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Metastasis as an evolutionary process

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170400/molecular-pathogenesis-and-current-therapy-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#1
Dan Høgdall, Colm J O'Rourke, Andrzej Taranta, Douglas V N P Oliveira, Jesper B Andersen
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) comprises one of the most rapidly evolving cancer types. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease that precedes liver cancer development for several decades and creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment frequently impairs progress in therapeutic approaches. Depending on the cellular target of malignant transformation, a large spectrum of molecular and morphological patterns is observed. As such, it is crucial to advance our existing understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA, particularly its genomic heterogeneity, to improve current clinical strategies and patient outcome...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124450/metastasis-as-an-evolutionary-process
#2
REVIEW
Samra Turajlic, Charles Swanton
Therapeutic advances in oncology have not fully translated to the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains largely incurable. Metastatic subclones can emerge both early and late in the life of the primary tumor. A better understanding of the genetic evolution of metastatic disease has the potential to reveal differences in the therapeutic vulnerabilities of primary and metastatic tumors, shed light on the temporal patterns of and routes to metastatic colonization, and provide insight into the biology of the metastatic process...
April 8, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26429330/role-of-galectin-3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bladder-transitional-cell-carcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Masoud Zeinali, Armin Adelinik, Shaghayegh Papian, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Mehdi Abedinzadeh
Galectins constitute an evolutionary conserved family that binds to β-galactosides. There is growing evidence that galectins are implicated in essential biological processes such as cellular communication, inflammation, differentiation and apoptosis. Galectin-3 is one of the best-known galectins, which is found in vertebrates. Galectin-3 has been shown to be expressed in some cell lines and plays important roles in several physiological and pathological processes, including cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell cycle, apoptosis, cell growth, and differentiation...
October 2015: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26050264/pathology-to-enhance-precision-medicine-in-oncology-lessons-from-landscape-ecology
#4
REVIEW
Mark C Lloyd, Katarzyna A Rejniak, Joel S Brown, Robert A Gatenby, Emily S Minor, Marilyn M Bui
A major goal of modern medicine is increasing patient specificity so that the right treatment is administered to the right patient at the right time with the right dose. While current cancer studies have largely focused on identification of genetic or epigenetic properties of tumor cells, emerging evidence has clearly demonstrated substantial genetic heterogeneity between tumors in the same patient and within subclones of a single tumor. Thus, molecular analysis from populations of cells (either a whole tumor or small biopsy of that tumor) is, at best, an incomplete representation of the underlying biology...
July 2015: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832550/the-role-of-microrna-in-nutritional-control
#5
E N M Nolte-'t Hoen, E Van Rooij, M Bushell, C-Y Zhang, R H Dashwood, W P T James, C Harris, D Baltimore
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of a growing class of noncoding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of a wide range of metabolic processes including cellular differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The generation of miRNA is regulated in complex ways, for example by small interfering RNAs (small nucleolar and nuclear RNAs) and various other metabolites. This complexity of control is likely to explain how a relatively small part of the DNA that codes for proteins has enabled the evolution of such complex organisms as mammals...
August 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830880/the-evolutionary-history-of-lethal-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#6
Gunes Gundem, Peter Van Loo, Barbara Kremeyer, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Jose M C Tubio, Elli Papaemmanuil, Daniel S Brewer, Heini M L Kallio, Gunilla Högnäs, Matti Annala, Kati Kivinummi, Victoria Goody, Calli Latimer, Sarah O'Meara, Kevin J Dawson, William Isaacs, Michael R Emmert-Buck, Matti Nykter, Christopher Foster, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Douglas Easton, Hayley C Whitaker, David E Neal, Colin S Cooper, Rosalind A Eeles, Tapio Visakorpi, Peter J Campbell, Ultan McDermott, David C Wedge, G Steven Bova
Cancers emerge from an ongoing Darwinian evolutionary process, often leading to multiple competing subclones within a single primary tumour. This evolutionary process culminates in the formation of metastases, which is the cause of 90% of cancer-related deaths. However, despite its clinical importance, little is known about the principles governing the dissemination of cancer cells to distant organs. Although the hypothesis that each metastasis originates from a single tumour cell is generally supported, recent studies using mouse models of cancer demonstrated the existence of polyclonal seeding from and interclonal cooperation between multiple subclones...
April 16, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25721377/stresses-drive-a-cancer-s-initiation-progression-and-metastasis-critical-comments-on-the-book-cancer-bioinformatics
#7
Chao Liu, Chi Zhang, Jing Su, Dongsheng Zhang, Sha Cao
"Cancer Bioinformatics" is a new book published in 2014 by Springer. This 14-chapter book offers a quite unique and potentially controversial view about what drives a cancer to initiate, progress, metastasize and develop in an accelerated manner in metastatic sites. The book treats cancer as an evolutionary process of a diseased tissue (rather than cells) in an increasingly more challenging microenvironment; and discusses the various stresses encountered by a neoplastic tissue and their roles in (driving) cancer initiation, progression, metastasis and post-metastatic development...
April 2015: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25588111/beyond-the-histone-tale-hp1%C3%AE-deregulation-in-breast-cancer-epigenetics
#8
REVIEW
Johan Vad-Nielsen, Anders Lade Nielsen
Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) encoded from the CBX5-gene is an evolutionary conserved protein that binds histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at position lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3), a hallmark for heterochromatin, and has an essential role in forming higher order chromatin structures. HP1α has diverse functions in heterochromatin formation, gene regulation, and mitotic progression, and forms complex networks of gene, RNA, and protein interactions. Emerging evidence has shown that HP1α serves a unique biological role in breast cancer related processes and in particular for epigenetic control mechanisms involved in aberrant cell proliferation and metastasis...
2015: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506896/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-prostate-tumorigenesis
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Imran Khan, Abid Hamid, Vaqar Mustafa Adhami, Rahul K Lall, Hasan Mukhtar
Globally, the cancer associated deaths are generally attributed to the spread of cancerous cells or their features to the nearby or distant secondary organs by a process known as metastasis. Among other factors, the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is attributed to the reactivation of an evolutionary conserved developmental program known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, fully differentiated epithelial cells undergo a series of dramatic changes in their morphology, along with loss of cell to cell contact and matrix remodeling into less differentiated and invasive mesenchymal cells...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25354954/shedding-of-glycan-modifying-enzymes-by-signal-peptide-peptidase-like-3-sppl3-regulates-cellular-n-glycosylation
#10
Matthias Voss, Ulrike Künzel, Fabian Higel, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Alessio Colombo, Akio Fukumori, Martina Haug-Kröper, Bärbel Klier, Gudula Grammer, Andreas Seidl, Bernd Schröder, Reinhard Obst, Harald Steiner, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Christian Haass, Regina Fluhrer
Protein N-glycosylation is involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes such as autoimmunity, tumour progression and metastasis. Signal peptide peptidase-like 3 (SPPL3) is an intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl protease of the GxGD type. Its physiological function, however, has remained enigmatic, since presently no physiological substrates have been identified. We demonstrate that SPPL3 alters the pattern of cellular N-glycosylation by triggering the proteolytic release of active site-containing ectodomains of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases such as N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V, β-1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 and β-1,4 galactosyltransferase 1...
December 17, 2014: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25174625/molecular-pathogenesis-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Jesper B Andersen
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an orphan cancer of the hepatobiliary tract, the incidence of which has increased in the past decade. The molecular pathogenesis of this treatment-refractory disease is poorly understood. Desmoplasia is a key causal feature of CCA; however, a majority of tumors develop with no apparent etiological background. The impact of the stromal compartment on tumor progression as well as resistance to therapy is in vogue, and the epithelial-stromal crosstalk may present a target for novel treatment strategies...
February 2015: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24806794/the-role-of-tissue-factor-isoforms-in-cancer-biology
#12
REVIEW
Ulrike Leppert, Andreas Eisenreich
Tissue Factor (TF) is an evolutionary conserved glycoprotein, which is of immense importance for a variety of biologic processes. TF is expressed in two naturally occurring protein isoforms, membrane-bound "full-length" (fl)TF and soluble alternatively spliced (as)TF. The TF isoform expression is differentially modulated on post-transcriptional level via regulatory factors, such as serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, SR protein kinases and micro (mi)RNAs. Both isoforms mediate a variety of physiologic- and pathophysiologic-relevant functions, such as thrombogenicity, angiogenesis, cell signaling, tumor cell proliferation and metastasis...
August 1, 2015: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24613441/the-four-dimensions-of-noncoding-rna-conservation
#13
REVIEW
Sven Diederichs
Evolutionary conservation is widely used as an indicator of the functional significance of newly discovered genes. Although the simple search for homology at the nucleotide or amino acid sequence level has proven to be valuable for protein-coding genes, these criteria are too narrow to describe fully the selection process for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). LncRNA conservation includes four dimensions: the sequence, structure, function, and expression from syntenic loci. Two recently described knockout mouse models for the lincRNAs metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) and HOX antisense intergenic RNA (Hotair) highlight the multifaceted levels of conservation...
April 2014: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24580032/the-impact-of-intra-clonal-heterogeneity-on-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#14
REVIEW
Annamaria Brioli, Lorenzo Melchor, Michele Cavo, Gareth J Morgan
It is clear that cancers comprise a mixture of clones, a feature termed intra-clonal heterogeneity, that compete for spatial and nutritional resources in a fashion that leads to disease progression and therapy resistance. This process of competition resembles the schema proposed by Darwin to explain the origin of the species, and applying these evolutionary biology concepts to cancer has the potential to improve our treatment strategies. Multiple myeloma (MM) has a unique set of characteristics that makes it a perfect model in which to study the presence of intra-clonal heterogeneity and its impact on therapy...
May 2014: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24403859/tumor-evolution-and-intratumor-heterogeneity-of-an-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#15
Xinyi Cindy Zhang, Chang Xu, Ryan M Mitchell, Bo Zhang, Derek Zhao, Yao Li, Xin Huang, Wenhong Fan, Hongwei Wang, Luisa Angelica Lerma, Melissa P Upton, Ashley Hay, Eduardo Méndez, Lue Ping Zhao
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by significant genomic instability that could lead to clonal diversity. Intratumor clonal heterogeneity has been proposed as a major attribute underlying tumor evolution, progression, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Understanding genetic heterogeneity could lead to treatments specific to resistant and metastatic tumor cells. To characterize the degree of intratumor genetic heterogeneity within a single tumor, we performed whole-genome sequencing on three separate regions of an human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and two separate regions from one corresponding cervical lymph node metastasis...
December 2013: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24313993/galectin-3-its-role-in-asthma-and-potential-as-an-anti-inflammatory-target
#16
REVIEW
Peng Gao, Jodie L Simpson, Jie Zhang, Peter G Gibson
Galectins constitute an evolutionary conserved family that bind to β-galactosides. Increasing evidence shows that galectins are involved in many fundamental biological processes such as cellular communication, inflammation, differentiation and apoptosis. Changes in galectin-3 (Gal-3) expression are commonly seen in cancer and pre-cancerous conditions, and Gal-3 may be involved in the regulation of diverse cancer cell activities that contribute to tumourigenesis, cancer progression and metastasis. In addition, Gal-3 is a pro-inflammatory regulator in rheumatoid arthritis...
2013: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23988797/a-hybrid-computational-model-for-the-effects-of-maspin-on-cancer-cell-dynamics
#17
M A Al-Mamun, L J Brown, M A Hossain, C Fall, L Wagstaff, R Bass
Cancer metastasis is a complex multistep process which allows cancer cells to establish new tumours in distant organs. The process of metastasis involves cell migration and invasion; it is what makes cancer a fatal disease. The efficiency of most cancer treatments depends on metastasis suppression. Maspin is a type II tumour metastasis suppressor which has multiple cellular effects. It has been described as a key regulatory protein in both the intracellular and extracellular environments. Maspin has been shown to reduce cell migration, invasion, proliferation and angiogenesis, and increase apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion in in vitro and in vivo experiments...
November 21, 2013: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23874499/evolution-of-the-plasma-and-tissue-kallikreins-and-their-alternative-splicing-isoforms
#18
Vassiliki Lila Koumandou, Andreas Scorilas
Kallikreins are secreted serine proteases with important roles in human physiology. Human plasma kallikrein, encoded by the KLKB1 gene on locus 4q34-35, functions in the blood coagulation pathway, and in regulating blood pressure. The human tissue kallikrein and kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have diverse expression patterns and physiological roles, including cancer-related processes such as cell growth regulation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the product of the KLK3 gene, is the most widely used biomarker in clinical practice today...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23705033/how-cancer-shapes-evolution-and-how-evolution-shapes-cancer
#19
Matias Casás-Selves, James Degregori
Evolutionary theories are critical for understanding cancer development at the level of species as well as at the level of cells and tissues, and for developing effective therapies. Animals have evolved potent tumor suppressive mechanisms to prevent cancer development. These mechanisms were initially necessary for the evolution of multi-cellular organisms, and became even more important as animals evolved large bodies and long lives. Indeed, the development and architecture of our tissues were evolutionarily constrained by the need to limit cancer...
December 2011: Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23641863/expression-of-phosphatase-of-regenerating-liver-family-genes-during-embryogenesis-an-evolutionary-developmental-analysis-among-drosophila-amphioxus-and-zebrafish
#20
Ming-Der Lin, Hsun-Tzu Lee, Szu-Chieh Wang, Han-Ru Li, Hsin-Lun Hsien, Kai-Wen Cheng, Yu-Di Chang, Min-Lang Huang, Jr-Kai Yu, Yau-Hung Chen
BACKGROUND: Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family is classified as class IVa of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP4A) that removes phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins. PRL phosphatases have been implicated in a number of tumorigenesis and metastasis processes and are highly conserved. However, the understanding of PRL expression profiles during embryonic development is very limited. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated and characterized the comprehensive expression pattern of Drosophila PRL, amphioxus PRL, and zebrafish PRLs during embryonic development by either whole mount immunostaining or in situ hybridization...
2013: BMC Developmental Biology
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