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Central Nervous Tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140741/comparative-in-vitro-study-of-11-c-methionine-and-11-c-deuterodeprenyl-uptake-in-three-human-glioma-cell-lines
#1
Elena Vasilskis, Ingrid Kreimerman, Silvia Olivera, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
AIM: To compare the uptake of (11)C-deuterodeprenyl ((11)C-DED) and (11)C-methionine ((11)C-MET) in three human glioma cell lines and study the relationship with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) expression. (11)C-DED is used in positron emission tomography imaging as a marker of astrocytosis in various central nervous system pathologies. It binds irreversibly to MAO B, a glial dimeric enzyme with increased activity in some neurological pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Binding and internalization studies of (11)C-MET and (11)C-DED were performed in astrocytoma grade III, glioblastoma grade IV, and radio-resistant glioblastoma grade IV cells...
November 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140156/conditioned-medium-from-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-against-scratch-injury-induced-cell-death
#2
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137288/elevated-timp-1-expression-is-associated-with-a-prometastatic-phenotype-disease-relapse-and-poor-survival-in-neuroblastoma
#3
Pritha Paul, Eric J Rellinger, Jingbo Qiao, Sora Lee, Natasha Volny, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Carmelle V Romain, Bret Mobley, Hernan Correa, Dai H Chung
Approximately two-thirds of patients with neuroblastoma are found to have metastatic disease at time of diagnosis with frequent skeletal, lymph node, central nervous system, and liver involvement. Using a serial in vivo splenic injection model, we have isolated an aggressive subclone (BE(2)-C/LM2) from MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas that demonstrate an enhanced propensity to develop metastatic liver lesions. BE(2)-C/LM2 subclone cells demonstrate increased adherent, soft agar colony and tumorsphere growth in vitro...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136710/-clinical-characteristics-of-128-hospitalized-patients-with-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretics-of-different-etiologies
#4
G Chen, L L Li, J Sun, W J Gu, N Jin, W H Yan, K Chen, J Du, X L Wang, L Zang, Y Pei, Q H Guo, G Q Yang, J M Ba, Z H Lyu, J M Lu, Y M Mu, J T Dou
Objective: To summarize and analyze the clinical features and etiologies in hospitalized patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretics (SIAD) during the past 25 years. Methods: All data of 128 patients with SIAD admitted to Chinese PLA General Hospital since January 1991 to January 2016 were collected. SIAD was diagnosed based on the 1957 criterion. Results: (1) The most frequent causes of increased inappropriate secretion of vasopressin were malignant tumors, lung diseases (e. g. pneumonia), and central nervous system diseases, in which malignant tumors accounted for 38...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#5
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130106/molecular-alterations-of-the-nf2-gene-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#6
Ning Zhang, Zhang Zhao, Jiang Long, Hai Li, Bei Zhang, Guangyong Chen, Xiaojin Li, Tingxia Lv, Wei Zhang, Xiaojuan Ou, Anjian Xu, Jian Huang
Neurofibromatosis type 2 with mutations in the neurofibromin 2 (NF2) gene, encoding the Merlin protein, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by enhanced cancer predisposition, particularly tumors of the central nervous system. Recent animal studies indicate that disruption of NF2/Merlin function in oval cells, which are hepatic progenitor cells, may lead to the development of primary liver cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); however, its role in human primary liver cancer remains unclear...
December 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127594/morphine-double-faced-roles-in-the-regulation-of-tumor-development
#7
REVIEW
X Y Zhang, Y X Liang, Y Yan, Z Dai, H C Chu
Morphine, a highly potent analgesic, is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of severe pain associated with cancer. It directly acts on the central nervous system to relieve pain, but also cause secondary complications, such as addiction, respiratory depression and constipation due to its activities on peripheral tissues. Besides pain relief, morphine is of great importance on cancer management with its effect on tumor development being the subject of debate for many years with some contradictory findings...
November 10, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125116/emerging-roles-of-histidine-triad-nucleotide-binding-protein-1-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#8
Yong-Hui Dang, Zhong-Wei Liu, Peng Liu, Jia-Bei Wang
The histidine triad nucleotide binding protein1(HINT1),which belongs to the histidine triad(HIT) enzyme superfamily,exerts its enzymic activities as hydrolase or transferase. Its physiological functions are still unclear. HINT1 protein is expressed in various tissues and plays an important role in transcription and signal transduction. Earlier studies have identified HINT1 as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor. Other evidences indicate that HINT1 is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes,some of which are irrelevant with its basic enzymic activities...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121830/acute-reversible-toxic-encephalopathy-during-capecitabine-and-oxaliplatin-treatment
#9
João Godinho, Mafalda Casa-Nova, Teresa Mesquita, Maria João Baptista, Francisco Araújo, José Vale, José Luís Passos Coelho
Introduction Capecitabine is a fluoropyrimidine commonly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer which may cause central nervous system toxicity, namely cerebellar dysfunction. Case report We describe a 77-year-old man undergoing adjuvant treatment of colon cancer with capecitabine and oxaliplatin who presented with acute cerebellar ataxia and encephalopathy that progressed to coma. Diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy was made after the exclusion of alternative causes of neurological dysfunction and complete resolution of clinical findings with permanent discontinuation of chemotherapy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120854/the-protective-effects-of-bacillus-licheniformis-preparation-on-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-inflammation-induced-by-radiotherapy-in-pediatric-with-central-nervous-system-tumor
#10
Shu-Xu Du, Yong-Rui Jia, Si-Qi Ren, Xiao-Jun Gong, Hong Tang, Wu Wan-Shui, Sun Li-Ming
PURPOSE: we studied the effect of Bacillus licheniformis preparation (ZCS) on CNST (central nervous system tumor) patients undergoing the gastrointestinal symptoms and inflammation induced by radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 160 CNST patients with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) treatment were divided into experiment and control group. The experiment group patients took one capsule per time of ZCS and three times a day until the end of radiotherapy, starting one day before radiotherapy...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120131/in-vitro-effects-of-selenium-on-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-lines-a-preliminary-study
#11
(no author information available yet)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is caused by the central nervous system-derived glial cells, and represents the most common (50%-60%) form of primary brain tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of selenium on human GBM cells. In the present study, GMS-10 and DBTRG-05MG human GBM cell lines were used as a model to examine selenium entering the cell, cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation and Ki-67 protein expression in selenomethionine treated and non-treated groups...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118478/intraoperative-squash-smear-cytology-in-cns-lesions-a-study-of-150-pediatric-cases
#12
Arpita Jindal, Kanwalpreet Kaur, Kusum Mathur, Vinod Kumari, Himanshi Diwan
Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS) lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology...
October 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118304/pediatric-optic-pathway-hypothalamic-glioma
#13
Yasuo Aihara, Kentaro Chiba, Seiichiro Eguchi, Kosaku Amano, Takakazu Kawamata
Optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas (OP/HGs) are rare astrocytic tumors that appear more commonly among young children and often are unresectable. They comprise approximately 2% of all central nervous system tumors and account for 3-5% of pediatric intracranial tumors. Initial manifestations are often visual disturbances, endocrinopathies and hypothalamic dysfunction such as the diencephalic syndrome, and sometimes hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow obstruction. In many cases, the tumors are diagnosed late in the clinical course because they silently enlarge...
November 9, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117289/cbtrus-statistical-report-primary-brain-and-other-central-nervous-system-tumors-diagnosed-in-the-united-states-in-2010-2014
#14
Quinn T Ostrom, Haley Gittleman, Peter Liao, Toni Vecchione-Koval, Yingli Wolinsky, Carol Kruchko, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116307/cryptococcoma-mimicking-a-brain-tumor-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-of-an-extremely-rare-presentation
#15
Aline Lariessy Campos Paiva, Guilherme Brasileiro de Aguiar, Renan Maximilian Lovato, Arthus Vilar Deolindo Zanetti, Alexandros Theodoros Panagopoulos, José Carlos Esteves Veiga
CONTEXT: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Mass-effect lesions are uncommon: they are described as cryptococcomas and their prevalence is even lower among immunocompetent patients...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111096/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumor-of-the-cerebrum-a-rare-entity-new-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Lain Hermes Gonzalez-Quarante, Fernando Ruiz-Juretschke, Emma Sola Vendrell, Oscar Lucas Gil de Sagredo Del Corral, Vijay Agarwal, Roberto Garcia-Leal
BACKGROUND: Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor has been recently described and included in the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of The Central Nervous System, even though its consideration as a true tumor is controversial. Patients with these lesions usually present with refractory seizures and inconclusive imaging findings that may be confused with other more common diagnoses such as dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or low-grade gliomas. Therefore, surgical resection is warranted to reach a pathologic diagnosis and seizure control...
October 28, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110768/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-malignancies-located-in-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Cassandra Verheul, Anne Kleijn, Martine L M Lamfers
CNS malignancies include primary tumors that originate within the CNS as well as secondary tumors that develop as a result of metastatic cancer. The delicate nature of the nervous systems makes tumors located in the CNS notoriously difficult to reach, which poses several problems during diagnosis and treatment. CSF can be acquired relatively easy through lumbar puncture and offers an important compartment for analysis of cells and molecules that carry information about the malignant process. Such techniques have opened up a new field of research focused on the identification of specific biomarkers for several types of CNS malignancies, which may help in diagnosis and monitoring of tumor progression or treatment response...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108461/cdc20-overexpression-is-involved-in-temozolomide-resistant-glioma-cells-with-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#18
Jianjiao Wang, Fenggang Zhou, Yang Li, Qingsong Li, Zhichao Wu, Lili Yu, Fei Yuan, Jie Liu, Yu Tian, Yu Cao, Yan Zhao, Yongri Zheng
Glioma remains one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers in central nervous system. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in gliomas. However, therapeutic benefits of TMZ could be very limited and all patients would finally suffer from tumor progression as the tumors develop resistance to TMZ. In this study, we aim to investigate the underlying mechanism of chemoresistance in glioma cell line and to identify whether there is still a close link between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TMZ resistance in gliomas...
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107071/role-of-tlr4-in-olfactory-based-spatial-learning-activity-of-neonatal-mice-after-developmental-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-origin-secondary-organic-aerosol
#19
Nay Chi Nway, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano, Ohn Mar, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe
Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106981/zinc-chelation-and-klf9-knockdown-cooperatively-promote-axon-regeneration-after-optic-nerve-injury
#20
Ephraim F Trakhtenberg, Yiqing Li, Qian Feng, Janice Tso, Paul A Rosenberg, Jeffrey L Goldberg, Larry I Benowitz
The inability of axons to regenerate over long-distances in the central nervous system (CNS) limits the recovery of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although pre-clinical studies have identified a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon growth after CNS damage, the extent of recovery remains quite limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Here, we used traumatic injury to the mouse optic nerve as a model system to test the effects of combining several treatments that have recently been found to promote axon regeneration without the risks associated with manipulating known tumor suppressors or oncogenes...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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