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D'Arcy R Meyer-Dombard, Caitlin P Casar, Alexander G Simon, Dawn Cardace, Matthew O Schrenk, Carlo A Arcilla
Terrestrial serpentinizing systems harbor microbial subsurface life. Passive or active microbially mediated iron transformations at alkaline conditions in deep biosphere serpentinizing ecosystems are understudied. We explore these processes in the Zambales (Philippines) and Coast Range (CA, USA) ophiolites, and associated surface ecosystems by probing the relevance of samples acquired at the surface to in situ, subsurface ecosystems, and the nature of microbe-mineral associations in the subsurface. In this pilot study, we use microcosm experiments and batch culturing directed at iron redox transformations to confirm thermodynamically based predictions that iron transformations may be important in subsurface serpentinizing ecosystems...
May 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Katrina I Twing, William J Brazelton, Michael D Y Kubo, Alex J Hyer, Dawn Cardace, Tori M Hoehler, Tom M McCollom, Matthew O Schrenk
Serpentinization is a widespread geochemical process associated with aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks that produces abundant reductants (H2 and CH4) for life to exploit, but also potentially challenging conditions, including high pH, limited availability of terminal electron acceptors, and low concentrations of inorganic carbon. As a consequence, past studies of serpentinites have reported low cellular abundances and limited microbial diversity. Establishment of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (California, U...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sophie Dal-Pra, Conrad P Hodgkinson, Maria Mirotsou, Imke Kirste, Victor J Dzau
RATIONALE: Direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocytes has recently emerged as a novel and promising approach to regenerate the injured myocardium. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in vitro and in vivo using a combination of 4 microRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, miR-208, and miR-499) that we named miR combo. However, the mechanism of miR combo mediated direct cardiac reprogramming is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the possibility that miR combo initiated direct cardiac reprogramming through an epigenetic mechanism...
April 28, 2017: Circulation Research
J Patrick Gonzalez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Viktoriia Kyrychenko, Joel S Schneider, Celine J Granier, Eric Himelman, Kevin C Lahey, Qingshi Zhao, Ghassan Yehia, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Mantu Bhaumik, Natalia Shirokova, Diego Fraidenraich
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the loss of the protein dystrophin, leading to muscle fragility, progressive weakening, and susceptibility to mechanical stress. Although dystrophin-negative mdx mouse models have classically been used to study DMD, phenotypes appear mild compared to patients. As a result, characterization of muscle pathology, especially in the heart, has proven difficult. We report that injection of mdx embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into Wild Type blastocysts produces adult mouse chimeras with severe DMD phenotypes in the heart and skeletal muscle...
March 2017: Stem Cells
Kristin M Woycheese, D'Arcy R Meyer-Dombard, Dawn Cardace, Anacleto M Argayosa, Carlo A Arcilla
In the Zambales ophiolite range, terrestrial serpentinizing fluid seeps host diverse microbial assemblages. The fluids fall within the profile of Ca(2+)-OH(-)-type waters, indicative of active serpentinization, and are low in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (<0.5 ppm). Influx of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the solubility of calcium carbonate as distance from the source increases, triggering the formation of meter-scale travertine terraces. Samples were collected at the source and along the outflow channel to determine subsurface microbial community response to surface exposure...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
David T Wang, Danielle S Gruen, Barbara Sherwood Lollar, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Lucy C Stewart, James F Holden, Alexander N Hristov, John W Pohlman, Penny L Morrill, Martin Könneke, Kyle B Delwiche, Eoghan P Reeves, Chelsea N Sutcliffe, Daniel J Ritter, Jeffrey S Seewald, Jennifer C McIntosh, Harold F Hemond, Michael D Kubo, Dawn Cardace, Tori M Hoehler, Shuhei Ono
Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle, with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its multiply substituted "clumped" isotopologues (for example, (13)CH3D) has recently emerged as a proxy for determining methane-formation temperatures. However, the effect of biological processes on methane's clumped isotopologue signature is poorly constrained. We show that methanogenesis proceeding at relatively high rates in cattle, surface environments, and laboratory cultures exerts kinetic control on (13)CH3D abundances and results in anomalously elevated formation-temperature estimates...
April 24, 2015: Science
Dawn Cardace, D'Arcy R Meyer-Dombard, Kristin M Woycheese, Carlo A Arcilla
A field campaign targeting high pH, H2-, and CH4-emitting serpentinite-associated springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to rank feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
D'Arcy R Meyer-Dombard, Kristin M Woycheese, Erin N Yargıçoğlu, Dawn Cardace, Everett L Shock, Yasemin Güleçal-Pektas, Mustafa Temel
Gas seeps emanating from Yanartaş (Chimera), Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes...
2014: Frontiers in Microbiology
Melitza Crespo-Medina, Katrina I Twing, Michael D Y Kubo, Tori M Hoehler, Dawn Cardace, Tom McCollom, Matthew O Schrenk
Geochemical reactions associated with serpentinization alter the composition of dissolved organic compounds in circulating fluids and potentially liberate mantle-derived carbon and reducing power to support subsurface microbial communities. Previous studies have identified Betaproteobacteria from the order Burkholderiales and bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentinite-hosted microbiome, however there is limited knowledge of their metabolic capabilities or growth characteristics...
2014: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qun-Feng Chen, Alexander Nevsky, Marco Cardace, Stephan Schiller, Thomas Legero, Sebastian Häfner, Andre Uhde, Uwe Sterr
We present a compact and robust transportable ultra-stable laser system with minimum fractional frequency instability of 1 × 10(-15) at integration times between 1 and 10 s. The system was conceived as a prototype of a subsystem of a microwave-optical local oscillator to be used on the satellite mission Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) ( It was therefore designed to be compact, to sustain accelerations occurring during rocket launch, to exhibit low vibration sensitivity, and to reach a low frequency instability...
November 2014: Review of Scientific Instruments
Nobuakira Takeda
Idiopathic cardiomyopathy is reviewed from molecular standpoint. About a half of all patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy show intra-familial occurrence. In familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, nine gene abnormalities have been discovered in the sarcomere, i.e. the genes of beta cardiac myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, alpha-tropomyosin, cardiac myosin binding protein-C, essential or regulatory myosin light chain, cardac troponin I, alpha-cardiac actin, and titin. Sudden death can occur in patients with familial-type hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with abnormalities of the cardiac troponin T or troponin I gene, even if hypertrophy is not marked...
January 2003: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
M L De Rosa, P Cardace, M Rossi, A Baiano, A de Cristofaro
The present study describes the effects of losartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on blood pressure, echocardiographically calculated left ventricular mass, renal function evaluated by glomerular filtration rate and quality of life. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is of importance for cardiovascular growth. There is substantial experimental documentation in animals that the angiotensin II antagonist, losartan, decreases the cardiac hypertrophy response caused by elevated arterial pressure as well as intravascular volume overload...
February 2002: Journal of Human Hypertension
O M Bucci, N Cardace, L Crocco, T Isernia
Within the framework of inverse scattering problems, the quantifying of the degree of nonlinearity of the problem at hand provides an interesting possibility for evaluating the validity range of the Born series and for quantifying the difficulty of both forward and inverse problems. With reference to the two-dimensional scalar problem, new tools are proposed that allow the determination of the degree of nonlinearity in scattering problems when the maximum value, dimensions, and spatial-frequency content of the unknown permittivity are changed at the same time...
August 2001: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
M L De Rosa, A de Cristofaro, M Rossi, A Baiano, P Cardace, L Albanese, C Vigorito
The blood-pressure lowering activity, tolerability, and safety of irbesartan was evaluated in 52 hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency. After a 3-week placebo period, once-daily irbesartan was administered for 12 weeks at a daily dose of 150 mg titrated to 300 mg. A second, non-angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, antihypertensive drug was added after 8 weeks as needed. Twenty-four-hour creatinine clearance was determined and renal clearance studies of inulin and para-aminohippurate were done in a subset of 11 patients...
September 2001: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
M L De Rosa, G Maddaluno, F Lionetti, U Di Palma, L Albanese, P Cardace, A Baiano, C Vigorito
AIMS AND METHODS: A study was carried out to evaluate the influence of antihypertensive treatment with combined low doses of enalapril plus isradipine (5+5 mg daily) compared with those of either drug at a higher dose level (10 mg daily) by double-blind, three-way crossover study (balanced Latin square design) in 102 subjects (mean age 51.9 +/- 7.42 years) with essential hypertension. Left ventricular mass and function were evaluated by M-B mode echocardiography, renal function by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and by serum and 24-h urinary Na+ and K+ during wash-out period and after 24 weeks of treatment...
June 12, 2000: International Journal of Cardiology
A Marzo, G Cardace, C Corbelletta, P Verga, C Vinciguerra
This paper describes the interference of heparin (CAS 9005-49-6) in whole plasma used for free and total levocarnitine (L-carnitine, CAS 541-15-1) analysis. Alkaline hydrolysis required for total L-carnitine measurement does not overcome the problem. The same interference is also present in long-chain acyl-L-carnitine assay, because heparin precipitates together with proteins and long-chain esters of L-carnitine in the acid insoluble fraction of perchloric acid treated plasma sample. In this case an appropriate cleaning of the sample is recommended before the assay...
December 1995: Arzneimittel-Forschung
A Marzo, N Corsico, G Cardace, E Morabito
The effect of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and that of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) hydrochloride (CAS 5080-50-2) treatment on the homeostasis of the levocarnitine (L-carnitine) moiety was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The diabetic status was ascertained by measuring blood glucose. L-carnitine (LC), total acid soluble L-carnitine (TC) and ALC were measured in serum, tissues and urine by radioenzymatic methods. Short-chain L-carnitine esters (SCLCE) were obtained by subtracting LC from TC. Serum concentration of L-carnitine moiety was decreased in diabetic when compared to normal rats; whereas ALC oral treatment (50 and 150 mg/kg p...
March 1993: Arzneimittel-Forschung
A Marzo, G Cardace, C Corbelletta, S Pace, S D'Iddio, C Verrotti, E Cavatorta, A Grignaffini
Plasma concentration, urinary excretion and renal clearance of free, total and esterified L-carnitine were monitored monthly in 14 women during the last 6 months of pregnancy and 1 month after delivery. Plasma concentration and renal clearance measured 1 month after delivery overlapped with normal values for females of comparable age, and were considered the reference values for further comparisons. Plasma concentration of free, total and esterified L-carnitine decreased during pregnancy, reaching values as low as half of those measured 1 month after delivery, whereas urinary excretion and renal clearance, mainly of L-carnitine esters, increased, with renal clearance reaching a peak at the 16th week of pregnancy...
June 1994: Gynecological Endocrinology
S Di Donato, A Castiglione, M Rimoldi, F Cornelio, F Vendemia, G Cardace, B Bertagnolio
Episodes with muscle ache, rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria with or without associated renal insufficiency are characteristic of muscle carnitinepalmitoyltransferase (CPT) deficiency. However, patients differ from each other in many aspects, such as the kind of stimulus that triggers rhabdomyolysis, the ability to produce ketone bodies when fasting, whether the enzyme defect is localized in skeletal muscle or is general, and the nature of the enzyme defect, which may be in CPT I or CPT II or both. Studies of muscle, liver and fibroblasts from a patient with recurrent rhabdomyolysis spontaneously occurring or triggered by exercise or fever, revealed a CPT deficiency in the muscle and liver biopsy samples but normal CPT activity in cultured cells, differing from previously reported patients...
May 1981: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
B Bertagnolio, M Rimoldi, G Cardace, E Bottacchi, S Di Donato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1981: Rivista di Neurobiologia
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