093/the-role-of-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-in-lipid-metabolism-glucose-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Virginia Actis Dato, Gustavo Alberto Chiabrando
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent disorder which can be used to identify individuals with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and molecular alterations such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1—A member of the LDL receptor family) is an endocytic and signaling receptor that is expressed in several tissues...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912982/discovery-of-a-novel-potent-peptide-agonist-to-adiponectin-receptor-1
#7
Sunghwan Kim, Younho Lee, Jun Woo Kim, Young-Jin Son, Min Jung Ma, Jee-Hyun Um, Nam Doo Kim, Sang Hyun Min, Dong Il Kim, Brian B Kim
Activation of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) by its natural ligand, adiponectin has been known to be involved in modulating critical metabolic processes such as glucose metabolism and fatty acid oxidation as demonstrated by a number of in vitro and in vivo studies over last two decades. These findings suggest that AdipoRs' agonists could be developed into a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, especially for type II diabetes, a long-term metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912760/the-role-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-axis-in-early-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-pdac
#8
Barbara Wlodarczyk, Anita Gasiorowska, Ewa Malecka-Panas
New-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the first symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The frequency of endocrine disorders is estimated between 40% and 80% in patients with pancreatic cancer. DM is a risk factor for cancer development but it may also be a consequence of the tumor growth. Data confirming the existence of a relationship between long standing type 2 DM and an increased risk of PDAC comes from numerous clinical studies. Insulin resistance phenomenon and hyperinsulinemia may result in the increased proliferation of pancreatic islets which in turn may cause a predisposition to cancer development...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911075/trace-element-status-in-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#9
Namrata Sanjeevi, Jeanne Freeland-Graves, S Natasha Beretvas, Prageet K Sachdev
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that has been associated with alterations in the status of trace elements, including zinc, copper, iron and manganese. However, clinical studies reporting statuses of these trace elements in type 2 diabetes patients compared to controls have shown conflicting results. Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the existing literature on the statuses of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911035/subclinical-hypothyroidism-and-cardiac-risk-lessons-from-a-south-indian-population-study
#10
Sashi Niranjan Nair, Harish Kumar, Manoj Raveendran, V Usha Menon
Introduction: The benefits of treating subclinical hypothyroidism are currently under debate, prevention of adverse cardiac events purporting to be one of the main benefits. The effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on the cardiovascular health of the Indian sub-population is largely unknown. This study was designed to examine these effects and to help guide treatment of this disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional adult population survey was carried out in urban coastal area of central Kerala...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911024/metformin-reduces-insulin-resistance-and-the-tendency-toward-hyperglycaemia-and-dyslipidaemia-in-dogs-with-hyperadrenocorticism
#11
Diego Daniel Miceli, Patricia Noemi Vidal, María Fernanda Cabrera Batter, Omar Pignataro, Victor Alejandro Castillo
Hypercortisolism induces a state of insulin resistance that can occur concurrently with fasting hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. Metformin reduces hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance of the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on the control of metabolic disorders of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC). Twenty-three dogs with HAC were randomly divided into two groups, consisting of a control group and a metformin group (10 mg metformin/kg/12 h)...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910773/characteristics-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-across-the-spectrum-of-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-adolescents
#12
Tamara S Hannon, Sara E Watson, Hasnaa E Jalou, Sangeeta Chakravorty, Kieren J Mather, Silva A Arslanian
Background: It is not known if dysglycemia and sleep-disordered breathing are linked in adolescents, as in adults. Objective: To perform a pilot study evaluating measures of sleep-disordered breathing across the spectrum of glucose tolerance in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that dysglycemia would be associated with sleep-disordered breathing. Participants/methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional clinical pilot study that included 57 adolescents [body mass index (BMI) 38...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910611/long-term-safety-of-tiotropium-olodaterol-respimat-%C3%A2-in-patients-with-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-and-renal-impairment-in-the-tonado-%C3%A2-studies
#13
Craig LaForce, Eric Derom, Ulrich Bothner, Isabel M Kloer, Matthias Trampisch, Roland Buhl
Introduction: The safety, lung function efficacy, and symptomatic benefits of combined tiotropium and olodaterol in patients with COPD were established in the 1-year TONADO® studies (NCT01431274; NCT01431287). As tiotropium is predominantly excreted by the kidneys, the long-term safety profile of tiotropium/olodaterol was investigated in patients with renal impairment in a prespecified safety analysis of the TONADO studies. Methods: These were 2 replicate, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week Phase III studies that assessed tiotropium/olodaterol compared with tiotropium or olodaterol alone (all via Respimat® ) in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910582/management-of-hyperglycemia-during-and-in-the-immediate-follow-up-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Jamal El Ouazzani, Amine Ghalem, Ghizlane El Ouazzani, Nabila Ismaili, Noha El Ouafi
Diabetes is a serious, frequent, and insidious morbidity and mortality risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease. It has been shown that carbohydrate metabolism disorders are common in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs): 30-40% of patients have diabetes, 25-36% have an intolerance to carbohydrates, and only 30-40% have a normal carbohydrate profile. Hyperglycemia occurring either in diabetic or nondiabetic patients is strongly associated with a poor prognosis. It increases the extent of myocardial necrosis, and the risk of recurrence acute coronary syndrome and hemodynamic complications, particularly heart failure and cardiogenic shock, reflecting the importance of optimal management of glucose metabolism abnormalities...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#15
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909315/effects-of-bisphenol-s-on-hypothalamic-neuropeptides-regulating-feeding-behavior-and-apelin-apj-system-in-mice
#16
Raja Rezg, Anne Abot, Bessem Mornagui, Samir Aydi, Claude Knauf
Since 2010, Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor has been restricted and replaced by analogues like Bisphenol S (BPS). However, little is known about BPS effects and growing concern have suspected the "BPA-free" Label. Several recent studies suggest that BPS is associated with increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unidentified. The current study investigates investigate BPS effects on hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating feeding behavior, either orexigenic or anorexigenic in Swiss Albino mice...
June 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909238/autophagy-as-an-emerging-target-in-cardiorenal-metabolic-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-management
#17
REVIEW
Yingmei Zhang, Adam T Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers, Jun Ren
Although advances in medical technology and health care have improved the early diagnosis and management for cardiorenal metabolic disorders, the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and kidney disease remains high. Findings from numerous population-based studies, clinical trials, and experimental evidence have consolidated a number of theories for the pathogenesis of cardiorenal metabolic anomalies including resistance to the metabolic action of insulin, abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative and nitrosative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial damage, and inflammation...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909200/epigenetic-control-of-variation-and-stochasticity-in-metabolic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ilaria Panzeri, John Andrew Pospisilik
BACKGROUND: The alarming rise of obesity and its associated comorbidities represents a medical burden and a major global health and economic issue. Understanding etiological mechanisms underpinning susceptibility and therapeutic response is of primary importance. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic diseases are complex trait disorders with only partial genetic heritability, indicating important roles for environmental programing and epigenetic effects. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: We will highlight some of the reasons for the scarce predictability of metabolic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908543/t-helper-22-pathway-evaluation-in-type-1-diabetes-and-its-complications
#19
Hossein Akbari, Mostafa Ghardashi, Alireza Soleimani, Hanieh Mohammadi, Hassan Nikoueinejad
A subset of CD4+ T cells named T helper (Th)22 cells play some pathogenic roles in some autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to study the correlation between the circulatory number of these cells and serum levels of its related cytokines with T1D as well as diabetic complications including metabolic control, atherosclerosis, and nephropathy. Fortynine patients with T1D and 43 healthy controls underwent the assessment of circulatory number of Th22 cells (by flow cytometry), serum level of Th22 related cytokines including Interleukin-22 (IL-22), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (by ELISA) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measurement (by doppler ultrasonography)...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908010/rapamycin-improves-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-type-2-diabetes-rats-through-activation-of-autophagy
#20
Wan Zhou, Shandong Ye
Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to explore the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), on IR in T2DM rats, and to validate whether the underlying mechanism was associated with autophagy. In this study, the model of T2DM rats was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet (HFD) and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into model of T2DM control group (DM-C, n=15), metformin group (DM-M, n=15), rapamycin group (DM-Rapa, n=15), 3-methyladenine (3-MA) group (DM-3-MA, n=15), and rapamycin+3-MA group (DM-Rapa-3-MA, n=15)...
June 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
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