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Central Nervous Tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904443/prognosis-estimation-under-the-light-of-metabolic-tumor-parameters-on-initial-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-with-primary-extranodal-lymphoma
#1
Kursat Okuyucu, Sukru Ozaydın, Engin Alagoz, Gokhan Ozgur, Semra Ince, Fahrettin Guven Oysul, Ozlem Ozmen, Murat Tuncel, Mustafa Ozturk, Nuri Arslan
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900341/subventricular-zone-associated-glioblastoma-a-call-for-translational-research-to-guide-clinical-decision-making
#2
Andrew W Smith, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most devastating primary cancer of the central nervous system, with an expected overall survival in most patients of about 14 months. Despite extensive research, outcomes for GBM have been largely unchanged since the introduction of temozolomide in 2005. We believe that in order to achieve a breakthrough in therapeutic management, we must begin to identify subtypes of GBM, and tailor treatment to best target a particular tumor's vulnerabilities. Our group has recently produced an examination of the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy directed at tumors that contact the subventricular zone (SVZ), the 3-5 mm lateral border of the lateral ventricles that contains the largest collection of neural stem cells in the adult brain...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899999/colorectal-cancer-patients-exhibit-increased-levels-of-galanin-in-serum-and-colon-tissues
#3
Przemysław Kwiatkowski, Janusz Godlewski, Jacek Kieżun, Bartłomiej Emil Kraziński, Zbigniew Kmieć
Galanin (GAL) is a 30-amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS). Increased GAL concentrations have been identified in the blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The aim of the present study was to assess whether sections of the colon wall containing ENS plexuses or CRC tumor are associated with increased GAL concentrations. Blood samples were collected from 68 CRC patients and 39 healthy volunteers. In addition, samples of CRC tumors and colon wall tissue in close proximity to and distant from the neoplastic tissue were obtained from 22 CRC patients...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896941/patient-reported-neuropathic-pain-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-patients
#4
Melissa A Acquazzino, Eva C Igler, Mahua Dasgupta, Pippa Simpson, Meghen B Browning, Amanda M Brandow
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain, a known complication of cancer and its treatments, negatively impacts quality of life. There are limited data using screening tools to aid in the diagnosis of neuropathic pain in cancer patients. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of adolescent and young adult cancer patients reporting neuropathic pain on a patient-completed, neuropathic pain screening tool. PROCEDURES: This prospective, cohort study enrolled patients 14-39 years of age who were receiving therapy for primary cancer diagnosis, cancer relapse, or had recently completed treatment...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896893/an-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-like-illness-in-the-elderly-neuroimaging-and-neuropathology-findings
#5
Ulrike W Kaunzner, Elliott Salamon, Elena Pentsova, Marc Rosenblum, Sasan Karimi, Nancy Nealon, Ehud Lavi, Dara G Jamieson
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that classically occurs in children and adolescents. It characteristically presents with acute inflammation, resulting in demyelination, often following an infectious disease. ADEM has been described in adult patients, but the incidence in the adult and especially elderly population is low. CASES: We describe five older adults (age 57 to 85) who presented with acute neurological symptoms...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894403/conditioned-medium-from-neural-stem-cells-inhibits-glioma-cell-growth
#6
Z Li, Q Zhong, H Liu, P Liu, J Wu, D Ma, X Chen, X Yang
Malignant glioma is one of the most common brain tumors in the central nervous system. Although the significant progress has been made in recent years, the mortality is still high and 5-year survival rate is still very low. One of the leading causes to the high mortality for glioma patients is metastasis and invasion. An efficient method to control the tumor metastasis is a promising way to treat the glioma. Previous reports indicated that neural stem cells (NSCs) were served as a delivery vector to the anti-glioma therapy...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894359/can-morphological-mri-differentiate-between-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-and-glioblastoma
#7
H Malikova, E Koubska, J Weichet, J Klener, A Rulseh, R Liscak, Z Vojtech
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare, aggressive brain neoplasm that accounts for roughly 2-6% of primary brain tumors. In contrast, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and severe glioma subtype, accounting for approximately 50% of diffuse gliomas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological MRI characteristics in histologically-proven PCNSL and GBM at the time of their initial presentation. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated standard diagnostic MRI examinations in 54 immunocompetent patients (26 female, 28 male; age 62...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894339/the-identification-of-human-pituitary-adenoma-initiating-cells
#8
Branavan Manoranjan, Sujeivan Mahendram, Saleh A Almenawer, Chitra Venugopal, Nicole McFarlane, Robin Hallett, Thusyanth Vijayakumar, Almunder Algird, Naresh K Murty, Doron D Sommer, John P Provias, Kesava Reddy, Sheila K Singh
Classified as benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors, pituitary adenomas account for 10% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms. Although surgery is often curative, patients with invasive macroadenomas continue to experience significant morbidity and are prone to tumor recurrence. Given the identification of human brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that initiate and maintain tumor growth while promoting disease progression and relapse in multiple CNS tumors, we investigated whether TICs also drive the growth of human pituitary adenomas...
November 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893285/recent-advances-in-subtyping-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-using-molecular-data
#9
Jens Schittenhelm
Primary brain tumors account for substantial morbidity and mortality. They often infiltrate the brain diffusely, continue growing, and cause adverse events, such as headaches, seizures, and neurological deficits. The classification of primary brain tumors, based for decades on histology, has been fundamentally changed by the World Health Organization in 2016 by incorporation of molecular data. Areas covered: Literature from glioblastomas, high- and low-grade astrocytic, oligodendroglial, glioneuronal and ependymal tumors from the last five years were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889994/pd-1-pd-ls-a-new-target-for-regulating-the-immunopathogenesis-in-central-nervous-system-disorders
#10
Jie Wu, Zhengquan Yu, Gang Chen
The central nervous system (CNS) was traditionally thought to tolerate inflammatory responses. However, CNS is not completely immune-privileged in recent researches. These responses including Microglia and macrophage activation and peripheral immune cells infiltration have been founded successively. Thus, the traditional view of the adult brain as an immune-privileged organ has been changed. Increasing evidence indicated that the PD-1(programmed cell death-1)/PD-Ls signal pathway plays an important role in regulating the immunopathogenesis of brain following injury...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889752/dietary-and-alcohol-intake-and-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-adults-results-of-the-cerenat-multicenter-case-control-study
#11
Benjamin Allès, Camille Pouchieu, Anne Gruber, Pierre Lebailly, Hugues Loiseau, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Luc Letenneur, Isabelle Baldi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between diet and central nervous system (CNS) tumors, especially in terms of their histological subtypes. This study investigated the overall associations between food groups, alcohol intake and CNS tumors, and in particular about the associations between neuroepithelial tumors and meningiomas. METHODS: Data were collected through the CERENAT (CEREbral tumors: a NATional study) case-control study conducted in France during the period 2004-2010...
November 26, 2016: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889028/pediatric-brain-tumors-update-imaging-characterization-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-in-the-central-nervous-system-including-findings-on-advanced-mr-imaging-techniques
#12
EDITORIAL
Lara A Brandão
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888882/the-challenge-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Julia Carnevale, James L Rubenstein
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a challenging subtypes of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Emerging clinical data suggest that optimized outcomes are achieved with dose-intensive CNS-penetrant chemotherapy and avoiding whole brain radiotherapy. Anti-CD20 antibody-based immunotherapy as a component of high-dose methotrexate-based induction programs may contribute to improved outcomes. An accumulation of insights into the molecular and cellular basis of disease pathogenesis is providing a foundation for the generation of molecular tools to facilitate diagnosis as well as a roadmap for integration of targeted therapy within the developing therapeutic armamentarium for this challenging brain tumor...
December 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888628/impact-of-epidemiological-characteristics-of-supratentorial-gliomas-in-adults-brought-about-by-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification-of-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#14
Haihui Jiang, Yong Cui, Junmei Wang, Song Lin
The latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) integrates both histological and molecular features in the definition of diagnostic entities. This new approach enrolls novel entities of gliomas. In this study, we aimed to reveal the epidemiological characteristics, including age at diagnosis, gender ratio, tumor distribution and survival, of these new entities. We retrospectively reclassified 1210 glioma samples according to the 2016 CNS WHO diagnostic criteria...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886579/a-cytokine-study-of-pediatric-tourette-s-disorder-without-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Seung-Min Yeon, Ju Hyung Lee, Daewon Kang, Hyuna Bae, Ki Yong Lee, Seohoon Jin, Jung Ryul Kim, Yong Woo Jung, Tae Won Park
It has been suggested that post-infectious inflammation in central nervous system is a cause of tic disorder including Tourette's disorder (TD). Since pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators inducing inflammation, the cytokine levels are regarded as one of the important indicators of inflammation. Several studies have investigated the relationship of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of TD by measuring the inflammatory cytokine levels of blood. However, when using human samples, the experimental results can be affected by the factors like size of sample, comorbidity, medication that patients take and the severity of the diseases...
November 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885956/solitary-tentorial-sarcoid-granuloma-associated-with-propionibacterium-acnes-infection-case-report
#16
Jiro Akimoto, Kenta Nagai, Daisuke Ogasawara, Yujiro Tanaka, Hitoshi Izawa, Michihiro Kohno, Keisuke Uchida, Yoshinobu Eishi
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease with unknown cause, which very rarely occurs exclusively in the central nervous system. The authors performed biopsy sampling of a mass that developed in the left tentorium cerebelli that appeared to be a malignant tumor. The mass was diagnosed as a sarcoid granuloma, which was confirmed with the onset of antibody reaction product against Propionibacterium acnes. Findings suggesting sarcoidosis to be an immune response to P. acnes infection have recently been reported, and they give insight for diagnosis and treatment of this disease...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885383/schwann-cells-a-new-player-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#17
REVIEW
Yuri L Bunimovich, Anton A Keskinov, Galina V Shurin, Michael R Shurin
Cancerous cells must cooperate with the surrounding stroma and non-malignant cells within the microenvironment to support the growth and invasion of the tumor. The nervous system is a component of every organ system of the body, and therefore, is invariably at the front line of the tumor invasion. Due to the complexity of the nervous system physiology, this review separately discusses the contributions of the central and peripheral nervous systems to the tumorigenesis and tumor progression. We further focus the discussion on the evidence that Schwann cells aid in tumor growth and invasion...
November 24, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882122/gan-dan-liang-yi-tang-alleviates-p-chlorophenylalanine-induced-insomnia-through-modification-of-the-serotonergic-and-immune-system
#18
Yuan Hu, Yu-Nin Wang, Gang-Qiang Zhang, Xian-Zhe Dong, Wan-Wan Liu, Ping Liu
Gan-Dan-Liang-Yi-Tang (GDLYT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been historically used for the treatment of insomnia. However, investigations into its pharmacological ingredients and the mechanism underlying its sedative and hypnotic effects remain limited. The present study reported the detailed mechanisms underlying the sedative and hypnotic effects of GDLYT. Kunming mice were administered GDLYT at various sub-hypnotic doses, which underwent sodium pentobarbital treatment test, pentetrazole induced convulsant studies and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) induced insomnia model...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878966/risk-adapted-stratification-for-optimally-intensive-treatment-assignment-of-pediatric-patients-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-is-an-effective-strategy-in-developing-countries
#19
Asim F Belgaumi, Mohammed Anas, Khawar S Siddiqui, Mohammed F Akhter, Amani Al-Kofide
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in developing countries (DCs) present with greater tumor load even at lower stages and with comorbidities that impact therapy delivery. This causes toxic mortality with "standard" intensive protocols or recurrences with "gentler" treatment. OBJECTIVES: We developed and evaluated a risk stratification schema that guides intensity of therapy. DESIGN/METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were prospectively assigned to five risk groups (A-E; n = 6, 15, 16, 15, and 17) following staging and treated with protocols of risk-stratified intensity...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878432/histopathologic-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases-current-trends-in-management-and-future-considerations
#20
Lien Bekaert, Evelyne Emery, Guénaëlle Levallet, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman
Confronted with brain metastases (BM), pathologists aim to rule out a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor and to identify or verify the primary tumor site to guide the clinician to specific therapies. Apart from morphological features, ancillary immunohistochemical analysis is the most effective tool for characterizing a metastatic neoplasm of unknown origin. A limited array of antibodies is used, taking into account relevant clinical information and the known brain tropism of lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma...
November 22, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
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