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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722605/characterizing-reactivity-to-onchocerca-volvulus-antigens-in-multiplex-bead-assays
#1
Karla R Feeser, Vitaliano Cama, Jeffrey W Priest, Elizabeth A Thiele, Ryan E Wiegand, Thomson Lakwo, Sendeaw M Feleke, Paul T Cantey
Multiplex bead assays (MBAs) may provide a powerful integrated tool for monitoring, evaluation, and post-elimination surveillance of onchocerciasis and co-endemic diseases; however, the specificity and sensitivity of Onchocerca volvulus antigens have not been characterized within this context. An MBA was developed to evaluate three antigens (OV-16, OV-17, and OV-33) for onchocerciasis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to characterize antigen performance using a panel of 610 specimens: 109 O...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714205/photothermal-ring-integrated-intraocular-lens-for-high-efficient-eye-disease-treatment
#2
Yao-Xin Lin, Xue-Feng Hu, Yang Zhao, Yu-Juan Gao, Chao Yang, Sheng-Lin Qiao, Yi Wang, Pei-Pei Yang, Jiao Yan, Xin-Ce Sui, Zeng-Ying Qiao, Li-Li Li, Jiang-Bing Xie, Si-Quan Zhu, Xiao-Chun Wu, Yongsheng Li, Lei Wang, Hao Wang
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication after cataract surgery. So far, the only method for PCO treatment is the precisely focused laser surgery. However, it causes severe complications such as physical damages and neuron impairments. Here, a nanostructured photothermal ring integrated intraocular lens (Nano-IOLs) is reported, in which the rim of commercially available IOLs (C-IOLs) is decorated with silica coated Au nanorods (Au@SiO2 ), for high-efficient prevention of PCO after cataract surgery...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714196/impact-of-an-electronic-health-record-alert-in-primary-care-on-increasing-hepatitis-c-screening-and-curative-treatment-for-baby-boomers
#3
Monica A Konerman, Mary Thomson, Kristen Gray, Meghan Moore, Hetal Choxi, Elizabeth Seif, Anna Sf Lok
Despite effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), deficiencies in diagnosis and access preclude disease elimination. Screening of baby boomers remains low. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of an electronic health record (EHR) based prompt on HCV screening rates in baby boomers in primary care, and access to specialty care and treatment among those newly diagnosed. We implemented an EHR based "Best Practice Advisory" (BPA) that prompted primary care providers (PCPs) to perform HCV screening for patients seen in primary care clinic: 1) born between 1945-1965; 2) lacked a prior diagnosis of HCV infection; and 3) lacked prior documented anti-HCV testing...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692305/fight-fire-with-fire-gene-therapy-strategies-to-cure-hiv
#4
Jon Huyghe, Sips Magdalena, Linos Vandekerckhove
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to date remains one of the most notorious viruses mankind has ever faced. Despite enormous investments in HIV research for more than 30 years an effective cure for HIV has been elusive. Areas covered: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses active viral replication, but is not able to eliminate the virus completely due to stable integration of HIV inside the host genome of infected cells and the establishment of a latent reservoir, that is insensitive to cART...
July 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687404/significant-reduction-in-notification-and-seroprevalence-rates-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-the-population-of-zhejiang-province-china-aged-between-1-and-29years-from-2006-to-2014
#5
Yang Zhou, Hanqing He, Xuan Deng, Rui Yan, Xuewen Tang, Shuyun Xie, Jun Yao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Chinese government integrated hepatitis B vaccination into the national immunization program in 1992, when the hepatitis B birth dose was introduced in China. Zhejiang province is a relatively developed area in eastern China and was an area with high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection via mother-to-child transmission. The hepatitis B vaccine vaccination rates for the birth dose and 3- dose schedule in Zhejiang Province since 1992 have both remained above 90% [1]...
July 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684555/statistically-robust-methylation-calling-for-whole-transcriptome-bisulfite-sequencing-reveals-distinct-methylation-patterns-for-mouse-rnas
#6
Carine Legrand, Francesca Tuorto, Mark Hartmann, Reinhard Liebers, Dominik Jacob, Mark Helm, Frank Lyko
(Cytosine-5) RNA methylation plays an important role in several biologically and pathologically relevant processes. However, owing to methodological limitations, the transcriptome-wide distribution of this mark has remained largely unknown. We previously established RNA bisulfite sequencing as a method for the analysis of RNA (cytosine-5) methylation patterns at single-base resolution. More recently, next-generation sequencing has provided opportunities to establish transcriptome-wide maps of this modification...
July 6, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684267/current-vector-control-challenges-in-the-fight-against-malaria
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, John C Beier
The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control...
July 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683272/axon-death-pathways-converge-on-axundead-to-promote-functional-and-structural-axon-disassembly
#8
Lukas J Neukomm, Thomas C Burdett, Andrew M Seeds, Stefanie Hampel, Jaeda C Coutinho-Budd, Jonathan E Farley, Jack Wong, Yonca B Karadeniz, Jeannette M Osterloh, Amy E Sheehan, Marc R Freeman
Axon degeneration is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and neural injury. Axotomy activates an intrinsic pro-degenerative axon death signaling cascade involving loss of the NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme Nmnat/Nmnat2 in axons, activation of dSarm/Sarm1, and subsequent Sarm-dependent depletion of NAD(+). Here we identify Axundead (Axed) as a mediator of axon death. axed mutants suppress axon death in several types of axons for the lifespan of the fly and block the pro-degenerative effects of activated dSarm in vivo...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681317/restraining-pathogenicity-in-candida-albicans-by-taxifolin-as-an-inhibitor-of-ras1-pka-pathway
#9
Sonali Mishra, Sangeeta Singh, Krishna Misra
Candida albicans is one of the most virulent and opportunistic fungal strains. In the present scenario, majority metabolic imbalances and unsuccessful treatments of some severe diseases including cancer, diabetes, HIV, psoriasis are because of invasive Candida emergence. Being a beneficial integral part of human biome, its elimination is not possible. The major pathogenicity characteristics in Candida involve hyphal growth, biofilm formation, HSP90 down regulation and genetic modifications. Ras1-pka pathway initiated by HSP90 down regulation is important for hyphal growth and has been focused in the present study...
July 5, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676261/an-assay-to-detect-dna-damaging-agents-that-induce-nucleotide-excision-repairable-dna-lesions-in-living-human-cells
#10
Reine Takatsuka, Shunsuke Ito, Shigenori Iwai, Isao Kuraoka
Biochemical risk assessment studies of chemicals that induce DNA lesions are important, because lesions in genomic DNA frequently result in cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging in humans. Many classes of DNA lesions induced by chemical agents are eliminated via DNA repair mechanisms, such as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER), for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Individuals with NER-defective xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), in which bulky DNA lesions are not efficiently removed, are cancer-prone and suffer neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671637/factors-affecting-dietary-practices-in-a-mississippi-african-american-community
#11
Monique White, Clifton Addison, Brenda W Campbell Jenkins, Frances Henderson, Dorothy McGill, Marinelle Payton, Donna Antoine-LaVigne
This study examined the practices, personal motivation, and barriers of African American communities in Mississippi regarding their dietary practices. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups responded to six questions to assess practices, personal motivation, and barriers to dietary practices: (1) Where in your community can you access fresh fruits and vegetables? (2) How many meals a day should a person eat? (3) What would you consider to be a healthy breakfast, lunch and dinner? (4) What would you consider to be a healthy snack? (5) What do you consider to be your motivations for eating healthy? (6) What do you consider to be your barriers to eating healthy? Each of the seven focus groups consisted of 6 to 12 participants and provided details of their dietary practices...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665300/transplant-trials-with-tregs-perils-and-promises
#12
Qizhi Tang, Flavio Vincenti
Modern immunosuppression regimens effectively control acute rejection and decrease graft loss in the first year after transplantation; however, these regimens do not have a durable effect on long-term graft survival owing to a combination of drug toxicities and the emergence of chronic alloimmune responses. Eliminating drugs and their toxicities while maintaining graft acceptance has been the primary aim of cellular therapies. Tregs suppress both autoimmune and alloimmune responses and are particularly effective in protecting allografts in experimental transplant models...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661051/n-linked-glycosylation-of-a-subunit-isoforms-is-critical-for-vertebrate-vacuolar-h-atpase-v-atpase-biosynthesis
#13
Sally Esmail, Norbert Kartner, Yeqi Yao, Joo Wan Kim, Reinhart A F Reithmeier, Morris F Manolson
The a subunit of the V0 membrane-integrated sector of human V-ATPase has four isoforms, a1-a4, with diverse and crucial functions in health and disease. They are encoded by four conserved paralogous genes, and their vertebrate orthologs have positionally conserved N-glycosylation sequons within the second extracellular loop, EL2, of the a subunit membrane domain. Previously, we have shown directly that the predicted sequon for the a4 isoform is indeed N-glycosylated. Here we extend our investigation to the other isoforms by transiently transfecting HEK 293 cells to express cDNA constructs of epitope-tagged human a1-a3 subunits, with or without mutations that convert Asn to Gln at putative N-glycosylation sites...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657908/idiopathic-megacolon-report-of-2-deaths-with-review-of-the-literature
#14
Leigh Hlavaty, LokMan Sung
Abnormal dilation of the colon and rectum can develop from a range of disease processes. When encountered at autopsy, its contribution to death requires assessment and a thorough investigation of its origins. Elimination of known causes elicits a diagnosis of idiopathic megacolon. This entity is uncommonly encountered and presents with similar gross anatomic findings as Hirschsprung disease. Although death is infrequent, it most commonly results from disruption of the bowel wall and subsequent peritonitis. The authors report 2 rare deaths from idiopathic megacolon with retained integrity of the bowel wall...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647518/increasing-the-accuracy-of-proteomic-typing-by-decellularisation-of-amyloid-tissue-biopsies
#15
P Patrizia Mangione, Giuseppe Mazza, Janet A Gilbertson, Nigel B Rendell, Diana Canetti, Sofia Giorgetti, Luca Frenguelli, Marco Curti, Tamer Rezk, Sara Raimondi, Mark B Pepys, Philip N Hawkins, Julian D Gillmore, Graham W Taylor, Massimo Pinzani, Vittorio Bellotti
Diagnosis and treatment of systemic amyloidosis depend on accurate identification of the specific amyloid fibril protein forming the tissue deposits. Confirmation of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL), requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy, and avoidance of such treatment in non-AL amyloidosis, are particularly important. Proteomic analysis characterises amyloid proteins directly. It complements immunohistochemical staining of amyloid to identify fibril proteins and gene sequencing to identify mutations in the fibril precursors...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646151/optimal-surveillance-strategies-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-a-low-prevalence-country
#16
Kimberly VanderWaal, Eva A Enns, Catalina Picasso, Julio Alvarez, Andres Perez, Federico Fernandez, Andres Gil, Meggan Craft, Scott Wells
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle that is difficult to control and eradicate in part due to the costly nature of surveillance and poor sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Like many countries, bTB prevalence in Uruguay has gradually declined to low levels due to intensive surveillance and control efforts over the past decades. In low prevalence settings, broad-based surveillance strategies based on routine testing may not be the most cost-effective way for controlling between-farm bTB transmission, while targeted surveillance aimed at high-risk farms may be more efficient for this purpose...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633697/capacity-strengthening-through-pre-migration-tuberculosis-screening-programmes-irhwg-experiences
#17
P Douglas, D L Posey, D Zenner, J Robson, I Abubakar, G Giovinazzo
Effective tuberculosis (TB) prevention and care for migrants requires population health-based approaches that treat the relationship between migration and health as a progressive, interactive process influenced by many variables and addressed as far upstream in the process as possible. By including capacity building in source countries, pre-migration medical screening has the potential to become an integral component of public health promotion, as well as infection and disease prevention, in migrant-receiving nations, while simultaneously increasing capabilities in countries of origin...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620378/nature-and-consequences-of-biological-reductionism-for-the-immunological-study-of-infectious-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Ariel L Rivas, Gabriel Leitner, Mark D Jankowski, Almira L Hoogesteijn, Michelle J Iandiorio, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou, Anastasios Ioannidis, Shlomo E Blum, Renata Piccinini, Athos Antoniades, Jane C Fazio, Yiorgos Apidianakis, Jeanne M Fair, Marc H V Van Regenmortel
Evolution has conserved "economic" systems that perform many functions, faster or better, with less. For example, three to five leukocyte types protect from thousands of pathogens. To achieve so much with so little, biological systems combine their limited elements, creating complex structures. Yet, the prevalent research paradigm is reductionist. Focusing on infectious diseases, reductionist and non-reductionist views are here described. The literature indicates that reductionism is associated with information loss and errors, while non-reductionist operations can extract more information from the same data...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620349/localization-of-deep-brain-stimulation-contacts-using-corticospinal-corticobulbar-tracts-stimulation
#19
Julien F Bally, Maria-Isabel Vargas, Judit Horvath, Vanessa Fleury, Pierre Burkhard, Shahan Momjian, Pierre Pollak, Colette Boex
BACKGROUND: Successful deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) requires optimal electrode placement. One technique of intraoperative electrode testing is determination of stimulation thresholds inducing corticospinal/corticobulbar tracts (CSBT) motor contractions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze correlations between DBS electrode distance to CSBT and contraction thresholds, with either visual or electromyography (EMG) detection, to establish an intraoperative tool devoted to ensure safe distance of the electrode to the CSBT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615868/some-probable-factors-affecting-the-malaria-situation-before-and-at-the-beginning-of-a-pre-elimination-program-in-southeastern-iran
#20
Jalil Nejati, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Masoud Salehi, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehssan Mozafari
The area southeast of Iran still copes with malaria as an unstable infectious disease and includes the most autochthonous malaria reports in the country. This comprehensive study was carried out for the evaluation of environmental factors, welfare indicators and health facilities on the malaria situation before and at the beginning of a pre-elimination programme in this area. The probable factors affecting the malaria situation, including the water-pipe network, electricity, rainfall, long-lasting integrated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and malaria diagnosis-treatment centres were analysed using SPSS software...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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