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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221810/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Charles S Dela Cruz, Min-Jong Kang
Inflammation represents a comprehensive host response to external stimuli for the purpose of eliminating the offending agent, minimizing injury to host tissues and fostering repair of damaged tissues back to homeostatic levels. In normal physiologic context, inflammatory response culminates with the resolution of infection and tissue damage response. However, in a pathologic context, persistent or inappropriately regulated inflammation occurs that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent scientific advances have integrated the role of innate immune response to be an important arm of the inflammatory process...
December 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218904/evaluation-of-predixcan-for-prioritizing-gwas-associations-and-predicting-gene-expression
#2
Binglan Li, Shefali S Verma, Yogasudha C Veturi, Anurag Verma, Yuki Bradford, David W Haas, Marylyn D Ritchie
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in facilitating the understanding of genetic architecture behind human diseases, but this approach faces many challenges. To identify disease-related loci with modest to weak effect size, GWAS requires very large sample sizes, which can be computational burdensome. In addition, the interpretation of discovered associations remains difficult. PrediXcan was developed to help address these issues. With built in SNP-expression models, PrediXcan is able to predict the expression of genes that are regulated by putative expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and these predicted expression levels can then be used to perform gene-based association studies...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213301/including-refugees-in-disease-elimination-challenges-observed-from-a-sleeping-sickness-programme-in-uganda
#3
Jennifer J Palmer, Okello Robert, Freddie Kansiime
Background: Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211746/review-of-the-factors-influencing-the-motivation-of-community-drug-distributors-towards-the-control-and-elimination-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-ntds
#4
Alison Krentel, Margaret Gyapong, Shruti Mallya, Nana Yaa Boadu, Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mariana Stephens, Deborah A McFarland
BACKGROUND: Community drug distributors or neglected tropical disease (NTD) volunteers have played a crucial role in ensuring the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs using preventive chemotherapy (PC) for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminths. In recent years however, a noticeable decline in motivation of some of these volunteers has been perceived, potentially negatively impacting the success of these programs. Potential hypotheses for this change in motivation include the long duration of many MDA programs, the change in sociocultural environments as well as the changes to the programs over time...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203597/perspectives-on-innovations-in-oral-health-care
#5
R Gary Rozier
A downward trend in dental caries in permanent teeth of children that began in the 1970s has leveled out at historic lows. Severe periodontal disease affects a small percentage of people, and tooth loss has plummeted so that complete tooth loss, once a common occurrence, now is almost non-existent in upper socioeconomic groups. But not all people have benefited equally from these positive trends. Dental problems continue to affect the disadvantaged in society at unacceptable rates, and their disease burden is likely to increase because of trends in social determinants of oral diseases...
November 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190277/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-basic-science-and-enabling-technologies-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#6
(no author information available yet)
Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180045/unraveling-the-human-protein-atlas-of-metastatic-melanoma-in-the-course-of-ultraviolet-radiation-derived-photo-therapy
#7
Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanassios D Velentzas, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Aikaterini F Giannopoulou, Ema Anastasiadou, Issidora S Papassideri, Gerassimos E Voutsinas, George Th Tsangaris, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
To explore the photo-therapeutic capacity of UV radiation in solid tumors, we herein employed an nLC-MS/MS technology to profile the proteomic landscape of irradiated WM-266-4 human metastatic-melanoma cells. Obtained data resulted in proteomic catalogues of 5982 and 7280 proteins for UVB- and UVC-radiation conditions, respectively, and indicated the ability of UVB/C-radiation forms to eliminate metastatic-melanoma cells through induction of synergistically operating programs of apoptosis and necroptosis. However, it seems that one or more WM-266-4 cell sub-populations may escape from UV-radiation's photo-damaging activity, acquiring, besides apoptosis tolerance, an EMT phenotype that likely offers them the advantage of developing resistance to certain chemotherapeutic drugs...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166806/regulation-of-stressed-induced-cell-death-by-the-bcl-2-family-of-apoptotic-proteins
#8
Rabih Roufayel
Apoptosis is often deregulated in a number of human diseases. Heat-induced apoptosis is a model system for studying the consequences of protein misfolding and is mediated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. This family consists of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members that control mitochondrial integrity. The BH3-only pro-apoptotic members are strong inducers of apoptotic cell death. Protein damaging stress can activate a process of cellular destruction known as apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and transcription factors activate this death pathway by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins eliminating cancer cells in a short period of time...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163024/pet-mr-imaging-new-frontier-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-dementias
#9
REVIEW
Xin Y Zhang, Zhen L Yang, Guang M Lu, Gui F Yang, Long J Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; a progressive neurodegenerative disease that currently lacks an effective treatment option. Early and accurate diagnosis, in addition to quick elimination of differential diagnosis, allows us to provide timely treatments that delay the progression of AD. Imaging plays an important role for the early diagnosis of AD. The newly emerging PET/MR imaging strategies integrate the advantages of PET and MR to diagnose and monitor AD. This review introduces the development of PET/MR imaging systems, technical considerations of PET/MR imaging, special considerations of PET/MR in AD, and the system's potential clinical applications and future perspectives in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142834/two-stage-thyroidectomy-in-the-era-of-intraoperative-neuromonitoring
#10
Christos Christoforides, Ioannis Papandrikos, Georgios Polyzois, Nikolaos Roukounakis, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Kyriakos Vamvakidis
Background: The use of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) provides surgeons with real time information about recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) functional integrity. Hence, allowing them to modify the initially scheduled bilateral procedure, to a two-stage thyroidectomy in cases of loss of signal (LOS) on the first side of resection resulting in minimization of bilateral RLN injury. The purpose of our study was to present our results since the implementation of the above mentioned process in both malignant and benign thyroid disease...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137950/linking-race-cancer-outcomes-and-tissue-repair
#11
REVIEW
Jung S Byun, Samson Park, Ambar Caban, Alana Jones, Kevin Gardner
The burden of cancer in the United States is unevenly spread across its different populations, with stark differences in both disease prevalence and outcome based on race and ethnicity. Although a large portion of these differences can be explained by a variety of socio-behavioral and socio-economic factors, even after these exposures are taken into consideration, significant disparities persist. In this review, we explore a conceptual framework of biological theories and unifying concepts, based on an evolutionary perspective, that may help better define common guiding principles for exploration of underlying etiologies of cancer health disparities...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133286/eosinophilic-esophagitis-update-on-management-and-controversies
#12
REVIEW
Joan W Chen, John Y Kao
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic allergen driven immune mediated disease that is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of dysphagia and foregut symptoms in children and adults. Much knowledge has been gained in recent years on the genetic and environmental risk factors for this disease, the associated inflammatory milieu, and the long term complications from esophageal remodeling. In this review we will highlight recent progress made in research into this disease, focusing on adults. We will discuss ongoing efforts to develop a minimally invasive technique that may obviate the need for repeated endoscopic assessment of disease activity...
November 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128996/e-derma-a-novel-wireless-dermatoscopy-system
#13
Bogdan Dugonik, A Dugonik, D Horvat, B Žalik, D Špelič
Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a malignant tumour, and is one of the most rapidly growing cancers. Discovering a melanoma in the early stages of the disease is extremely difficult and, as such, only an invasive disease stage can be identified easily with the naked eye. Dermatoscopy is a diagnostic method intended to maximise early detection of CM performed by the dermatoscopy system. To address the limitations of existing systems a novel, wireless digital dermatoscopy system is presented for providing high-resolution images...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127616/worm-infestation-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#14
REVIEW
Bhavneet Bharti, Sahul Bharti, Sumeeta Khurana
Worm infections continue to be among the most common diseases affecting children from low and middle income countries. Major worm infections of public health importance include Ascariasis, Trichuriasis, Hookworm, and Enterobiasis, which are transmitted through contaminated soil. In India, combined prevalence rates of worm infestation as per pooled data of 127 surveys is over 20%. Although most helminthic infections are mild and are often asymptomatic, but moderate to heavy worm infestations are generally associated with growth faltering, nutritional compromise, anemia and suboptimal academic performance among children from endemic regions...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125615/towards-lab-on-a-chip-diagnostics-for-malaria-elimination
#15
REVIEW
N Kolluri, C M Klapperich, M Cabodi
Malaria continues to be one of the most devastating diseases impacting global health. Although there have been significant reductions in global malaria incidence and mortality rates over the past 17 years, the disease remains endemic throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has put forth ambitious milestones moving toward a world free of malaria as part of the United Nations Millennium Goals. Mass screening and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infections in endemic regions is integral to these goals and requires diagnostics that are both sensitive and affordable...
November 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123977/sodium-hydrosulfide-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-suppressing-overactivated-autophagy-in-rats
#16
Wen-Wu Jiang, Bai-Sheng Huang, Yang Han, Lv-Hong Deng, Li-Xiang Wu
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and autophagy may be involved in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter with protective effects against multiple diseases. Here, we tested the effect of H2S on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, improved neurological function and reduced the size of the infarcts induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090927/purification-and-identification-of-membrane-proteins-from-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-using-triton-x-114-phase-partitioning
#17
Shuiwang Hu, Luca Musante, Dorota Tataruch, Xiaomeng Xu, Oliver Kretz, Michael Henry, Paula Meleady, Haihua Luo, Hequn Zou, Yong Jiang, Harry Holthofer
Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) have become a promising source for biomarkers accurately reflecting biochemical changes in kidney and urogenital diseases. Characteristically, uEVs are rich in membrane proteins associated with several cellular functions like adhesion, transport, and signaling. Hence, membrane proteins of uEVs should represent an exciting protein class with unique biological properties. In this study, we utilized uEVs to optimize the Triton X-114 detergent partitioning protocol targeted for membrane proteins and proceeded to their subsequent characterization while eliminating effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein, the most abundant interfering protein in urine...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073138/why-reinvent-the-wheel-lessons-in-schistosomiasis-control-from-the-past
#18
Clive Shiff
Schistosomiasis has been of concern to local health authorities for most of the last century, and in spite of a lack of effective chemotherapy, the disease was dealt with quite effectively in many endemic countries by snail control and environmental management [1]. Much of this work was reported in journals prior to the electronic era but, sadly, seems to have been subsequently ignored. For many years, there followed a global hiatus on schistosomiasis control, and much of the local expertise was lost, but many things have changed more recently, mainly with the advent of generic and affordable praziquantel...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068435/dimethyloxalylglycine-preserves-the-intestinal-microvasculature-and-protects-against-intestinal-injury-in-a-neonatal-mouse-nec-model-role-of-vegf-signaling
#19
Rakhee M Bowker, Xiaocai Yan, Elizabeth Managlia, Shirley X L Liu, Catherine Marek, Xiao-Di Tan, Isabelle G De Plaen
BackgroundNecrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease characterized by intestinal necrosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has a critical role in cellular oxygen homeostasis. Here, we hypothesized that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition, which stabilizes HIF-1α, protects against NEC by promoting intestinal endothelial cell proliferation and improving intestinal microvascular integrity via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.MethodsTo assess the role of PHD inhibition in a neonatal mouse NEC model, we administered dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or vehicle to pups before or during the NEC protocol, and determined mortality and incidence of severe intestinal injury...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055715/live-or-let-die-neuroprotective-and-anti-cancer-effects-of-nutraceutical-antioxidants
#20
REVIEW
Xiao-Yuan Mao, Ming-Zhu Jin, Jin-Fei Chen, Qin Li, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Lin Jin
Diet sources are closely involved in the pathogenesis of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and cancers, in addition to inherited factors. Currently, natural products or nutraceuticals (commonly called medical foods) are increasingly employed for adjunctive therapy of these patients. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of the nutrient efficacy remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the neuroprotective and anti-cancer mechanisms of nutraceuticals. It was concluded that the nutraceuticals exerted neuroprotection and suppressed tumor growth possibly through the differential modulations of redox homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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