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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215278/nucleic-acid-immunity
#1
G Hartmann
Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210784/novel-aids-therapies-based-on-gene-editing
#2
REVIEW
Kamel Khalili, Martyn K White, Jeffrey M Jacobson
HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2.6 million children. Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the 1990s, treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. However, while people with HIV can expect to live a normal life span with cART, lifelong medication is required and cardiovascular, renal, liver, and neurologic diseases are still possible, which continues to prompt research for a cure for HIV...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207792/partnering-for-impact-integrated-transmission-assessment-surveys-for-lymphatic-filariasis-soil-transmitted-helminths-and-malaria-in-haiti
#3
Alaine Kathryn Knipes, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Franck Monestime, Carl R Fayette, Abdel N Direny, Luccene Desir, Valery E Beau de Rochars, Thomas G Streit, Kristen Renneker, Brian K Chu, Michelle A Chang, Kimberly E Mace, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Since 2001, Haiti's National Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) has worked to reduce the transmission of LF through annual mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. The NPELF reached full national coverage with MDA for LF in 2012, and by 2014, a total of 14 evaluation units (48 communes) had met WHO eligibility criteria to conduct LF transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to determine whether prevalence had been reduced to below a threshold, such that transmission is assumed to be no longer sustainable...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166251/risk-analysis-and-prediction-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-dispersion-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#4
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Liang Mao, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Joanna Marie Tucker Lima, Denis Valle
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162093/evaluating-the-impact-of-targeting-livestock-for-the-prevention-of-human-and-animal-trypanosomiasis-at-village-level-in-districts-newly-affected-with-t-b-rhodesiense-in-uganda
#5
Louise Hamill, Kim Picozzi, Jenna Fyfe, Beatrix von Wissmann, Sally Wastling, Nicola Wardrop, Richard Selby, Christine Amongi Acup, Kevin L Bardosh, Dennis Muhanguzi, John D Kabasa, Charles Waiswa, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Uganda has suffered from a series of epidemics of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a tsetse transmitted disease, also known as sleeping sickness. The area affected by acute Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT (rHAT) has been expanding, driven by importation of infected cattle into regions previously free of the disease. These regions are also affected by African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) demanding a strategy for integrated disease control. METHODS: In 2008, the Public Private Partnership, Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness (SOS) administered a single dose of trypanocide to 31 486 head of cattle in 29 parishes in Dokolo and Kaberamaido districts...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146096/pharmacokinetics-studies-of-12-alkaloids-in-rat-plasma-after-oral-administration-of-zuojin-and-fan-zuojin-formulas
#6
Ping Qian, You-Bo Zhang, Yan-Fang Yang, Wei Xu, Xiu-Wei Yang
Zuojin formula (ZJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisted of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) and Euodiae Fructus (EF), and has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) disease for more than 700 years. Fan-Zuojin formula (FZJ) is a related TCM prescription also consisted of CR and EF with the opposite proportion. In recent years, ZJ was getting more attention for its antitumor potential, but the indeterminate pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior restricted its clinical applications, and the PK differences between ZJ and FZJ were also largely unknown...
January 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142124/quantitative-real-time-monitoring-of-rca-amplification-of-cancer-biomarkers-mediated-by-a-flexible-ion-sensitive-platform
#7
Bruno Veigas, Joana Pinto, Raquel Vinhas, Tomás Calmeiro, Rodrigo Martins, Elvira Fortunato, Pedro Viana Baptista
Ion sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFET) are the basis of radical new sensing approaches. Reliable molecular characterization of specific detection of DNA and/or RNA is vital for disease diagnostics and to follow up alterations in gene expression profiles. Devices and strategies for biomolecular recognition and detection should be developed into reliable and inexpensive platforms. Here, we describe the development of a flexible thin-film sensor for label free gene expression analysis. A charge modulated ISFET based sensor was integrated with real-time DNA/RNA isothermal nucleic acid amplification: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) techniques for c-MYC and BCR-ABL1 genes, allowing for the real-time quantification of template...
January 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124203/the-role-of-allergy-testing-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis-an-update-of-the-evidence
#8
Hamish Philpott, Francis Thien
Allergy testing has been advocated for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) as a means of defining food triggers and directing dietary therapy. Several recent and comprehensive studies have demonstrated the futility of skin prick (SPT), skin patch (APT) and serum food antigen specific IgE (SIgE) estimates in this context. Furthermore, if identification of food triggers is the endpoint (as opposed to the ability of an allergy test-directed diet merely to induce remission), previous positive studies have limitations...
January 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119154/conductive-nanogel-interfaced-neural-microelectrode-arrays-with-electrically-controlled-in-situ-delivery-of-manganese-ions-enabling-high-resolution-memri-for-synchronous-neural-tracing-with-deep-brain-stimulation
#9
Wei-Chen Huang, Yu-Chih Lo, Chao-Yi Chu, Hsin-Yi Lai, You-Yin Chen, San-Yuan Chen
Chronic brain stimulation has become a promising physical therapy with increased efficacy and efficiency in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The application of deep brain electrical stimulation (DBS) combined with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) provides an unbiased representation of the functional anatomy, which shows the communication between areas of the brain responding to the therapy. However, it is challenging for the current system to provide a real-time high-resolution image because the incorporated MnCl2 solution through microinjection usually results in image blurring or toxicity due to the uncontrollable diffusion of Mn(2+)...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095356/a-systems-pharmacology-perspective-to-decipher-the-mechanism-of-action-of-parangichakkai-chooranam-a-siddha-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#10
Sudharsana Sundarrajan, Mohanapriya Arumugam
Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing immune mediated disorder of the skin. The disease presents itself with well featured clinical and histological characteristics however the aetiology of the disease still remains obscure. The current systemic therapies aim to eliminate the symptoms of disease rather than offering a complete cure. Parangichakkai chooranam (PC), a Siddha oral herbal formulation has been widely prescribed for the treatment of psoriasis. Though the medication is highly prescribed by the Siddha healers the mechanism of PC for the treatment of psoriasis remains to be elucidated...
January 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089908/human-aml-ipscs-reacquire-leukemic-properties-after-differentiation-and-model-clonal-variation-of-disease
#11
Mark P Chao, Andrew J Gentles, Susmita Chatterjee, Feng Lan, Andreas Reinisch, M Ryan Corces, Seethu Xavy, Jinfeng Shen, Daniel Haag, Soham Chanda, Rahul Sinha, Rachel M Morganti, Toshinobu Nishimura, Mohamed Ameen, Haodi Wu, Marius Wernig, Joseph C Wu, Ravindra Majeti
Understanding the relative contributions of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) should assist integrated design of targeted therapies. In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from AML patient samples harboring MLL rearrangements and found that they retained leukemic mutations but reset leukemic DNA methylation/gene expression patterns. AML-iPSCs lacked leukemic potential, but when differentiated into hematopoietic cells, they reacquired the ability to give rise to leukemia in vivo and reestablished leukemic DNA methylation/gene expression patterns, including an aberrant MLL signature...
December 26, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056337/marked-enteropathy-in-an-accelerated-macaque-model-of-aids
#12
Joshua D Croteau, Elizabeth L Engle, Suzanne E Queen, Erin N Shirk, M Christine Zink
Enteropathy in HIV infection is not eliminated with combination antiretroviral therapy and is possibly linked to microbial translocation. We used a rapidly progressing SIV/pigtailed macaque model of HIV to examine enteropathy and microbial translocation. Histologic evidence of intestinal disease was observed in only half of infected macaques during late-stage infection (LSI). Combination antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute infection prevented intestinal disease. In the ileum and colon, enteropathy was associated with increased caspase-3 staining, decreased CD3(+) T cells, and increased SIV-infected cells...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049486/towards-eliminating-malaria-in-high-endemic-countries-the-roles-of-community-health-workers-and-related-cadres-and-their-challenges-in-integrated-community-case-management-for-malaria-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Bruno F Sunguya, Linda B Mlunde, Rakesh Ayer, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: Human resource for health crisis has impaired global efforts against malaria in highly endemic countries. To address this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling-up of community health workers (CHWs) and related cadres owing to their documented success in malaria and other disease prevention and management. Evidence is inconsistent on the roles and challenges they encounter in malaria interventions. This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on roles and challenges of CHWs and related cadres in integrated community case management for malaria (iCCM)...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027324/insecticide-and-repellent-mixture-pour-on-protects-cattle-against-animal-trypanosomosis
#14
Geoffrey Gimonneau, Yaya Alioum, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Andre Zoli, Bylah Cene, Hassane Adakal, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two prospective surveys were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of a pour-on formulation composed of cypermetrhin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxid and citronella (Vectoclor, CEVA Santé Animal)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011170/antiprotozoal-drug-nitazoxanide-enhances-parasitemia-tissue-lesions-and-mortality-caused-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-murine-model
#15
Juan Salvador Valle-Reyes, Valery Melnikov, Oxana Dobrovinskaya, Alejandrina Rodriguez-Hernández, Cristina Wookee-Zea, Víctor Pimientel-Rodrigez, Gabriela Rueda-Valdovinos, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Uriel A López-Lemus, Francisco Espinoza-Gómez
Chagas' disease is caused by unicellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic throughout Latin America, but nowadays has become a global challenge due to tourism and migration. Non-treated infection may result in health-threatening complications and lead to death. Current medications for this infection are nifurtimox (NFT) and benznidazol. Both drugs may cause side effects and are ineffective in the chronic phase. Therefore, new antichagasic compounds are urgently required. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad spectrum antiparasitic drug, proposed recently as a potential candidate to be added to the list of essential medicines for integrated neglected tropical disease control and elimination...
January 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008425/quantitative-pet-mri-evaluation-and-application-in-dementia
#16
Yongxia Zhou
A recently introduced integrated scanner combining simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (PET/MRI) acquisition presents a unique set of opportunities for neuroimaging research and dementia in particular [1]. Among these, the intrinsic co-registration of the images has the potential to reduce errors in multi-modality image registration, which could lead to better quantification of longitudinal volumetric changes in neuroanatomical features that are important for assessing disease progression...
June 2016: Jacobs J Med Diagn Med Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968869/cataract-screening-in-a-rural-area-of-southern-china-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Xuhua Tan, Haotian Lin, YuTing Li, Li Huang, Yi Zhu, Yao Ni, WenYong Huang, Yizhi Liu
BACKGROUND: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness and impaired vision worldwide; however, cataract surgery rate in China (1300 cases per million people per year) is lower than in Europe, America, and India (greater than 5000 cases per million people per year). In the past 10 years, a public health screening system has been established for early diagnosis and intervention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension by the Disease Control and Prevention Centers (CDC) of China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960597/ivermectin-a-complimentary-weapon-against-the-spread-of-malaria
#18
Haoues Alout, Brian D Foy
Ivermectin has transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases and led to incommensurable benefits to humans and animals. Ivermectin is effective in treating several neglected infectious diseases and recently it has been shown to reduce malaria parasite transmission. Areas covered: Malaria control strategies could benefit from the addition of ivermectin to interrupt the transmission cycle if it is a long lasting formulation or repeatedly administered. In turn, this will help also to control neglected infectious diseases where the elimination goal has been slower to achieve...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940614/host-competence-an-organismal-trait-to-integrate-immunology-and-epidemiology
#19
Lynn B Martin, S C Burgan, James S Adelman, Stephanie S Gervasi
The new fields of ecological immunology and disease ecology have begun to merge, and the classic fields of immunology and epidemiology are beginning to blend with them. This merger is occurring because the integrative study of host-parasite interactions is providing insights into disease in ways that traditional methods have not. With the advent of new tools, mathematical and technological, we could be on the verge of developing a unified theory of infectious disease, one that supersedes the barriers of jargon and tradition...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939558/a-new-global-strategy-for-the-elimination-of-schistosomiasis
#20
EDITORIAL
Allen G P Ross, Thao N Chau, Marianette T Inobaya, Remigio M Olveda, Yuesheng Li, Donald A Harn
Mass drug administration utilising a single oral dose of 40mg/kg of praziquantel (PZQ) has been endorsed and advocated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for the global control and elimination of schistosomiasis. However, this strategy is failing primarily because the drugs are not getting to the people who need them the most. The current global coverage is 20%, the drug compliance rate is less than 50%, and the drug efficacy is approximately 50%. Thus in reality, only about 5% of the reservoir human population is actually receiving intermittent chemotherapy...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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