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Diabetes. Metabolism disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241758/cutaneous-manifestations-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Ayse Serap Karadag, Emin Ozlu, Michael Joseph Lavery
Metabolic diseases are commonly encountered in the Western world. Cutaneous manifestations are common in metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and metabolic diseases may manifest with specific skin findings. MetS and DM share a common mechanism in their etiopathogenesis. As a result, the skin findings associated with these two diseases partially overlap. Several skin findings in DM and MetS may be the first clinical features of the disease, and early diagnosis facilitates treatment, thereby helping in preventing long-term complications...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241751/hidradenitis-suppurativa-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Tulin Ergun
The association of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disorders has attracted much interest within the last two decades. In addition to the well-established association of psoriasis with MetS, recent data point to an association between MetS and hidradenitis suppurativa, as well. The association of hidradenitis suppurativa with MetS and its components, such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia, has been consistently identified in controlled studies. This relationship is not only limited to older individuals but also applicable to younger patients and those with mild disease...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241748/psoriasis-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Paolo Gisondi, Anna Chiara Fostini, Irene Fossà, Giampiero Girolomoni, Giovanni Targher
Chronic plaque psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that is strongly associated with the clinical features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The strength of these associations has been repeatedly confirmed by several observational studies. In particular, the prevalence of MetS in patients with psoriasis ranges from 20% to 50%, with a risk of having MetS is at least double in psoriatic patients compared with nonpsoriatic control individuals...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241711/l-carnitine-and-heart-disease
#4
REVIEW
Zhong-Yu Wang, Ying-Yi Liu, Guo-Hui Liu, Hai-Bin Lu, Cui-Ying Mao
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a key cause of deaths worldwide, comprising 15-17% of healthcare expenditure in developed countries. Current records estimate an annual global average of 30 million cardiac dysfunction cases, with a predicted escalation by two-three folds for the next 20-30years. Although β-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzymes are commonly prescribed to control CVD risk, hepatotoxicity and hematological changes are frequent adverse events associated with these drugs. Search for alternatives identified endogenous cofactor l-carnitine, which is capable of promoting mitochondrial β-oxidation towards a balanced cardiac energy metabolism...
December 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241065/associations-between-maternal-triclosan-concentrations-in-early-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-impaired-glucose-tolerance-gestational-weight-gain-and-fetal-markers-of-metabolic-function
#5
Gabriel D Shapiro, Tye E Arbuckle, Jillian Ashley-Martin, William D Fraser, Mandy Fisher, Maryse F Bouchard, Patricia Monnier, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Adrienne S Ettinger, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND: Triclosan is a phenolic biocide used in a multitude of consumer products and in health care settings. It is widely detected in the American and Canadian populations and has been shown in animal models to act as an endocrine disrupting agent. However, there has been little examination to date of the effects of triclosan exposure in pregnancy on perinatal metabolic outcomes in human populations. METHODS: Using data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a Canadian pregnancy cohort, we measured associations of first-trimester urinary triclosan concentrations with total gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy, and fetal markers of metabolic function...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240812/effects-of-vaspin-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-secretion-via-pi3k-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#6
Shiwei Liu, Xin Li, Yaru Wu, Ruixue Duan, Jiaxin Zhang, Fang Du, Qi Zhang, Yuanbin Li, Naishi Li
Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor) is a recently discovered adipokine that has been implicated in diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders. However, the effects of vaspin on pancreatic β cell function and related mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of vaspin on pancreatic β cell function and the potential underlying mechanisms. Both in vitro (rat insulinoma cells, INS-1) and in vivo (high fat diet fed rats) experiments were conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239666/highly-selective-and-sensitive-measurement-of-active-forms-of-fgf21-using-novel-immunocapture-enrichment-with-lc-ms-ms
#7
Yue Zhao, Guowen Liu, Suk Kwok, Barry R Jones, Jane Liu, David Marchisin, Philip E Joyce, Jon Peterson, Jim X Shen
AIM: Recombinant FGF21 analogs are under wide ranging investigations as a potential therapeutic agent for Type 2 diabetes, as well as other metabolic disorders. The endogenous FGF21 is often used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic(PD) biomarker to assess drug efficacy and safety. Results/methodology: Immunocapture was performed using a monoclonal antibody which had been generated to bind to specific domain of native FGF21 as the capture reagent. After immunocapture, enzymatic digestion was performed and a native FGF21-specific tryptic peptide was monitored using LC-MS/MS by selective reaction monitoring...
December 14, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238655/duodenal-jejunal-bypass-surgery-reverses-diabetic-phenotype-and-reduces-obesity-in-db-db-mice
#8
Yongjun Liang, Yueqian Wang, Zhengdong Qiao, Ting Cao, Ying Feng, Lin Zhang, Peng Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a complex metabolic disorder typically accompanying weight gain, is associated with progressive β-cell failure and insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery ameliorates glucose tolerance and provides a near-perfect treatment. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) is an experimental procedure and has been studied in several rat models, but its influence in db/db mice, a transgenic model of T2DM, remains unclear. To investigate the effectiveness of DJB in db/db mice, we performed the surgery and evaluated metabolism improvement...
2017: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238476/anti-hyperglycemic-and-antioxidant-potential-of-croton-bonplandianus-bail-fractions-in-correlation-with-polyphenol-content
#9
Uma Dharshini Karuppiah Vijayamuthuramalingam, Rajeswari Rajaram, Kalaivani Madhavaram Kuppusamy, Bhavana Jonnalagadda, Sumathy Arokiasamy
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, a carbohydrate metabolic disorder, occurs due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Current treatment strategies involve either preventing or delaying the intestinal absorption of glucose to lower the levels of postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Herbal remedies have been since ancient times for treating diabetes mellitus. Therefore, identifying novel phytocompounds with α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity that would reduce the glucose absorption as well as the rise in postprandial blood glucose level is vital...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237539/cdkn2a-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-browning
#10
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Xavier Gromada, Elisabet Salas, Xi Yao, Frédérik Oger, Charlène Carney, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Amélie Bonnefond, Emilie Caron, Lluis Fajas, Christian Dani, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have reported that DNA polymorphisms at the CDKN2A locus modulate fasting glucose in human and contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Yet the causal relationship between this gene and defective energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we sought to understand the contribution of Cdkn2a to metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: We first analyzed glucose and energy homeostasis from Cdkn2a-deficient mice subjected to normal or high fat diets...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237358/on-the-relationship-of-anthranilic-derivatives-structure-and-the-fxr-farsenoid-x-receptor-agonist-activity
#11
Thales Kronenberger, Björn Windshügel, Carsten Wrenger, Kathia M Honorio, Vinicius G Maltarollo
Farsenoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor related to lipid and glucose homeostasis and is considered an important molecular target to treatment of metabolic diseases as diabetes, dyslipidemia and liver cancer. Nowadays, there are several FXR agonists reported in the literature and some of it in clinical trials for liver disorders. Herein a compound series was employed to generate QSAR models to better understand the structural basis for FXR by anthranilic acid derivatives (AADs) agonists. Furthermore, here it is evaluated the inclusion of the standard deviation (SD) of EC50 values in QSAR models quality...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237205/-how-does-diabetes-mellitus-influence-early-postoperative-results-and-survival-in-rectal-cancer
#12
Björn Gebauer, Frank Meyer, Henry Ptok, Ralf Steinert, Ronny Otto, Hans Lippert, Ingo Gastinger
Introduction Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) onto the early postoperative and long-term oncosurgical outcome after surgery for rectal cancer using data prospectively obtained in a representative number of patients. Methods Data (using a registration form of 68 items) from the ongoing multicenter observational study "rectal cancer (primary tumor) - elective surgery" on Quality Assurance was used including years 2008 to 2011. A voluntary and frequent follow-up was done to gain long-term data...
December 13, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233848/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeting-insulin-resistance-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
REVIEW
Darren M Riddy, Philippe Delerive, Roger J Summers, Patrick M Sexton, Christopher J Langmead
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) continue to be important discovery targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many GPCRs are directly involved in the development of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, and in the etiology of inflammation that can lead to obesity-induced T2DM. This review summarizes the current literature describing a number of well-validated GPCR targets, but also outlines several new and promising targets for drug discovery. We highlight the importance of understanding the role of these receptors in the disease pathology, and their basic pharmacology, which will pave the way to the development of novel pharmacological probes that will enable these targets to fulfill their promise for the treatment of these metabolic disorders...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233612/association-between-long-sleep-duration-and-increased-risk-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-possible-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Xiao Tan, Colin D Chapman, Jonathan Cedernaes, Christian Benedict
For the last two decades research has revealed an alarming association between short sleep duration and metabolic disorders. In tandem, the hormonal, behavioral, and genetic mechanisms underlying this relationship have been extensively investigated and reviewed. However, emerging evidence is revealing that excessive sleep duration has remarkably similar deleterious effects. Unfortunately, to date there has been little attention to what drives this connection. This narrative review therefore aims to summarize existing epidemiological findings, experimental work, and most importantly putative molecular and behavioral mechanisms connecting excessive sleep duration with both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 20, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232311/lithium-colchicine-a-potential-strategy-to-reduce-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-lithium-treatment
#15
John J Mooney, Roscoe O Brady
PURPOSE: Rosenblat and McIntyre (Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;132: 180-191) propose that immune disorders are important mediators between bipolar disorders and medical comorbidities. Rosenblat et al (Bipolar Disord. 2016;18:89-101) present a meta-analysis showing that adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents could evoke moderate antidepressant responses in bipolar disorders. We propose using the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine to improve the long-term safety and efficacy of lithium treatment for bipolar disorders...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229948/assessment-of-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-in-obese-calf-muscle-using-multi-echo-echo-planar-correlated-spectroscopic-imaging
#16
Rajakumar Nagarajan, Catherine L Carpenter, Cathy C Lee, Navin Michael, Manoj K Sarma, Raissa Souza, Edward Xu, S Sendhil Velan, Theodore J Hahn, Vay-Liang Go, M Albert Thomas
Obesity-related conditions including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of preventable death. Recent evidence suggests that altered myocellular lipid metabolism in obesity may lead to increased insulin resistance (IR) that predisposes to these disorders. To test the hypothesis that muscles rich in type I vs. type II muscle fibers would exhibit similar changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content in obesity, we utilized a new four-dimensional multi echo echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging technique that allows separate determination of IMCL and EMCL content in individual calf muscles in obese vs...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226100/clinical-food-addiction-is-not-associated-with-development-of-metabolic-complications-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#17
Sammy Saab, Cameron Sikavi, Melissa Jimenez, Matthew Viramontes, Ruby Allen, Youssef Challita, Michelle Mai, Negin Esmailzadeh, Jonathan Grotts, Gina Choi, Francisco Durazo, Mohamed El-Kabany, Steven-Huy Han, Elisa Moreno
Background and Aims: Given the increased risk of post-transplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS; defined by hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia), we aimed to identify the potential role of food addiction in the development of metabolic complications in the post-liver transplant population. Methods: Inclusion criteria included adult liver transplant recipients followed at our institution between June 2016 and November 2016. Participants were administered a demographic survey as well as the Yale Food Assessment Scale 2...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225776/the-sedentary-r-evolution-have-we-lost-our-metabolic-flexibility
#18
Jens Freese, Rainer Johannes Klement, Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, Sebastian Schwarz, Helmut Lötzerich
During the course of evolution, up until the agricultural revolution, environmental fluctuations forced the human species to develop a flexible metabolism in order to adapt its energy needs to various climate, seasonal and vegetation conditions. Metabolic flexibility safeguarded human survival independent of food availability. In modern times, humans switched their primal lifestyle towards a constant availability of energy-dense, yet often nutrient-deficient, foods, persistent psycho-emotional stressors and a lack of exercise...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225202/epigenetic-modifications-an-important-mechanism-in-diabetic-disturbances
#19
Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Adriana Kubis, Agnieszka Piwowar
In the search for explanations of diabetes pathomechanisms, especially the development of its vascular complications (micro- and macrovascular ), although current, good metabolic control of diabetes, attention was drawn to the role of epigenetic inheritance associated with epigenetic modifications of histone proteins and DNA in hyperglycemia conditions. This study showed the significant role of DNA methylation and histone epigenetic modifications (a different nature and a different degree) in the transmission of information that is not connected with gene inheritance but concerns the persistent changes induced by hyperglycemia...
November 29, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224179/antidiabetic-polypill-improves-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mixed-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Carmen Hierro-Bujalance, Esperanza Ortegon, Eleanor Pickett, Rosemary Jackson, Fernando Hernandez-Pacho, Tara Spires-Jones, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an important risk factor to suffer dementia, being Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common form. Both AD and T2D are closely related to aging and with a growing elderly population it might be of relevance to explore new therapeutic approaches that may slow or prevent central complications associated with metabolic disorders. Therefore, we propose the use of the antidiabetic polypill (PP), a pharmacological cocktail, commonly used by T2D patients that include metformin, aspirin, simvastatin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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