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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813074/oral-narrative-of-individuals-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#1
Giulia Ganthous, Natalia Freitas Rossi, Célia Maria Giacheti
Purpose: To investigate and compare the oral narrative of individuals with FASD and individuals with typical language development (TLD), as well as to correlate the narrative performance with the score from 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Methods: Participants were 20 individuals with FASD, of both genders, with chronological age between 6 and 16 years, and 20 individuals with TLD, same gender and similar to the FASD group in age and socioeconomic status. The oral narrative was elicited using the book Frog, where are you? and the data were analyzed in terms of macrostructure, microstructure and global coherence level...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812602/prenatal-development-supports-a-single-origin-of-laryngeal-echolocation-in-bats
#2
Zhe Wang, Tengteng Zhu, Huiling Xue, Na Fang, Junpeng Zhang, Libiao Zhang, Jian Pang, Emma C Teeling, Shuyi Zhang
Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812462/severe-intrauterine-amputations-in-one-dichorionic-twin-with-pentalogy-of-cantrell-further-evidence-and-consideration-for-mechanical-teratogenesis
#3
Víctor M Salinas-Torres, Estivaliz A De La O-Espinoza, Rafael A Salinas-Torres
Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is characterized by midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect, lower sternum defect, anterior diaphragmatic and pericardial defect, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Several etiological influences have been postulated, however, most of the reported cases are sporadic. In addition, evidence for mechanical teratogenesis in PC is limited. Here, we describe in one dichorionic twin with complete PC, additional severe intrauterine amputations (mainly head and neck) not previously reported resultant from mechanical teratogenesis...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#4
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808838/comparison-of-coronary-sinus-diameter-z-scores-in-normal-fetuses-and-fetuses-with-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-plsvc
#5
Mingming Ma, Yan Tan, Ran Chen, Yankai Mao, Bei Wang, Bowen Zhao
To establish Z-score reference ranges for coronary sinus (CS) diameter in normal fetuses and explore the diagnostic value of CS Z-score in fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Study of 235 normal fetuses and 30 fetuses with PLSVC was involved. Noncardiac biometrical parameters included biparietal diameter (BPD), femoral length (FL), heart area (HA), gestation age (GA). The coronary sinus systolic and diastolic diameter (CSDs and CSDd ) were measured at the end of systole and diastole. CSDs and CSDd Z-score models were constructed by using linear regression analysis with Non-cardiac biometrical parameters as independent variables...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808675/acute-appendicitis-in-pregnancy-and-the-developing-world
#6
Tika Ram Bhandari, Sudha Shahi, Sarita Acharya
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is the commonest nonobstetric surgical emergency during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to compare perioperative outcomes of acute appendicitis in pregnant and nonpregnant patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of 56 pregnant patients between 2011 and 2016 who were compared with 164 nonpregnant women of reproductive age who underwent open appendectomy between 2014 and 2016 for acute appendicitis. The patient's demographics and perioperative data were analyzed...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808585/spinal-cord-injury-during-the-second-trimester-of-pregnancy
#7
Ahmad Zaheer Qureshi, Sami Ullah, Anas Jehad AlSaleh, Rubina' Ullah
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancies in women with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Although pregnancy after SCI is well elaborated in the literature, SCI occurring during pregnancy is rarely reported. Abrupt changes in the body physiology because of SCI and the resulting disability add a risk to maternal and fetal well-being. Not only is the burden of care increased but there is also a higher risk of developing pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, autonomic instability, intrauterine growth retardation and venous thromboembolism...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808378/rutamarin-an-active-constituent-from-ruta-angustifolia-pers-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-in-the-ht29-colon-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#8
Shafinah Ahmad Suhaimi, Sok Lai Hong, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek
BACKGROUND: Ruta angustifolia Pers. is a perennial herb that is cultivated worldwide, including Southeast Asia, for the treatment of various diseases as traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify an active principle of R. angustifolia and to investigate its effect on the HT29 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of R. angustifolia Pers...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808270/a-low-permeability-microfluidic-blood-brain-barrier-platform-with-direct-contact-between-perfusable-vascular-network-and-astrocytes
#9
Seokyoung Bang, Seung-Ryeol Lee, Jihoon Ko, Kyungmin Son, Dongha Tahk, Jungho Ahn, Changkyun Im, Noo Li Jeon
A novel three dimensional blood brain barrier (BBB) platform was developed by independently supplying different types of media to separate cell types within a single device. One channel (vascular channel, VC) is connected to the inner lumen of the vascular network while the other supplies media to the neural cells (neural channel, NC). Compared to co-cultures supplied with only one type of medium (or 1:1 mixture), best barrier properties and viability were obtained with culturing HUVECs with endothelial growth medium (EGM) and neural cells with neurobasal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (NBMFBS) independently...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808079/the-impact-of-iugr-on-pancreatic-islet-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function
#10
Brit H Boehmer, Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency is a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) throughout life, which indicates that insults from placental insufficiency impair β-cell development during the perinatal period because β-cells have a central role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. The severely IUGR fetal pancreas is characterized by smaller islets, less β-cells, and lower insulin secretion. Because of the important associations among impaired islet growth, β-cell dysfunction, impaired fetal growth, and the propensity for T2DM, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of IUGR and programing events in the fetal endocrine pancreas...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807878/sex-dependent-changes-in-lipid-metabolism-ppar-pathways-and-micrornas-that-target-ppars-in-the-fetal-liver-of-rats-with-gestational-diabetes
#11
Daiana Fornes, Verónica White, Romina Higa, Florencia Heinecke, Evangelina Capobianco, Alicia Jawerbaum
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a prevalent disease that impairs fetal metabolism and development. We have previously characterized a rat model of GDM induced by developmental programming. Here, we analyzed lipid content, the levels of the three PPAR isotypes and the expression of microRNAs that regulate PPARs expression in the liver of male and female fetuses of control and GDM rats on day 21 of pregnancy. We found increased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the livers of male fetuses of GDM rats compared to controls, and, oppositely, reduced levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in the livers of female fetuses of GDM rats compared to controls...
August 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807814/development-of-a-chromosomal-microarray-test-for-the-detection-of-abnormalities-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-products-of-conception-specimens
#12
Troy J Gliem, Umut Aypar
Testing the products of conception (POC) provides information regarding the cause of fetal loss, and helps determine the recurrence risk for future losses and chromosome abnormalities in subsequent pregnancies. Historically, the Mayo Clinic Cytogenetics Laboratory performed targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) testing to identify aneuploidy of only certain chromosomes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) POC samples. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) studies utilizing the Affymetrix OncoScan™ FFPE Assay can detect copy number changes across the genome...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807719/maternal-hypothyroidism-an-overview-of-current-experimental-models
#13
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
Maternal hypothyroidism (MH) is the most common cause of transient congenital hypothyroidism. Different animal models are used for assessing developmental effects of MH in offspring. The severity and status of hypothyroidism in animal models must be a reflection of the actual conditions in humans. To obtain comparable results with different clinical conditions, which lead to MH in humans, several factors have been suggested for researchers to consider before designing the experimental models. Regarding development of fetal body systems during pregnancy, interference at different times provides different results and the appropriate time for induction of hypothyroidism should be selected based on accurate time of development of the system under assessment...
August 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806624/bcl-2-bax-protein-and-mrna-expression-in-yak-bos-grunniens-placentomes
#14
JiangFeng Fan, SiJiu Yu, Yan Cui, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Yangyang Pan, Honghong He
Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805106/measuring-fetal-brain-and-lung-transcripts-in-amniotic-fluid-supernatant-a-comparison-of-digital-pcr-and-rt-qpcr-methods
#15
Lisa Hui, Sally Beard, Natalie J Hannan
PURPOSE: Amniotic fluid (AF) cell-free RNA is a promising source of information regarding fetal physiology. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a direct approach to nucleic acid detection that reports absolute transcript copy number. The aim of this study was to compare quantification of cell-free fetal brain and lung RNA transcripts in AF by reverse transcription-qPCR and dPCR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective hospital-based study performed in 2016-2017. Pulmonary genes were quantified in term AF samples collected at elective cesarean birth; neurodevelopmental genes were measured in preterm samples (< 34 weeks) obtained from women undergoing clinically-indicated amniocentesis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804687/zika-virus-zikv-a-review-of-proposed-mechanisms-of-transmission-and-associated-congenital-abnormalities
#16
Sruti K Desai, Steven D Hartman, Shilpa Jayarajan, Stephanie Liu, G Ian Gallicano
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been of major international public health concern following large outbreaks in the Americas occurring in 2015-2016. Most notably, ZIKV has been seen to pose dangers in pregnancy due to its association with congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly. Numerous experimental approaches have been taken to address how the virus can cross the placenta, alter normal fetal development, and disrupt specific cellular functions. Many areas concerning the mechanisms of transmission, especially from mother to fetus, are largely unknown but demand further research...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804622/human-placental-growth-hormone-in-normal-and-abnormal-fetal-growth
#17
Alexandros Velegrakis, Maria Sfakiotaki, Stavros Sifakis
Human placental growth hormone (PGH), encoded by the growth hormone (GH) variant gene on chromosome 17, is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous cytotrophoblast layers of the human placenta. Its maternal serum levels increase throughout pregnancy, and gradually replaces the pulsatile secreted pituitary GH. PGH is also detectable in cord blood and in the amniotic fluid. This placental-origin hormone stimulates glyconeogenesis, lipolysis and anabolism in maternal organs, and influences fetal growth, placental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804448/erythropoietin-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-microgliosis-and-abnormal-granule-cell-development-in-the-ovine-fetal-cerebellum
#18
Annie R A McDougall, Nadia Hale, Sandra Rees, Richard Harding, Robert De Matteo, Stuart B Hooper, Mary Tolcos
Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates inflammation-induced injury in cerebral white matter (WM). However, effects of inflammation on the cerebellum and neuroprotective effects of EPO are unknown. Our aims were to determine: (i) whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation causes injury to, and/or impairs development of the cerebellum; and (ii) whether recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) mitigates these changes. At 107 ± 1 days gestational age (DGA; ~0.7 of term), fetal sheep received LPS (~0.9 μg/kg; i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803863/epidermal-e-cadherin-dependent-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-is-phytochemical-inducible-and-accelerates-anagen-hair-cycling
#19
Noha S Ahmed, Subhadip Ghatak, Mohamed S El Masry, Surya C Gnyawali, Sashwati Roy, Mohamed Amer, Helen Everts, Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna
Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803846/embryo-survival-and-birth-after-minimum-volume-vitrification-or-slow-freezing-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-produced-ovine-embryos
#20
P C Dos Santos-Neto, F Cuadro, N Barrera, M Crispo, A Menchaca
The objective was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and birth rate of in vivo derived vs. in vitro produced ovine embryos submitted to different cryopreservation methods. A total of 197 in vivo and 240 in vitro produced embryos were cryopreserved either by conventional freezing, or by vitrification with Cryotop or Spatula MVD methods on Day 6 after insemination/fertilization. After thawing/warming and transfer, embryo survival rate on Day 30 of gestation was affected by the source of the embryos (in vivo 53.3%, in vitro 20...
August 10, 2017: Cryobiology
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