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Integrated surveillance response

Sarah A Weiss, Joseph Han, Farbod Darvishian, Jeremy Tchack, Sung Won Han, Karolina Malecek, Michelle Krogsgaard, Iman Osman, Judy Zhong
BACKGROUND: Age has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival (MSS). We tested the hypothesis that age impacts the host anti-tumor immune response, accounting for age-specific survival outcomes in three unique melanoma patient cohorts. METHODS: We queried the U.S. population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), the prospective tertiary care hospital-based Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (IMCG) biorepository, and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) biospecimen database to test the association of patient age at time of melanoma diagnosis with clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed L'Hadj
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the recorded data, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province which records the highest number of scorpion stings at national level. METHODS: In addition to the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we carried out the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012...
October 14, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Shaun K Morris, Lisa G Pell, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Michelle C Dimitris, Abdullah Mahmud, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Tahmid Kashem, Shaila S Shanta, Jonathan Gubbay, Eszter Papp, Michelle Science, Stanley Zlotkin, Daniel E Roth
BACKGROUND: Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Greer Dawson, Robin Gilmour, Sean Tobin, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: In New South Wales (NSW), influenza surveillance is informed by a number of discrete data sources, including laboratories, emergency departments, death registrations and community surveillance programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the NSW influenza surveillance system using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Importance of study: Having a strong influenza surveillance system is important for both seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Oscar Daniel Salomón, Andrea Verónica Mastrángelo, María Soledad Santini, Domingo Javier Liotta, Zaida Estela Yadón
A retrospective analytical method is presented, based on theoretical eco-epidemiology, applied on a subnational spatial scale. This method was used here to describe scenarios for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the Argentine province of Misiones- bordering Brazil and Paraguay-and formed the basis for recommendations for surveillance and control appropriate to the subnational scale. An exhaustive search of the literature on leishmaniasis in the province was carried out. Three scenarios for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were found, corresponding to three periods: from 1920 to 1997, during which the transmission of CL distributed over time and space was confirmed; 1998 to 2005, during which there were focal outbreaks of CL; and 2006 to 2014, during which outbreaks were also reported and the geographical dispersion of VL was documented...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Susan J Lee, Ivan Borrello
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer derived from malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. Unlike most solid tumors, which originate from epithelial cells, the myeloma tumor is a plasma cell derived from the lymphoid cell lineage originating from a post-germinal B-cell. As such, the MM plasma cell represents an integral component of the immune system in terms of both antibody production and antigen presentation, albeit not efficiently. This fundamental difference has significant implications when one considers the implications of immunotherapy...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Richard F Neville, Samit K Gupta, David J Kuraguntla
OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail because of hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function; however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative sensor with wireless, microchip technology allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a "cloud"-based algorithm. We performed proof-of-concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
K Martin-Hernandez, J-M Rodriguez-Vargas, V Schreiber, F Dantzer
Cell response to genotoxic stress requires a complex network of sensors and effectors from numerous signaling and repair pathways, among them the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays a central role. PARP1 is catalytically activated in the setting of DNA breaks. It uses NAD(+) as a donor and catalyses the synthesis and subsequent covalent attachment of branched ADP-ribose polymers onto itself and various acceptor proteins to promote repair. Its inhibition is now considered as an efficient therapeutic strategy to potentiate the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy and radiation or to exploit synthetic lethality in tumours with defective homologous recombination mediated repair...
September 23, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Cara Smith Gueye, Gretchen Newby, Jim Tulloch, Laurence Slutsker, Marcel Tanner, Roland D Gosling
BACKGROUND: A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. METHODS: Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan)...
2016: Malaria Journal
Fabrizio Balestrino, Diana P Iyaloo, Khouaildi B Elahee, Ambicadutt Bheecarry, Francesco Campedelli, Marco Carrieri, Romeo Bellini
Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is one of the most invasive mosquito species capable of transmitting various harmful pathogens to humans. Failure of vector control strategies against this species requires the development of new effective vector control methods. Among the alternative genetic control measures under development, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is today receiving a renewed interest as a possible effective tool to be integrated in an area-wide pest management approach. The monitoring of the abundance, distribution, movements and ratio of released sterile and wild fertile males is a fundamental requirement for the successful management of any pest control activities integrating an SIT component...
September 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
Martin Nyaaba Adokiya, J Koku Awoonor-Williams, Claudia Beiersmann, Olaf Müller
OBJECTIVES: The integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) and district health information management system II (DHIMS2) strategies were implemented in 2002 and 2012 respectively to improve surveillance data reporting and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reporting completeness and timeliness of the IDSR system at the sub-national level in northern Ghana. METHODS: This was an observational study in Upper East Region (UER). Weekly and monthly disease surveillance reports on completeness and timeliness were downloaded and analysed for 2012 and 2013 from the DHIMS2 in UER, the two Kassena-Nankana districts and their nine health facilities representing public, private and mission providers...
March 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Charles Njuguna, Ian Njeru, Elizabeth Mgamb, Daniel Langat, Anselimo Makokha, Dismas Ongore, Evan Mathenge, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is the major cause of bloody diarrhoea worldwide and is endemic in most developing countries. In Kenya, bloody diarrhoea is reported weekly as part of priority diseases under Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSR) in the Ministry of Health. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 805 participants (284 cases and 521 controls) between January and December 2012 in Kilifi and Nairobi Counties. Kilifi County is largely a rural population whereas Nairobi County is largely urban...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jennifer L Guthrie, David C Alexander, Alex Marchand-Austin, Karen Lam, Michael Whelan, Brenda Lee, Colin Furness, Elizabeth Rea, Rebecca Stuart, Julia Lechner, Monali Varia, Jennifer McLean, Frances B Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: Develop a tool to disseminate integrated laboratory, clinical, and demographic case data necessary for improved contact tracing and outbreak detection of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: In 2007, the Public Health Ontario Laboratories implemented a universal genotyping program to monitor the spread of TB strains within Ontario. Ontario Universal Typing of TB (OUT-TB) Web utilizes geographic information system (GIS) technology with a relational database platform, allowing TB control staff to visualize genotyping matches and microbiological data within the context of relevant epidemiological and demographic data...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Eric Van Cutsem, Henk M W Verheul, Patrik Flamen, Philippe Rougier, Regina Beets-Tan, Rob Glynne-Jones, Thomas Seufferlein
The use of imaging in colorectal cancer (CRC) has significantly evolved over the last twenty years, establishing important roles in surveillance, diagnosis, staging, treatment selection and follow up. The range of modalities has broadened with the development of novel tracer and contrast agents, and the fusion of technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). Traditionally, the most widely used modality for assessing treatment response in metastasised colon and rectal tumours is CT, combined with use of the RECIST guidelines...
August 31, 2016: Cancers
Danielle German, Mary Kate Grabowski, Chris Beyrer
The multidimensional nature and continued evolution of HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) requires innovative intervention approaches. Strategies are needed that recognise the individual, social and structural factors driving HIV transmission; that can pinpoint networks with heightened transmission risk; and that can help target intervention in real time. HIV phylogenetics is a rapidly evolving field with strong promise for informing innovative responses to the HIV epidemic among MSM. Currently, HIV phylogenetic insights are providing new understandings of characteristics of HIV epidemics involving MSM, social networks influencing transmission, characteristics of HIV transmission clusters involving MSM, targets for antiretroviral and other prevention strategies and dynamics of emergent epidemics...
September 2, 2016: Sexual Health
Rod Knight, Titilola Falasinnu, John L Oliffe, Mark Gilbert, Will Small, Shira Goldenberg, Jean Shoveller
OBJECTIVES: Surveillance data frequently indicate that young men and women experience high-yet considerably different-reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including bacterial infections such as chlamydia. We examined how several sex-based (eg, biological) and gender-based (eg, sociocultural) factors may interact to influence STI surveillance data trends. METHODS: Employing ethno-epidemiological techniques, we analysed cross-sectional qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2013 about young people's experiences accessing STI testing services in five communities in British Columbia, Canada...
2016: BMJ Open
Xavier Renaudin, Leticia Koch Lerner, Carlos Frederico Martins Menck, Filippo Rosselli
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental defects, predisposition to cancer and chromosomal abnormalities. FA is caused by biallelic mutations that inactivate genes encoding proteins involved in replication stress-associated DNA damage responses. The 20 FANC proteins identified to date constitute the FANC pathway. A key event in this pathway involves the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI heterodimer by the collective action of at least 10 different proteins assembled in the FANC core complex...
July 2016: Mutation Research. Reviews in Mutation Research
Cindrilla Chumduri, Rajendra Kumar Gurumurthy, Rike Zietlow, Thomas F Meyer
Mammalian cells possess sophisticated genome surveillance and repair mechanisms, executed by the so-called DNA damage response (DDR), failure of which leads to accumulation of DNA damage and genomic instability. Mounting evidence suggests that bacterial infections can elicit DNA damage in host cells, and certain pathogens induce such damage as part of their multi-faceted infection programme. Bacteria-mediated DNA damage can occur either directly through the formation of toxins with genotoxic activities or indirectly as a result of the activation of cell-autonomous or immune defence mechanisms against the pathogen...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Fassil Shiferaw, Meketew Letebo, Abate Bane
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis...
August 11, 2016: BMC Public Health
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