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Disease elimination integrated

Christian Quinet, Guy Czaplicki, Elise Dion, Fabiana Dal Pozzo, Anke Kurz, Claude Saegerman
BACKGROUND: Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth...
2016: PloS One
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
M G Basáñez, M Walker, H C Turner, L E Coffeng, S J de Vlas, W A Stolk
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Lydie Ryšavá, Jaroslav Kříž
Diseases caused by Iodine deficit are preventable. Inter resort Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency (MKJD) at State Institute for Health (SZU) in Prague has been taking effective measures which satisfied requirements of the Principles for sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency ICCD WHO: 96 % of households is using iodized salt, average Iodine content is 25 mg/1 kg of salt. Data from studies show ioduria less 100 mcg/l in only 9 per cent of seniors, 5 % of children 7-10 years, 3 % of children 10-12 years...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Ashkan Shafiee, Anthony Atala
The goal of tissue engineering is to mitigate the critical shortage of donor organs via in vitro fabrication of functional biological structures. Tissue engineering is one of the most prominent examples of interdisciplinary fields, where scientists with different backgrounds work together to boost the quality of life by addressing critical health issues. Many different fields, such as developmental and molecular biology, as well as technologies, such as micro- and nanotechnologies and additive manufacturing, have been integral for advancing the field of tissue engineering...
September 30, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Yanbing Hou, Chunyan Luo, Jing Yang, Wei Song, Ruwei Ou, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Drooling is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to evaluate the brain connectivity of cortico-striatal circuits in PD patients with drooling. METHOD: We enrolled 30 early-stage drug-naïve PD patients and 30 matched normal controls. Among the PD patients, 15 patients were classified as "droolers" with the presence of drooling and 15 patients as "non-droolers" with the absence of drooling. All participants underwent resting-state fMRI scans on a 3-T MR system, focusing on the functional connectivity of striatum subregions...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Biniam Mathewos Tebeje, Marina Harvie, Hong You, Alex Loukas, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, caused mainly by S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum, continues to be a serious tropical disease and public health problem resulting in an unacceptably high level of morbidity in countries where it is endemic. Praziquantel, the only drug currently available for treatment, is unable to kill developing schistosomes, it does not prevent re-infection and its continued extensive use may result in the future emergence of drug-resistant parasites. This scenario provides impetus for the development and deployment of anti-schistosome vaccines to be used as part of an integrated approach for the prevention, control and eventual elimination of schistosomiasis...
September 30, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Pranab Chatterjee, Manish Kakkar, Sanjay Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Globally, the threat of infectious diseases, particularly emerging infectious diseases, originating at the human-animal-environment interface, has caught health systems off guard. With forecasts that future pathogen emergence will be centred in hotspots in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the need to prepare policy frameworks that can combat this threat is urgent. DISCUSSION: Emergence of diseases such as avian influenza and Ebola virus disease, which threatened social disruption, have established the need for intersectoral coordination/collaboration...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Yulian A Menyaev, Kai A Carey, Dmitry A Nedosekin, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Ekaterina I Galanzha, Jason S Stumhofer, Vladimir P Zharov
In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) has demonstrated potential for early diagnosis of deadly diseases through detection of rare circulating tumor cells, pathogens, and clots in nearly the entire blood volume. Before clinical application, this promising diagnostic platform requires verification and optimization using adequate preclinical models. We show here that this can be addressed by examination of large mouse blood vessels which are similar in size, depth and flow velocity to human vessels used in PAFC...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
El Mehdi Bentaleb, Mohammed Abid, My Driss El Messaoudi, Brahim Lakssir, El Mostafa Ressami, Saaïd Amzazi, Hassan Sefrioui, Hassan Ait Benhassou
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Routinely used TB diagnostic methods, in most endemic areas, are time-consuming, often less-sensitive, expensive and inaccessible to most patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of early, easy to use and effective diagnosis tools of TB, which can be effectively integrated into resource limited settings, to anticipate the early treatment and limit further spread of the disease...
September 27, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
James Kehler, Marianna Greco, Valentina Martino, Manickam Pachiappan, Hiroko Yokoe, Alice Chen, Miranda Yang, Joel Jessee, Martin Gotte, Luciano Milanesi, Alberto Albertini, Gianfranco Bellipanni, Ileana Zucchi, Rolland A Reinbold, Antonio Giordano
Cellular reprogramming by epigenomic remodeling of chromatin holds great promise in the field of human regenerative medicine. As an example, human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) obtained by reprograming of patient somatic cells are sufficiently similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and can generate all cell types of the human body. Clinical use of iPSCs is dependent on methods that do not utilize genome altering transgenic technologies that are potentially unsafe and ethically unacceptable. Transient delivery of exogenous RNA into cells provides a safer reprogramming system to transgenic approaches that rely on exogenous DNA or viral vectors...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Marco Ajelli, Stefano Merler, Laura Fumanelli, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
BACKGROUND: Among the three countries most affected by the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014-2015, Guinea presents an unusual spatiotemporal epidemic pattern, with several waves and a long tail in the decay of the epidemic incidence. METHODS: Here, we develop a stochastic agent-based model at the level of a single household that integrates detailed data on Guinean demography, hospitals, Ebola treatment units, contact tracing, and safe burial interventions. The microsimulation-based model is used to assess the effect of each control strategy and the probability of elimination of the epidemic according to different intervention scenarios, including ring vaccination with the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccine...
2016: BMC Medicine
Anna Gamell, Tracy R Glass, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Leila Samson, Tom Mtoi, Angelo Nyamtema, Lukas Muri, Alex Ntamatungiro, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Strategies to improve HIV diagnosis and linkage into care, antiretroviral treatment coverage and treatment outcomes of mothers and children are urgently needed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: From 12/2012, we implemented an intervention package to improve Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) and pediatric HIV care in our rural Tanzanian clinic, consisting of: a) creation of a PMTCT and pediatric unit integrated within the reproductive and child health clinic; b) implementation of electronic medical records; c) provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in the hospital wards; and d) early infant diagnosis test performed locally...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
K E McGrath, S C Catherman, J Palis
Adult humans need to make 2.5million red blood cells (RBCs) every second to maintain a steady state level of 25trillion circulating RBCs. Understanding normal erythropoiesis as well as diseases that afflict the erythron, such as genetic anemias, hyperproliferative disorders, and myelodysplastic syndromes, requires a robust method to delineate erythropoietic intermediates. In order to apply the power of flow cytometry to these studies, challenges of limited immunophenotypic markers, incorporation of significant changes in morphology, and maturational changes that occur along a continuum need to be met...
August 28, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Nazia Rashid, Puza P Sharma, Ronald D Scott, Kathy J Lin, Peter P Toth
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient characteristics, treatment patterns, comorbidities, and risk factors associated with the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in an integrated health care delivery system. METHODS: We identified a retrospective cohort of severe HTG patients with a fasting triglyceride level ≥ 1000 mg/dL during January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2013 (index date) in an integrated health care delivery system...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Luran Liu, Yan Liu, Chang Liu, Zhuobo Zhang, Yaojun Du, Hao Zhao
The present study aimed to identify potential biomarkers for atherosclerosis via analysis of gene expression profiles. The microarray dataset no. GSE20129 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 118 samples from the peripheral blood of female patients was used, including 47 atherosclerotic and 71 non‑atherosclerotic patients. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the atherosclerosis samples were identified using the Limma package. Gene ontology term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses for DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
(no author information available yet)
Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers...
September 2016: Pediatrics
S A Gray, R N Coler, D Carter, A A Siddiqui
There is an urgent need to develop new vaccines for tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria, as well as for chronic and debilitating infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The term "NTD" emerged at the beginning of the new millennium to describe a set of diseases that are characterized as (1) poverty related, (2) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, (3) lacking public health attention and inadequate industrial investment, (4) having poor research funding and a weak research and development (R&D) pipeline, (5) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and (6) often having no safe and long-lasting treatment available...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Petr Karlovsky, Michele Suman, Franz Berthiller, Johan De Meester, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Irène Perrin, Isabelle P Oswald, Gerrit Speijers, Alessandro Chiodini, Tobias Recker, Pierre Dussort
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Michael Marks, Oliver Sokana, Eli Nachamkin, Elliot Puiahi, Georgina Kilua, Allan Pillay, Christian Bottomley, Anthony W Solomon, David C Mabey
INTRODUCTION: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in the Pacific. Mass treatment with azithromycin is the mainstay of the WHO strategy for both the eradication of yaws and the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, but the dose recommended for trachoma is lower than that for yaws. In countries where both diseases are endemic, there is a potential for synergy between yaws and trachoma control programs if mass treatment with the lower dose of azithromycin was shown to be effective for the treatment of yaws...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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