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Diabetes. Metabolism disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458148/untimely-oxidative-stress-in-%C3%AE-cells-leads-to-diabetes-role-of-circadian-clock-in-%C3%AE-cell-function
#1
REVIEW
J Lee, K Ma, M Moulik, V Yechoor
Diabetes results from a loss of β-cell function. With the number of people with diabetes reaching epidemic proportions globally, understanding mechanisms that are contributing to this increasing prevalence is critical. One such factor has been circadian disruption, with shift-work, light pollution, jet-lag, increased screen time, all acting as potential contributory factors. Though circadian disruption has been epidemiologically associated with diabetes and other metabolic disorders for many decades, it is only recently that there has been a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458019/raffinose-from-costus-speciosus-attenuates-lipid-synthesis-through-modulation-of-ppars-srebp1c-and-improves-insulin-sensitivity-through-pi3k-akt
#2
Muthukumaran Padmanaban, Thiyagarajan Gopal, Arun Babu Rajendran, Baddireddi Subhadra Lakshmi
Among several metabolic disorders, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is considered to be multifactorial. Raffinose, an oligosaccharide isolated from the rhizome of Costus speciosus showed ≤50% inhibition of lipid accumulation in differentiated HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells through exhibiting partial agonism to PPARγ, and, an enhanced secretion of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Raffinose was also observed to attenuate the expression of SREBP1c, ACC and FAS which are involved in the fatty acid synthesis. A corresponding upregulation of PPARα and ACO involved in fatty acid oxidation was observed in steatotic HepG2 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456698/correlation-of-blood-glucose-serum-chemerin-and-insulin-resistance-with-nafld-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Zhengjun Zhang, Jijun Wang, Hongmei Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of clinical syndrome characterized by the fatty degeneration in liver histology and should be further investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment thereof. In total, 300 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated and admitted into the Endocrinology Department of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and divided into the simple type 2 diabetes mellitus (group A) and concurrent NAFLD (group B) groups...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453905/sleep-apnea-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
Isao Muraki, Hiroo Wada, Takeshi Tanigawa
The aim of this review is to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes, and discuss the therapeutic role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in type 2 diabetes. OSA patients are more likely than non-OSA populations to develop type 2 diabetes while more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from OSA. Similarly to the Western countries, in the East Asian population, the association between these two disorders has also been reported. CPAP is the primary treatment for OSA, but the effect of CPAP on comorbid diabetes has not been established...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453877/significance-of-mitochondria-on-cardiometabolic-syndromes
#5
REVIEW
Nair Anupama, G Sindhu, K G Raghu
Metabolic syndromes (MS) are a cluster of disorders like obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a branch of MS, is a group of diseases affecting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities due to defects in energy metabolism. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defect in the 1980s, research advances has revealed a number of common human disease involving mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453696/interrelationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-left-ventricle-performance
#6
REVIEW
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452573/the-effect-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-insulin-resistant-patients-with-euthyroid-goiter
#7
Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adela-Viviana Sitar-Tăut, Smaranda Mârza, Daniela Moga, Ana Valea, Cristina Ghervan
Objective The study's objective was to evaluate the thyroid parameters in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid diffuse or nodular goiter, following Metformin treatment. Patients and methods The study was experimental, open, and prospective. Fifty-three patients aged 18-68 were enrolled for two years. Obese insulin-resistant patients (cut-off Homeostasis-Model-Assessment of Insulin Resistance-HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) with euthyroid nodular/diffuse goiter were included. Subjects with diabetes, hypo-/hyper-thyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, psychiatric disorders, liver or heart failure were excluded...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452095/the-role-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-ffa4-in-human-cancers-and-cancer-cell-lines
#8
REVIEW
Ilya S Senatorov, Nader H Moniri
A dietary influence on cancer progression has been evident for many decades, and dietary fatty acids, particularly long chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to play significant roles in influencing growth of a variety of human cancers. The discovery of the family of cell-surface free-fatty acid receptors, which include the long-chain fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, suggest that many of the effects of dietary fats could be receptor-mediated. FFA4 is ubiquitously expressed and has recently been shown to modulate a variety of important anti-inflammatory and metabolic processes...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452073/the-role-of-adiponectin-and-adipolin-as-anti-inflammatory-adipokines-in-the-formation-of-macrophage-foam-cells-and-their-association-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Javad Sargolzaei, Elham Chamani, Tooba Kazemi, Soudabeh Fallah, Hosna Soori
Obesity is one of the major public health concerns that is closely associated with obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by excess cholesterol deposition in the arterial intima and the formation of foam cells. Adipocytokines or adipokines are secreted by the adipose tissue as endocrine glands; adiponectin and adipolin are among these adipokines that are associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451141/associations-between-body-composition-indices-and-metabolic-disorders-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#10
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Fei Wang, Cong Ma, Xiao-Lan Zhao, Qiang Zeng, Ao Fei
Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450720/diabetic-kidney-disease-is-there-a-role-for-glycemic-variability
#11
REVIEW
Savitha Subramanian, Irl B Hirsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease globally. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a heterogeneous disorder manifested as albuminuria and/or decreasing GFR. Hyperglycemic burden is the major contributor to the development of DKD. In this article, we review the evidence for the contribution of glycemic variability and the pitfalls associated with use of hemoglobin A1c (A1C), the gold standard for assessment of glucose control, in the setting of DKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Glycemic variability, characterized by swings in blood glucose levels, can result in generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, a putative inciting factor for hyperglycemia-induced alterations in intracellular metabolic pathways...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449893/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-activation-in-adipose-tissue-induces-metabolic-syndrome-in-individuals-with-familial-partial-lipodystrophy-of-the-dunnigan-type
#12
Maria C Foss-Freitas, Rafael C Ferraz, Luciana Z Monteiro, Patricia M Gomes, Ricardo Iwakura, Luiz Carlos C de Freitas, Milton C Foss
Background: Familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type is one of the most common inherited lipodystrophies variables. These individuals have important metabolic disorders that cause predisposition to various diseases. In this study we aimed to demonstrate the relation between the metabolic abnormalities, inflammatory profile and the expression of genes involved in the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in subjects with FPLD. Methods: We evaluated 14 female FPLD patients and compared with 13 female healthy individuals...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448065/impact-of-non-apnea-sleep-disorders-on-diabetic-control-and-metabolic-outcome-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Ying-Chuan Hung, Yi-Chieh Lin, Hui-Min Hsieh, Chun-Jen Huang, Herng-Chia Chiu
OBJECTIVE: There has been a growing recognition that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could increase the propensity for type 2 diabetes the metabolic syndrome. However, studies concerning about the impact of non-apnea sleep disorders (NSD) on diabetes control and metabolic outcomes are relatively scarce. Our aim is to investigate the impact of non-apnea sleep disorders (NSD) on diabetic control and associated metabolic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The data were obtained from two nationwide population-based databases for a period 2007 to 2012...
January 31, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446627/ultrabright-and-fluorogenic-probes-for-multicolor-imaging-and-tracking-of-lipid-droplets-in-cells-and-tissues
#14
Mayeul Collot, Tkhe-Kyong Fam, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Orestis Faklaris, Thierry Galli, Lydia Danglot, Andrey S Klymchenko
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular lipid-rich organelles that regulate the storage of neutral lipids and were recently found to be involved in many physiological processes, metabolic disorders as well as diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancers. Herein we present a family of new fluorogenic merocyanine fluorophores based on an indolenine moiety and a dioxaborine barbiturate derivative. These so-called StatoMerocyanines (SMCy) span their fluorescence from yellow to the near infrared (NIR) in oil with an impressive fluorescence enhancement compared to aqueous media...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445913/dietary-pattern-associated-with-selenoprotein-p-and-mri-derived-body-fat-volumes-liver-signal-intensity-and-metabolic-disorders
#15
Romina di Giuseppe, Sandra Plachta-Danielzik, Manja Koch, Ute Nöthlings, Sabrina Schlesinger, Jan Borggrefe, Marcus Both, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek, Gunnar Jacobs, Wolfgang Lieb
PURPOSE: The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445837/alkaline-phosphatases-in-the-complex-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorders
#16
Jordi Bover, Pablo Ureña, Armando Aguilar, Sandro Mazzaferro, Silvia Benito, Víctor López-Báez, Alejandra Ramos, Iara daSilva, Mario Cozzolino
Alkaline phosphatases (APs) remove the phosphate (dephosphorylation) needed in multiple metabolic processes (from many molecules such as proteins, nucleotides, or pyrophosphate). Therefore, APs are important for bone mineralization but paradoxically they can also be deleterious for other processes, such as vascular calcification and the increasingly known cross-talk between bone and vessels. A proper balance between beneficial and harmful activities is further complicated in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
February 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444890/effect-of-gestational-diabetes-and-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-on-postpartum-cardiometabolic-risk
#17
Ling-Jun Li, Izzuddin M Aris, Lin Lin Su, Yap Seng Chong, Tien Yin Wong, Kok Hian Tan, Jie Jin Wang
AIMS: The cumulative effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases is equivocal. We aimed to assess the associations of GDM and HDP's individual and synergic contribution to risks of postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases (metabolic syndrome (MetS), abnormal glucose metabolism and hypertension (HTN)). METHODS: Of participants from a Singapore birth cohort, 276 mothers attending the 5-year postpartum visit were included in this study...
February 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444131/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-improvements-for-the-processing-of-small-frozen-pieces-of-adipose-tissue
#18
Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Francisco Tinahones, Lluis Fajas, María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Fernando Cardona
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has gained importance to identify links between the genome and the proteome. Adipose tissue has emerged as an active tissue, which secretes a wide range of molecules that have been related to metabolic and obesity-related disorders, such as diabetes, cardiovascular failure, metabolic syndrome, or cancer. In turn, epigenetics has raised the importance in discerning the possible relationship between metabolic disorders, lifestyle and environment. However, ChIP application in human adipose tissue is limited by several factors, such as sample size, frozen sample availability, high lipid content and cellular composition of the tissue...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442806/hetero-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-to-silence-au-rich-element-containing-mrnas-in-rage-expressing-inflammatory-cells-preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#19
Gokila Devi Mathialagan, Narkunaraja Shanmugam
Diabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder associated with significantly accelerated rates of inflammation. Gold nanoparticle plays a crucial role in biomedical applications. We described the development of hetero-functionalized gold nanoparticles (hfAuNPs) for targeted selective gene silencing by RNAi interference. This hfAuNPs was developed by parallelly conjugating biotinylated ARE-siRNA (siRNA to Adenosine Uridine-rich elements) and biotinylated RAGE interacting-peptide (RIP) to streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (aAuNPs) thus forms a complex that provides biocompatibility and functionality in a physiological environment...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441581/genetic-polymorphisms-of-htr2c-lep-and-lepr-on-metabolic-syndromes-in-patients-treated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs
#20
Apichaya Puangpetch, Weerapon Unaharassamee, Napa Jiratjintana, Napatrupron Koomdee, Chonlaphat Sukasem
OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), leptin (LEP), and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes are reportedly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS). We investigated whether HTR2C:rs518147 (-697G/C), rs12836771 (A/G), LEP: rs7799039 (-2548G/A) and LEPR:rs1137101 (668A/G) are related to MS in psychotic disorder patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 200 patients was conducted; genetic polymorphisms in HTR2C (rs518147 and rs12836771), LEP (rs7799039) and LEPR (rs1137101) were genotyped...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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