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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438169/ivermectin-and-malaria-control
#1
Satoshi Ōmura, Andy Crump
As the world begins to realize the very real prospect of eliminating malaria as a public health problem globally, the scientific community is acutely aware that novel and innovative new tools will be required if that lofty goal is to be accomplished. Moreover, the need for comprehensive, integrated products and interventions is being recognized in order for the critical 'final steps' toward elimination to be taken successfully. Failure to take these crucial last steps have dogged all past global disease elimination programmes, except for smallpox...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435269/efficacy-of-silk-fibroin-nano-silver-against-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-in-a-rabbit-model-of-sinusitis
#2
Minghui Jia, Zhongchun Chen, Yongwei Guo, Xin Chen, Xia Zhao
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus biofilms contribute significantly to the recalcitrant nature of chronic rhinosinusitis. In previous studies, it has been shown that silk fibroin-nano silver solution can eliminate S. aureus biofilms in vitro, which suggests a potential role of this novel agent in the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases, such as sinusitis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of silk fibroin-nano silver solution as a topical anti-biofilm agent in a rabbit model of sinusitis...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425472/label-free-single-cell-separation-and-imaging-of-cancer-cells-using-an-integrated-microfluidic-system
#3
Maria Antfolk, Soo Hyeon Kim, Saori Koizumi, Teruo Fujii, Thomas Laurell
The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide and metastatic disease, through the spread of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), is responsible for the majority of the cancer deaths. Accurate monitoring of CTC levels in blood provides clinical information supporting therapeutic decision making, and improved methods for CTC enumeration are asked for. Microfluidics has been extensively used for this purpose but most methods require several post-separation processing steps including concentration of the sample before analysis...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424476/neurons-export-extracellular-vesicles-enriched-in-cysteine-string-protein-and-misfolded-protein-cargo
#4
Jingti Deng, Carolina Koutras, Julien Donnelier, Mana Alshehri, Maryam Fotouhi, Martine Girard, Steve Casha, Peter S McPherson, Stephen M Robbins, Janice E A Braun
The fidelity of synaptic transmission depends on the integrity of the protein machinery at the synapse. Unfolded synaptic proteins undergo refolding or degradation in order to maintain synaptic proteostasis and preserve synaptic function, and buildup of unfolded/toxic proteins leads to neuronal dysfunction. Many molecular chaperones contribute to proteostasis, but one in particular, cysteine string protein (CSPα), is critical for proteostasis at the synapse. In this study we report that exported vesicles from neurons contain CSPα...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417854/current-role-of-fdg-pet-in-pediatric-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#5
REVIEW
Regine Kluge, L Kurch, Thomas Georgi, Monika Metzger
Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most curable pediatric cancers with long-term survival rates exceeding 90% following intensive treatment. Collaborative group studies worldwide aim on reduction or elimination of radiotherapy to avoid potentially life-limiting late effects especially second cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Large prospective trials have integrated early response FDG-PET scans to identify adequate responders to chemotherapy in whom radiotherapy may safely be omitted. The criteria for interpretation of early response PET have changed during the past years and will be further refined based on trial results...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411883/horning-cell-self-digestion-autophagy-wins-the%C3%A2-2016-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#6
EDITORIAL
Po-Yuan Ke
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411279/characterization-and-interspecies-scaling-of-rhtnf-%C3%AE-pharmacokinetics-with-minimal-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-mpbpk-models
#7
Xi Chen, Debra C DuBois, Richard R Almon, William J Jusko
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a soluble cytokine and target of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other biological agents used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. These biologics exert their pharmacological effects through binding and neutralizing TNF-α, and thus prevent TNF-α from interacting with its cell surface receptors. The magnitude of pharmacological effects is governed not only by the pharmacokinetics of mAbs, but also the kinetic fate of TNF-α. We have examined the pharmacokinetics of rhTNF-α in rats at low doses and quantitatively characterized its pharmacokinetic features with a minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model...
April 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401157/engineering-of-systematic-elimination-of-a-targeted-chromosome-in-human-cells
#8
Hiroshi Sato, Hiroki Kato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Huong Thi Nguyen Nguyen, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Xu Han, Yuta Hirofuji, Kazuaki Nonaka
Embryonic trisomy leads to abortion or congenital genetic disorders in humans. The most common autosomal chromosome abnormalities are trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. Although alteration of gene dosage is thought to contribute to disorders caused by extra copies of chromosomes, genes associated with specific disease phenotypes remain unclear. To generate a normal cell from a trisomic cell as a means of etiological analysis or candidate therapy for trisomy syndromes, we developed a system to eliminate a targeted chromosome from human cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389776/senotherapy-growing-old-and-staying-young
#9
REVIEW
Roland Schmitt
Cellular senescence, which has been linked to age-related diseases, occurs during normal aging or as a result of pathological cell stress. Due to their incapacity to proliferate, senescent cells cannot contribute to normal tissue maintenance and tissue repair. Instead, senescent cells disturb the microenvironment by secreting a plethora of bioactive factors that may lead to inflammation, regenerative dysfunction and tumor progression. Recent understanding of stimuli and pathways that induce and maintain cellular senescence offers the possibility to selectively eliminate senescent cells...
April 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386613/magnetically-enabled-biomarker-extraction-and-delivery-system-towards-integrated-assured-diagnostic-tools
#10
Westley S Bauer, Danielle W Kimmel, Nicholas M Adams, Lauren E Gibson, Thomas F Scherr, Kelly A Richardson, Joseph A Conrad, Hellen K Matakala, Frederick R Haselton, David W Wright
Diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria poses a great challenge to global disease elimination efforts. Healthcare infrastructure in rural settings cannot support existing state-of-the-art tools necessary to diagnose asymptomatic malaria infections. Instead, lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) are widely used as a diagnostic tool in malaria endemic areas. While LFAs are simple and easy to use, they are unable to detect low levels of parasite infection. We have developed a field deployable Magnetically-enabled Biomarker Extraction And Delivery System (mBEADS) that significantly improves limits of detection for several commercially available LFAs...
April 7, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381279/loa-loa-vectors-chrysops-spp-perspectives-on-research-distribution-bionomics-and-implications-for-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#11
REVIEW
Louise Kelly-Hope, Rossely Paulo, Brent Thomas, Miguel Brito, Thomas R Unnasch, David Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Loiasis is a mild disease, but individuals with high microfilaria loads may suffer from severe adverse events if treated with ivermectin during mass drug administration campaigns for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. This poses significant challenges for elimination programmes and alternative interventions are required in L...
April 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378424/novel-3d-high-resolution-manometry-metrics-for-quantifying-esophagogastric-junction-contractility
#12
Zhiyue Lin, Yinglian Xiao, Yuwen Li, John E Pandolfino, Minhu Chen, Peter J Kahrilas
BACKGROUND: The esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is a complex sphincter composed of both the crural diaphragm (CD) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Three dimensional high-resolution manometry (3D-HRM) provides a dynamic 360° representation of EGJ pressure in which the CD has a distinct pressure signature. We aimed to develop 3D-HRM metrics to: (i) quantify the vigor of CD contractility, (ii) best eliminate the CD contribution and thereby isolate the LES component of EGJ contractility, and (iii) compare these metrics with conventional HRM metric of EGJ contractility...
April 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376923/taxifolin-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-formation-and-fully-restores-vascular-integrity-and-memory-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#13
Satoshi Saito, Yumi Yamamoto, Takakuni Maki, Yorito Hattori, Hideki Ito, Katsuhiko Mizuno, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Raj N Kalaria, Masanori Fukushima, Ryosuke Takahashi, Masafumi Ihara
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) induces various forms of cerebral infarcts and hemorrhages from vascular amyloid-β accumulation, resulting in acceleration of cognitive impairment, which is currently untreatable. Soluble amyloid-β protein likely impairs cerebrovascular integrity as well as cognitive function in early stage Alzheimer's disease. Taxifolin, a flavonol with strong anti-oxidative and anti-glycation activities, has been reported to disassemble amyloid-β in vitro but the in vivo relevance remains unknown...
April 4, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374285/mono-causal-and-multi-causal-theories-of-disease-how-to-think-virally-and-socially-about-the-aetiology-of-aids
#14
Katherine Furman
In this paper, I utilise the tools of analytic philosophy to amalgamate mono-causal and multi-causal theories of disease. My aim is to better integrate viral and socio-economic explanations of AIDS in particular, and to consider how the perceived divide between mono-causal and multi-causal theories played a role in the tragedy of AIDS denialism in South Africa in the early 2000s. Currently, there is conceptual ambiguity surrounding the relationship between mono-causal and multi-causal theories in biomedicine and epidemiology...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349996/proteome-dynamics-during-postnatal-mouse-corpus-callosum-development
#15
Alexander I Son, Xiaoqin Fu, Fumikazu Suto, Judy S Liu, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Masaaki Torii
Formation of cortical connections requires the precise coordination of numerous discrete phases. This is particularly significant with regard to the corpus callosum, whose development undergoes several dynamic stages including the crossing of axon projections, elimination of exuberant projections, and myelination of established tracts. To comprehensively characterize the molecular events in this dynamic process, we set to determine the distinct temporal expression of proteins regulating the formation of the corpus callosum and their respective developmental functions...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344695/are-we-adequately-preparing-the-next-generation-of-physicians-to-prescribe-exercise-as-prevention-and-treatment-residents-express-the-desire-for-more-training-in-exercise-prescription
#16
Kara Solmundson, Michael Koehle, Donald McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is a key intervention for chronic disease, yet few physicians provide exercise prescription (EP). EP is an important component in larger strategies of reducing non-communicable disease (NCD). Our objective was to assess Family Medicine Residents (FMR) knowledge, competence, and perspectives of EP to help inform future curriculum development. METHODS: A 49-item cross-sectional survey was administered to 396 University of British Columbia FMR...
October 2016: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337689/managing-chronic-pain-in-primary-care-it-really-does-take-a-village
#17
Karen Seal, William Becker, Jennifer Tighe, Yongmei Li, Tessa Rife
Some healthcare systems are relieving primary care providers (PCPs) of "the burden" of managing chronic pain and opioid prescribing, instead offloading chronic pain management to pain specialists. Last year the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended a biopsychosocial approach to pain management that discourages opioid use and promotes exercise therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and non-opioid medications as first-line patient-centered, multi-modal treatments best delivered by an interdisciplinary team...
March 23, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333835/zero-preventable-deaths-after-traumatic-injury-an-achievable-goal
#18
Philip C Spinella
Preventable deaths after injury must be reduced to improve outcomes for trauma patients. The elimination of preventable deaths after injury has been documented by the 75th US Army Ranger Regiment. Therefore, zero preventable deaths after injury is an achievable goal. Trauma is the most common cause of death between the ages of 1-46 and is the most common cause of life-years lost, before 75 years of age, compared to all other etiologies. Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock (THS) is the leading cause of death that is preventable after injury, accounting for potentially 17,000 preventable deaths per year in the US...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330510/an-integrated-environmental-improvement-of-marshlands-impact-on-control-and-elimination-of-schistosomiasis-in-marshland-regions-along-the-yangtze-river-china
#19
Le-Ping Sun, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Zuo, Zheng-Qiu Zhang, Qing-Biao Hong, Guo-Jing Yang, Hong-Ru Zhu, You-Sheng Liang, Hai-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a global snail-transmitted infectious disease of poverty. Transmission control had been achieved in China in 2015 after the control efforts for over 60 years. Currently, the remaining core regions endemic for Schistosoma japonicum are mainly located in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River basin. METHODS: During the period from 2001 through 2015, an integrated environmental improvement of the marshlands was carried out through the implementation of industrial, agricultural and resources development projects in Yizheng County along the Yangtze River...
March 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316625/microbiological-study-of-cast-posts-before-cementation
#20
Maricela Vallejo-Labrada, Juan Carlos Ojeda-Garces
This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal. Forty-five type III gold cast posts were aseptically collected in sterile sealed plastic bags and taken to the microbiology laboratory to carry out the study: fifteen cast posts had no treatment, fifteen were disinfected (immersion in 70% alcohol during 15 minutes), and fifteen were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes by using saturated steam under 15 psi pressure...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
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