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Androgen related genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816598/short-versus-long-double-stranded-rna-activation-of-a-post-transcriptional-gene-knockdown-pathway
#1
Nir Shpak, Rivka Manor, Lihie Katzir Abilevich, Ortal Mantal, Keshet Shavit, Eliahu D Aflalo, Debra Toiber, Amir Sagi
RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816549/implications-of-bcl-2-and-its-interplay-with-other-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-in-prostate-cancer-progression
#2
Ju-Ha Kim, Hyemin Lee, Eun Ah Shin, Dong Hee Kim, Jhin Baek Choi, Sung-Hoon Kim
Among several genetic alterations involved in the progression of prostate cancer, B cell lymphoma gene number 2 (BCL-2) is an important target molecule in the progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) after androgen ablation or castration. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of BCL-2 in prostate cancer progression remains elusive and controversial. In the current review, we discuss the critical role of BCL-2 in the carcinogenesis of prostate cancer with experimental evidences on the BCL-2 molecular networks in AIPC and androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) and subsequently suggest perspective research targeting BCL-2...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811844/lsd1-dual-function-in-mediating-epigenetic-corruption-of-the-vitamin-d-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Sebastiano Battaglia, Ellen Karasik, Bryan Gillard, Jennifer Williams, Trisha Winchester, Michael T Moser, Dominic J Smiraglia, Barbara A Foster
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH)2-D3 (vitamin D) action in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806941/androgen-receptor-is-expressed-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes-at-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-developmental-stages
#4
Enrique Pedernera, María José Gómora, Iván Meneses, Marlon De Ita, Carmen Méndez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that androgens are involved in hypertrophy and excitability of cardiomyocytes and that their effects are mediated through their receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of androgen receptor (AR) in mouse heart during prenatal and early postnatal stages. RESULTS: The expression of AR and related genes, alpha myosin heavy chain -Myh6-, beta myosin heavy chain -Myh7- and atrial natriuretic factor -Nppa- was simultaneously evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR...
August 14, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783504/puberty-arises-with-testicular-alterations-and-defective-amh-expression-in-rams-prenatally-exposed-to-testosterone
#5
S E Recabarren, M Recabarren, D Sandoval, A Carrasco, V Padmanabhan, R Rey, H G Richter, C C Perez-Marin, T Sir-Petermann, P P Rojas-Garcia
The male gonadal tissue can be a sensitive target to the reprogramming effects of testosterone (T) during prenatal development. We have demonstrated that male lambs born to dams receiving T during pregnancy-a model system to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-show a decreased number of germ cells early in life, and when adult, a reduced amount of sperm and ejaculate volume. These findings are a key to put attention to the male offspring of women bearing PCOS, as they are exposed to increased levels of androgen during pregnancy which can reprogram their reproductive outcome...
June 23, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776866/prenatal-androgen-receptor-activation-determines-adult-alcohol-and-water-drinking-in-a-sex-specific-way
#6
Sabine E Huber, Iulia Zoicas, Martin Reichel, Christiane Mühle, Christian Büttner, Arif B Ekici, Volker Eulenburg, Bernd Lenz, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Alcohol use disorders are major psychiatric disorders. Correlational studies in humans suggested organizational hormonal effects during embryonic development as a risk factor for adult alcohol dependence. Permanent changes can be induced by the activity of sex hormones, like testosterone. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between prenatal androgen receptor (AR)-activation and adult alcohol as well as water drinking in mice in a sex-dependent fashion. Prenatal AR inhibition using the antagonist flutamide decreased adult male alcohol consumption...
August 4, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761362/targeted-tpx2-increases-chromosome-missegregation-and-suppresses-tumor-cell-growth-in-human-prostate-cancer
#7
Hung-Wei Pan, Hsing-Hao Su, Chao-Wen Hsu, Guan-Jin Huang, Tony Tong-Lin Wu
Prostate cancer is a complex disease that can be relatively harmless or extremely aggressive. Although androgen-deprivation therapy is a commonly used treatment for men with prostate cancer, the adverse effects can be detrimental to patient health and quality of life. Therefore, identifying new target genes for tumor growth will enable the development of novel therapeutic intervention. TPX2 plays a critical role in chromosome segregation machinery during mitosis. Low rates of chromosome missegregation can promote tumor development, whereas higher levels might promote cell death and suppress tumorigenesis...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754850/the-regulation-of-hydroxysteroid-17%C3%AE-dehydrogenase-type-1-and-2-gene-expression-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines-by-estradiol-dihydrotestosterone-micrornas-and-genes-related-to-breast-cancer
#8
Erik Hilborn, Olle Stål, Andrey Alexeyenko, Agneta Jansson
AIM: To investigate the influence of estrogen, androgen, microRNAs, and genes implicated in breast cancer on the expression of HSD17B1 and HSD17B2. MATERIALS: Breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF7, T47D, SK-BR-3, and the immortalized epithelial cell line MCF10A were used. Cells were treated either with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone for 6, 24, 48 hours, or 7 days or treated with miRNAs or siRNAs predicted to influence HSD17B expression Results and discussion...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753573/implications-of-pi3k-akt-inhibition-on-rest-protein-stability-and-neuroendocrine-phenotype-acquisition-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#9
Ruiqui Chen, Yinan Li, Ralph Buttyan, Xuesen Dong
Treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer (PCa) that arises as a consequence of rigorous androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibition (ARPI) therapies. While the PI3K/AKT pathway has been investigated as a co-therapeutic target with ARPI for advanced PCa, whether this strategy can prevent tumor progression to t-NEPC remains unknown. Here, we report that PI3K/AKT inhibition alone reduces RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) protein expression and induces multiple NE markers in PCa cells...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732368/meta-analysis-of-micrornas-expression-in-head-and-neck-cancer-uncovering-association-with-outcome-and-mechanisms
#10
Joshua Lubov, Mariana Maschietto, Iman Ibrahim, Alex Mlynarek, Michael Hier, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali, Sabrina Daniela da Silva
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stages, incurring significant high mortality and morbidity. This review explored the risk stratification of miRNAs, and investigated the impact of miRNA networking in HNSCC prognostication. We performed a meta-analysis and a systematic literature search on online databases for papers published prior to December 1, 2016. The list of miRNAs was uploaded to MetacoreTM to construct a protein-protein interaction network, which was used to identify targets of the miRNAs and potential drugs...
July 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#11
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721808/molecular-tests-for-the-choice-of-cancer-therapy
#12
Anna P Sokolenko, Evgeny N Imyanitov
There are over a dozen of approved cancer drugs, whose administration is tailored to predictive laboratory tests. The examples include estrogen and progesterone receptor status determination for the use of endocrine therapy, HER2 assessment for the administration of HER2-targeting agents, EGFR and ALK gene testing for lung cancer treatment, BRAF analysis in melanoma, etc. While first predictive tests relied on relatively easy laboratory procedures, more recent developments require rather sophisticated assays...
July 19, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712091/contribution-of-genetic-factors-to-lower-dheas-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Lucia Vernerova, Martina Mravcova, Lucia Paulikova, Miroslav Vlcek, Andrea Marko, Milada Meskova, Adela Penesova, Jozef Rovensky, Juraj Wendl, Katarina Raslova, Branislav Vohnout, Ivana Jochmanova, Ivica Lazurova, Zdenko Killinger, Guenter Steiner, Josef Smolen, Richard Imrich
OBJECTIVE: Lower production of adrenal androgens has been confirmed in females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the mechanisms of this finding are not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess the contribution of genetic factors associated with variability of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels to lower DHEAS in female RA patients. METHODS: 448 RA and 648 healthy controls were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528), SULT2A1 (rs2637125), HHEX (rs2497306), and ARPC1A (rs740160)...
July 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694246/management-of-endocrine-disease-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Ivana Božić-Antić, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disease in women, with a number of metabolic and reproductive consequences. Obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are prominent metabolic characteristics of PCOS and common factors affecting liver function and generating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Multiple genes involved in the synthesis of androgens, cytokines and IR, as well as acquired factors, such as endocrine disruptors, could associate the etiopathogenesis of PCOS and NAFLD...
September 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684670/role-of-hormones-in-the-regulation-of-rack1-expression-as-a-signaling-checkpoint-in-immunosenescence
#15
REVIEW
Marco Racchi, Erica Buoso, Melania Ronfani, Melania M Serafini, Marilisa Galasso, Cristina Lanni, Emanuela Corsini
Immunosenescence defines the decline in immune function that occurs with aging. This has been associated, at least in part, with defective cellular signaling via protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction pathways. Our data suggest reduced PKC activation and consequently reduced response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and cytokine release. The lack of PKC activation seems to be dependent on the reduced expression of the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffolding protein involved in multiple signal transduction cascades...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668854/pca3-silencing-sensitizes-prostate-cancer-cells-to-enzalutamide-mediated-androgen-receptor-blockade
#16
Emre Özgür, Ayca Iribas Celik, Emin Darendeliler, Ugur Gezer
BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease. Novel anti-androgens (i.e. enzalutamide) have recently been developed for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Evidence is accumulating that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is involved in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Here, in combination with enzalutamide-mediated AR blockade, we investigated the effect of PCA3 targeting on the viability of PCa cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells, AR-overexpressing LNCaP-AR(+) cells and VCaP cells (representing CRPC), PCA3 was silenced using siRNA oligonucleotides...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666321/androgens-regulate-ovarian-gene-expression-through-modulation-of-ezh2-expression-and-activity
#17
Xiaoting Ma, Emily Hayes, Anindita Biswas, Christina Seger, Hen Prizant, Stephen R Hammes, Aritro Sen
Significant evidence suggests that androgen signaling through classical androgen receptors is critical for both normal and pathologic ovarian physiology. Specifically, we and others have shown that, in mouse granulosa cells, androgen actions through both extra-nuclear and nuclear androgen receptor signaling are critical for normal follicle development and ovulation. Here we show that androgens through the PI3K/Akt pathway rapidly (within minutes) phosphorylate and inhibit activity of the Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (Ezh2)...
June 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663000/skewed-x-chromosome-inactivation-and-xist-locus-methylation-levels-do-not-contribute-to-the-lower-prevalence-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-females
#18
Amit Sharma, Oliver Kaut, Anna Pavlova, Holger Fröhlich, Ashar Ahmad, Ina Schmitt, Osman El-Maarri, Johannes Oldenburg, Ullrich Wüllner
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the nervous system and the cause of the majority of sporadic cases is unknown. Females are relatively protected from PD as compared with males and linkage studies suggested a PD susceptibility locus on the X chromosome. To determine a putative association of skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) and PD, we examined XCI patterns using a human androgen receptor gene-based assay (HUMARA) and did not identify any association of skewed or random X inactivation with clinical heterogeneity among female PD patients...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662179/small-leucine-zipper-protein-functions-as-a-negative-regulator-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-breast-cancer
#19
Juyeon Jeong, Sodam Park, Hyoung-Tae An, Minsoo Kang, Jesang Ko
The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a critical role in breast cancer progression. ERα acts as an important growth stimulatory protein in breast cancer and the expression level of ERα is tightly related to the prognosis and treatment of patients. Small leucine zipper protein (sLZIP) functions as a transcriptional cofactor by binding to various nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. However, the role of sLZIP in the regulation of ERα and its involvement in breast cancer progression is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655783/inhibition-of-androgen-receptor-nuclear-localization-and-castration-resistant-prostate-tumor-growth-by-pyrroloimidazole-based-small-molecules
#20
Khalid Z Masoodi, Yadong Xu, Javid A Dar, Kurtis Eisermann, Laura E Pascal, Erica Parrinello, Junkui Ai, Paul A Johnston, Joel B Nelson, Peter Wipf, Zhou Wang
The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that controls the expression of androgen-responsive genes.  A key step in androgen action, which is amplified in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is AR nuclear translocation. Small molecules capable of inhibiting AR nuclear localization could be developed as novel therapeutics for CRPC. We developed a high throughput screen and identified two structurally-related pyrroloimidazoles that could block AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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