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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161694/immunohistochemical-localization-of-darpp-32-in-the-brain-of-two-lungfishes-further-assessment-of-its-relationship-with-the-dopaminergic-system
#1
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The distribution of DARPP-32 (a phosphoprotein related to the dopamine D1 receptor) has been widely used as a means to clarify the brain regions with dopaminoceptive cells, primarily in representative species of tetrapods. The relationship between dopaminergic and dopaminoceptive elements is frequently analyzed using the catecholamine marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In the present study, by means of combined immunohistochemistry, we have analyzed these relationships in lungfishes, the only group of sarcopterygian fishes represented by 6 extant species that are the phylogenetically closest living relatives of tetrapods...
November 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130952/efferent-axonal-projections-of-the-habenular-complex-in-the-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#2
Frédéric Laberge, Allison Smith
The habenular complex and its associated axonal pathways are often thought of as phylogenetically conserved features of the brain among vertebrates despite the fact that detailed studies of this brain region are limited to a few species. Here, the gross morphology and axonal projection pattern of the habenular complex of an anuran amphibian, the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, was studied to allow comparison with the situation in other vertebrates. Axonal pathways were traced using biocytin applications in dissected brain preparations...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121095/the-pedunculopontine-tegmentum-controls-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-activities-in-nembutal-anesthetized-rats
#3
Anne M Fink, Caron Dean, Mariann R Piano, David W Carley
Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) accompanies a variety of complex disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Understanding pathophysiologic renal mechanisms is important for determining why hypertension is both a common sequelae and a predisposing factor of these disorders. The role of the brainstem in regulating RSNA remains incompletely understood. The pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) is known for regulating behaviors including alertness, locomotion, and rapid eye movement sleep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044516/gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-in-the-flatfish-solea-senegalensis-molecular-cloning-brain-localization-and-physiological-effects-%C3%A2
#4
María Aliaga-Guerrero, José A Paullada-Salmerón, Vanesa Piquer, Evaristo L Mañanós, José A Muñoz-Cueto
Recently, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has emerged as an important regulator of reproduction in birds and mammals. This RFamide neuropeptide has neuromodulatory functions and controls the synthesis and/or release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins. Although teleosts represent about half of all living vertebrates, scientific and technological advances on the Gnih system in fish are scarce, contradictory and inconclusive. Research on the fish Gnih system appears necessary to better clarify its role in the neuroendocrine and environmental control of vertebrate reproduction...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981733/prognostic-factors-for-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas-treated-with-high-dose-methotrexate-based-chemo-radiotherapy
#5
Jeunghun Lee, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kaori Suzuki, Saki Shimizu, Keiichi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kamma, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Motoo Nagane
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) remains an aggressive and refractory tumor despite high-dose methotrexate-based chemo-radiotherapy. Age and performance status have been shown to be important clinical prognostic factors, however others, especially molecular factors, affecting the prognosis are still uncertain. Methods: We investigate clinical, neuroimaging and immunohistochemical data in tissue from 41 PCNSL patients treated primarily with methotrexate-based chemo-radiotherapy and evaluate the influence of potential prognostic factors on clinical outcome as well as correlation among these factors...
October 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965668/hemorrhagic-infarct-of-basal-ganglia-in-cardiac-arrest-ct-and-mri-findings-2-cases
#6
Monique Boukobza, Frédéric J Baud
We report the CT and MRI findings in two cases of hemorrhagic infarct of the basal ganglia (BG), following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA). In case 1, Brain-CT realized at day 2 showed bilateral and almost symmetric hemorrhagic infarct of the BG and infarct of the tectum of the mesencephalon. In case 2, MRI realized at day 6 showed hemorrhagic infarct of both lenticular nuclei on T2 GE images. In both cases there was no medical history and the cardiovascular and the coagulation profile were normal. In these cases, the lesions are observed earlier than reported in a few previous radiological cases...
September 21, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959190/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-rem-sleep-homeostatic-drive-a-plausible-component-for-behavioral-plasticity
#7
Subimal Datta, Michael D Oliver
Homeostatic regulation of REM sleep drive, as measured by an increase in the number of REM sleep transitions, plays a key role in neuronal and behavioral plasticity (i.e., learning and memory). Deficits in REM sleep homeostatic drive (RSHD) are implicated in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this RSHD remain to be incomplete. To further our understanding of this mechanism, the current study was performed on freely moving rats to test a hypothesis that a positive interaction between extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) is a causal factor for the development of RSHD...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951832/advancing-functional-dysconnectivity-and-atrophy-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#8
Jesse A Brown, Alice Y Hua, Andrew Trujllo, Suneth Attygalle, Richard J Binney, Salvatore Spina, Suzee E Lee, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Adam L Boxer, William W Seeley
Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S) results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12) and healthy control subjects (n = 20) at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI) scans and clinical evaluations at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875540/the-physiological-motor-patterns-produced-by-neurons-in-the-nucleus-retroambiguus-in-the-rat-and-their-modulation-by-vagal-peripheral-chemosensory-and-nociceptive-stimulation
#9
Hari H Subramanian, Zheng-Gui Huang, Peter A Silburn, Ron J Balnave, Gert Holstege
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a neuronal cell group in the medullary ventrolateral tegmentum, rostrocaudally between the obex and the first cervical spinal segment. NRA neurons are premotor interneurons with direct projections to the motoneurons of soft palate, pharynx, and larynx in the nucleus ambiguus in the lateral medulla as well as to the motoneurons in the spinal cord innervating diaphragm, abdominal, and pelvic floor muscles and the lumbosacral motoneurons generating sexual posture. These NRA premotor interneurons receive very strong projections from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the context of basic survival mechanisms as fight, flight, freezing, sound production, and sexual behavior...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837419/impairments-in-laterodorsal-tegmentum-to-vta-projections-underlie-glucocorticoid-triggered-reward-deficits
#10
Bárbara Coimbra, Carina Soares-Cunha, Sónia Borges, Nivaldo Ap Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) activity is critical for reward/reinforcement and is tightly modulated by the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT). In utero exposure to glucocorticoids (iuGC) triggers prominent motivation deficits but nothing is known about the impact of this exposure in the LDT-VTA circuit. We show that iuGC-rats have long-lasting changes in cholinergic markers in the LDT, together with a decrease in LDT basal neuronal activity. Interestingly, upon LDT stimulation, iuGC animals present a decrease in the magnitude of excitation and an increase in VTA inhibition, as a result of a shift in the type of cells that respond to the stimulus...
August 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821646/location-of-the-mesopontine-neurons-responsible-for-maintenance-of-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness
#11
Anne Minert, Shai-Lee Yatziv, Marshall Devor
The transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia is widely attributed to suppressive actions of anesthetic molecules distributed by the systemic circulation to the cerebral cortex (for amnesia and loss of consciousness) and to the spinal cord (for atonia and antinociception). An alternative hypothesis proposes that anesthetics act on one or more brainstem or diencephalic nuclei, with suppression of cortex and spinal cord mediated by dedicated axonal pathways. Previously, we documented induction of an anesthesia-like state in rats by microinjection of small amounts of GABAA-receptor agonists into an upper brainstem region named the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819079/-an-adult-case-of-enterovirus-d68-encephalomyelitis-presenting-as-bilateral-facial-nerve-palsy-and-dysphagia
#12
Yuta Kusabe, Akari Takeshima, Azusa Seino, Mana Nishida, Mami Takahashi, Shota Yamada, Junsuke Shimbo, Aki Sato, Kouichirou Okamoto, Shuichi Igarashi
A 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with bilateral facial nerve paralysis, dysphagia, and muscle weakness in the neck and trunk following fever, headache and throat pain. T<sub>2</sub>-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense lesions in the tegmentum of the brain stem and the ventral region of the superior cervical cord. Based on the characteristic findings on the brain MRI, we diagnosed the patient with enteroviral encephalomyelitis. Steroid therapy was administered; however, his bilateral facial nerve paralysis and dysphagia were refractory to this therapy...
August 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719580/central-insulin-modulates-food-valuation-via-mesolimbic-pathways
#13
Lena J Tiedemann, Sebastian M Schmid, Judith Hettel, Katrin Giesen, Paul Francke, Christian Büchel, Stefanie Brassen
Central insulin is thought to act at the neural interface between metabolic and hedonic drives to eat. Here, using pharmacological fMRI, we show that intranasal insulin (INI) changes the value of food cues through modulation of mesolimbic pathways. Overnight fasted participants rated the palatability of food pictures and attractiveness of non-food items (control) after receiving INI or placebo. We report that INI reduces ratings of food palatability and value signals in mesolimbic regions in individuals with normal insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717604/central-vestibular-syndrome-in-a-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-with-presumptive-right-caudal-cerebral-artery-ischemic-infarct-and-prevalent-midbrain-involvement
#14
Mario Ricciardi, Floriana Gernone, Antonio De Simone, Pasquale Giannuzzi
A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714952/a-circuit-based-mechanism-underlying-familiarity-signaling-and-the-preference-for-novelty
#15
Susanna Molas, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Liwang Liu, Steven R DeGroot, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper
Novelty preference (NP) is an evolutionarily conserved, essential survival mechanism often dysregulated in neuropsychiatric disorders. NP is mediated by a motivational dopamine signal that increases in response to novel stimuli, thereby driving exploration. However, the mechanism by which once-novel stimuli transition to familiar stimuli is unknown. Here we describe a neuroanatomical substrate for familiarity signaling, the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain, which is activated as novel stimuli become familiar with multiple exposures...
September 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689259/differential-diagnosis-of-parkinsonism-by-a-combined-use-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-and-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#16
Kenji Ito, Chigumi Ohtsuka, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Hiroyuki Kameda, Suguru Yokosawa, Ryota Sato, Yasuo Terayama, Makoto Sasaki
PURPOSE: We investigated whether diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) could detect pathological changes that occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) or predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C), and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) and thus be used for differential diagnosis that is often difficult. METHODS: Seventy patients (41 with PD, 6 with MSA-P, 7 with MSA-C, 16 with PSPS) and 20 healthy controls were examined using a 3...
August 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655610/neuropeptide-s-nps-is-a-neuropeptide-with-cellular-actions-in-arousal-and-anxiety-related-nuclei-functional-implications-for-effects-of-nps-on-wakefulness-and-mood
#17
Vincenzo Roncacè, Filip Souza Polli, Minella Zojicic, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a peptide recently recognized to be present in the CNS, and believed to play a role in vigilance and mood control, as behavioral studies have shown it promotes arousal and has an anxiolytic effect. Although NPS precursor is found in very few neurons, NPS positive fibers are present throughout the brain stem. Given the behavioral actions of this peptide and the wide innervation pattern, we examined the cellular effects of NPS within two brain stem nuclei known to play a critical role in anxiety and arousal: the dorsal raphe (DR) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT)...
June 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649777/organization-of-the-catecholaminergic-systems-in-the-brain-of-lungfishes-the-closest-living-relatives-of-terrestrial-vertebrates
#18
Jesús M López, Agustín González
Lungfishes are a group of sarcopterygian fishes currently considered the closest living relatives of tetrapods, and represent an interesting group for the study of evolutionary traits in the transition from fishes to tetrapods. Catecholaminergic systems in the brain are among the most carefully analyzed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of most vertebrate groups. Their organization shows major shared characteristics, although traits particular to each vertebrate class have also been found, primarily between anamniotes and amniotes...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585699/impact-of-ageing-on-postsynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-neurotransmission-in-auditory-thalamus
#19
Sarah Y Sottile, Lynne Ling, Brandon C Cox, Donald M Caspary
KEY POINTS: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a fundamental role in the attentional circuitry throughout the mammalian CNS. In the present study, we report a novel finding that ageing negatively impacts nAChR efficacy in auditory thalamus, and this is probably the result of a loss of nAChR density (Bmax ) and changes in the subunit composition of nAChRs. Our data support the hypothesis that age-related maladaptive changes involving nAChRs within thalamocortical circuits partially underpin the difficulty that elderly adults experience with respect to attending to speech and other salient acoustic signals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552601/habenula-and-interpeduncular-nucleus-differentially-modulate-predator-odor-induced-innate-fear-behavior-in-rats
#20
Daniel Vincenz, Kerstin E A Wernecke, Markus Fendt, Jürgen Goldschmidt
Fear is an important behavioral system helping humans and animals to survive potentially dangerous situations. Fear can be innate or learned. Whereas the neural circuits underlying learned fear are already well investigated, the knowledge about the circuits mediating innate fear is still limited. We here used a novel, unbiased approach to image in vivo the spatial patterns of neural activity in odor-induced innate fear behavior in rats. We intravenously injected awake unrestrained rats with a 99m-technetium labeled blood flow tracer (99mTc-HMPAO) during ongoing exposure to fox urine or water as control, and mapped the brain distribution of the trapped tracer using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
May 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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