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Central Nervous Tumors

Michael J Feldman, Saman Sizdahkhani, Nancy A Edwards, Marsha J Merrill, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Zhengping Zhuang, Russell R Lonser, Edward H Oldfield, Prashant Chittiboina
von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) patients develop multiple central nervous system hemangioblastomas (HB). Some HBs become symptomatic with exponential growth or cyst formation following long periods of quiescence. Understanding the factors underlying growth in hemangioblastoma may lead to better strategies to arrest or prevent tumor growth. In 5 VHL patients, we resected quiescent hemangioblastomas (Q-HB) that were en-route during surgical access to symptomatic hemangioblastomas (S-HB), for matched tumor analysis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase analysis demonstrated a 2-fold increase in EPO expression in all S-HB, while 4/5 showed either Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α or 2α upregulation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christine E Fuller
Over the past several decades, our understanding of malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) and the central nervous system equivalent atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) has undergone considerable refinement, particularly in terms of genetic characterization. MRT (both renal and extra-renal) and ATRT share phenotypic similarities and a common genetic signature, that being inactivating alterations of the SWI/SNF complex component SMARCB1 (or rarely SMARCA4). Unfortunately, a wide array of tumors bears significantly overlapping phenotypic characteristics to MRT/ATRT, posing a formidable diagnostic challenge...
August 31, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Eleni I Kalogirou, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Charis Bourgioti, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Moschovi, Savvas Papadopoulos, Georgios Sfakianos, Evgenia Papakonstantinou, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Spyros Sgouros, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Katerina Strantzia, Basilios Zountsas, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eustratios Patsouris, Eleni Th Petridou
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) comprise the most common childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Exploiting registry-based data from Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) and SEER, US, we opted to examine incidence, time trends, survival and tentative outcome disparities of childhood PA by sociodemographic and clinical features. Childhood PA were retrieved from 12 SEE registries (N = 552; 1983-2014) and SEER (N = 2723; 1973-2012). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were estimated and survival was examined via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Rivka R Colen, Islam Hassan, Nabil Elshafeey, Pascal O Zinn
The new World Health Organization classification of brain tumors depends on combining the histologic light microscopy features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors with canonical genetic alterations. This integrated diagnosis is redrawing the pedigree chart of brain tumors with rearrangement of tumor groups on the basis of geno-phenotypical behaviors into meaningful groups. Multiple radiogenomic studies provide a bridge between imaging features and tumor microenvironment. An overlap that can be integrated within the genophenotypical classification of CNS tumors for a better understanding of different clinically relevant entities...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Heather M Byers, Margaret P Adam, Amy LaCroix, Sarah E S Leary, Bonnie Cole, William B Dobyns, Heather C Mefford
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare, highly malignant, embryonal tumors most often occurring in children under age 3 years. Most are due to a somatic change in tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 followed by a second-hit, typically loss of heterozygosity, best detected on immunohistochemical staining. Despite the noteworthy genetic homogeneity of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, relatively little is known about the oncogenic mechanisms that lead to biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Martin Böhland, Eugenia Kress, Matthias B Stope, Thomas Pufe, Simone C Tauber, Lars-Ove Brandenburg
Bacterial meningitis is - despite therapeutical progress during the last decades - still characterized by high mortality and severe permanent neurogical sequelae. The brain is protected from penetrating pathogens by both the blood-brain barrier and the innate immune system. Invading pathogens are recognized by so-called pattern recognition receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLR) which are expressed by glial immune cells in the central nervous system. Among these, TLR2 is responsible for the detection of Gram-positive bacteria such as the meningitis-causing pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Oyinbo A Charles, Igbigbi S Patrick, Avwioro O Godwin
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced neurodegeneration, a consequence of chronic ethanol exposure, is a neuroadaptation that drives the progression of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unfortunately, conventional drugs for AUDs do not prevent neurodegeneration as part of their pharmacological repertoire. Multimodal neuroprotective therapeutic agents are hypothesized to have high therapeutic utility in the treatment of central nervous system. Interestingly, nutraceuticals by nature are multimodal in mechanisms of action...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Young-Bem Se, Dong Gyu Kim, Sung Kwon Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sun-Ha Paek
BACKGROUND: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are highly malignant and rare tumors of the central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the role of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) as a salvage treatment option for patients with recurrent or residual supratentorial PNETs. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2014, 11 patients with supratentorial PNETs were retrospectively analyzed. This series consisted of 7 male and 4 female patients...
October 8, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
David W Nauen
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor autoimmune encephalitis can arise in the setting of ovarian teratoma and often responds to resection. When it occurs in the absence of tumor, failure to respond to treatment may be more likely, and affected patients often require intensive care. To further understand the mechanisms and potential management, we present findings from an autopsy conducted on a young woman who died of refractory autoimmune encephalitis of this type. Rituximab was administered 70 days before death, and both 37 and 14 days before death, CD19(+) lymphocytes were only 0...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Jason R Audlin, Gaurav Khullar, Eric M Deshaies, Swamy Kurra, William F Lavelle
BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are rare neoplasms that often arise from the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts. They often metastasize to bone tissue, as well as pancreatic and hepatic sites. The central nervous system and most specifically the spinal cord are rarely involved. Primary Carcinoid tumors of the CNS are even rarer. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58 year-old man presented with progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and a negative history of cancer. Imaging revealed an intradural mass at the L1 and L2 spinal levels...
October 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Marta Drake-Pérez, James G Smirniotopoulos
This article reviews the most frequent extra-axial tumors of the central nervous system, from the most common meningioma to some uncommon conditions, like Rosai-Dorfman disease, focusing on imaging techniques, pearls, and pitfalls as well as a more practical approach.
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Ramon Francisco Barajas, Soonmee Cha
Metastatic cancer to the central nervous system is primarily deposited by hematogenous spread in various anatomically distinct regions: calvarial, pachymeningeal, leptomeningeal, and brain parenchyma. A patient's overall clinical status and the information needed to make treatment decisions are the primary considerations in initial imaging modality selection. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the preferred imaging modality. Morphologic MR imaging is limited to delineating anatomic deraignment of tissues. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion and diffusion-weighted physiology-based MR imaging sequences have been developed that complement morphologic MR imaging by providing additional diagnostic information...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Ali Mohammadzadeh, Vahid Mohammadzadeh, Soheil Kooraki, Houman Sotoudeh, Sakineh Kadivar, Madjid Shakiba, Bahman Rasuli, Ali Borhani, Maryam Mohammadzadeh
Glioma is considered the most common type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Imaging is crucial for diagnosis, characterization, grading, and therapeutic planning of CNS gliomas. Along with a brief description of conventional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, this article reviews the ever-developing role of modern imaging techniques in preoperative management of CNS gliomas. It discusses current clinical applications, promising features, and limitations of each imaging method...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Lara A Brandão, Mauricio Castillo
Primary central nervous system lymphomas are aggressive, high-cell-density tumors. There is recent increase in their incidence in immunocompetent patients. Knowledge of imaging findings on computed tomography and conventional MR imaging is important to suggest the diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, increases diagnostic confidence and helps distinguish them from other aggressive intracranial tumors...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Robert Y Shih, James G Smirniotopoulos
In adults, the most common expansile "mass" lesion in the posterior fossa is a subacute stroke, whereas the most common neoplastic lesion in the posterior fossa is cerebellar metastasis (intra-axial) or vestibular schwannoma (extra-axial). Those diseases fall outside the scope of this article, which focuses on primary intra-axial tumors of the posterior fossa in adults. This category of tumors is uncommon and more frequently encountered in children. This article reviews tumors of the cerebellum, brainstem, and fourth ventricle that are seen in adult patients, following categories from the 2007 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Alessandra Bua, Melania Ruggeri, Stefania Zanetti, Paola Molicotti
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by damage to myelin and axons, over time leading to progressive neuronal degeneration and microglial activation. There is still no curative treatment, but during the last 20 years eight different therapies have become available including interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone and teriflunomide. Teriflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on T cell activation in central nervous system of the patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Bruno Splavski, Dario Muzevic, Tatjana Ladenhauser-Palijan, Brano Splavski
INTRODUCTION: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) of T-cell origin is an exceptionally rare, highly malignant intracranial neoplasm. Although such a tumor typically presents with a focal mass lesion. CASE REPORT: Past medical history of a 26-year-old male patient with a PCNS lymphoma of T-cell origin was not suggestive of intracranial pathology or any disorder of other organs and organic systems. To achieve a gross total tumor resection, surgery was performed via osteoplastic craniotomy using the left frontal transcortical transventricular approach...
July 27, 2016: Medical Archives
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