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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427932/reciprocal-changes-in-noradrenaline-and-gaba-levels-in-discrete-brain-regions-upon-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#1
Rachna Mehta, Sudhuman Singh, Mudasir Ahmad Khanday, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays important role in maintenance of normal brain functions. Neurons containing various neurotransmitters in different brain regions interact to regulate this complex phenomenon in health and diseases. The number of neuronal projections, their firing rates and neurotransmitter levels vary in different brain regions under various conditions leading to normal or altered patho-physio-behavioral states. In this study using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) we quantified noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), frontal lobe (FL), cortex and hippocampus (Hippo) in control and after 96h REMS deprivation (REMSD) rats...
April 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404451/anandamide-and-2-ag-are-endogenously-present-within-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-functional-implications-for-a-role-of-ecbs-in-arousal
#2
Neeraj Soni, Bala Krishna Prabhala, Ved Mehta, Osman Mirza, Kristi Anne Kohlmeier
Previously, we presented electrophysiological evidence for presence in mice brain slices of functional cannabinoid type I receptors (CB1Rs) within the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT), a brain stem nucleus critical in control of arousal and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Further, using pharmacological agents, we provided data suggestive of the endogenous presence of cannabinoids (CBs) acting at LDT CB1Rs. However, in those studies, we were unable to identify the type(s) of CB ligands endogenously present in the LDT, and this information has not been provided elsewhere...
April 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397579/secondary-paroxysmal-dyskinesia-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-radiological-features-and-treatment-case-report-of-seven-patients
#3
Ethel Ciampi, Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Jaime Godoy-Santín, Juan Pablo Cruz, Claudia Cárcamo-Rodríguez, Carlos Juri
Secondary paroxysmal dyskinesias (SPDs) are short, episodic, and recurrent movement disorders, classically related to multiple sclerosis (MS). Carbamazepine is effective, but with risk of adverse reactions. We identified 7 patients with SPD among 457 MS patients (1.53%). SPD occurred in face ( n = 1), leg ( n = 2), or arm +leg ( n = 4) several times during the day. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new or enhancing lesions in thalamus ( n = 1), mesencephalic tegmentum ( n = 1), and cerebellar peduncles ( n = 5)...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396290/neuroanatomical-demonstration-of-calbindin-2a-and-calbindin-2b-like-calcium-binding-proteins-in-the-early-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish-mrna-study
#4
Rahul C Bhoyar, Arun G Jadhao, Sridhar Sivasubbu, A R Singh, Ankit Sabharwal, Nikhil V Palande, Saikat Biswas
Certain calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) are essential for metabolic processes but the role of these proteins in the development is not well known. We have investigated the mRNA expression of CaBPs, calbindin 2a (Calb2a) and calbindin 2b (Calb2b) in the zebrafish embryos 24, 36, 48 and 72hour post fertilization (hpf). We have seen very high Calb2a mRNA expression in the tegmentum (Tg), midbrain-hindbrain boundary (Mhb), hindbrain (Hb), spinal cord (Sc), retina and cranial ganglion (Crg). Also very high Calb2b mRNA expression was noted in olfactory cells, cerebellum, Tg, Mhb, Hb, optic tectum, retina, retinal ganglion cell layer, retinal inner nuclear layer, Sc, Neural crest, infraorbital neuromasts, pharyngeal arch 3-7 skeleton and mandibular neuromasts...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324264/reverse-locked-in-syndrome
#5
Pooja Raibagkar, Ram V Chavali, Tamara B Kaplan, Jennifer A Kim, Meaghan V Nitka, Sherry H-Y Chou, Brian L Edlow
BACKGROUND: Basilar artery occlusion can cause locked-in syndrome, which is characterized by quadriplegia, anarthria, and limited communication via eye movements. Here, we describe an uncommon stroke syndrome associated with endovascular recanalization of the top of the basilar artery: "reverse locked-in syndrome." METHODS: We report the case of a patient with atypical neurological deficits caused by acute ischemic stroke of the midbrain tegmentum. We perform neuroanatomic localization of the patient's infarcts by mapping the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data onto a brainstem atlas...
March 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300657/expression-patterns-of-prune2-is-regulated-by-notch-and-retinoic-acid-signaling-pathways-in-the-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#6
Mrudhula Anuppalle, Sateesh Maddirevula, Ajeet Kumar, Tae-Lin Huh, Joonho Choe, Myungchull Rhee
PRUNE2 has been identified as a susceptible gene for Alzheimer's disease and a marker for leiomyosarcomas. Isoforms of Prune2 regulate neuronal cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. Although expression pattern of Prune2 has been reported in the murine brain, its expression patterns and regulation along vertebrate embryogenesis remain to be further investigated. We thus defined the expression profiles and transcriptional regulation of prune2 in zebrafish embryos. prune2 exhibits maternal expression, but is increased in later embryonic stages, and expressed in the telencephalon, epiphysis cluster, nucleus of the tract of the post optic commissure, spinal cord, cerebellum, tegmentum, anterior lateral line ganglion, posterior lateral line ganglion and rhombomeres 2 through 5...
January 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#7
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
March 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241131/ontogenetic-shifts-in-brain-organization-in-the-bluespotted-stingray-neotrygon-kuhlii-chondrichthyes-dasyatidae
#8
Thomas J Lisney, Kara E Yopak, Victoria Camilieri-Asch, Shaun P Collin
Fishes exhibit lifelong neurogenesis and continual brain growth. One consequence of this continual growth is that the nervous system has the potential to respond with enhanced plasticity to changes in ecological conditions that occur during ontogeny. The life histories of many teleost fishes are composed of a series of distinct stages that are characterized by shifts in diet, habitat, and behavior. In many cases, these shifts correlate with changes in overall brain growth and brain organization, possibly reflecting the relative importance of different senses and locomotor performance imposed by the new ecological niches they encounter throughout life...
February 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239323/metronidazole-induced-encephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease
#9
Jihye Kim, Jaeyoung Chun, Jae Yong Park, Seung Wook Hong, Joo Young Lee, Jin Woo Kang, Seongjun Hwang, Sang-Bae Ko, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim
Metronidazole is a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIEP) is a rare but potentially reversible disease. The mechanism of MIEP remains unclear, and differences in the neurotoxic effects of oral versus intravenous (IV) metronidazole administration have not yet been determined. We report the case of a Crohn's disease (CD) patient who experienced encephalopathy immediately after a single IV dose of metronidazole following long-term exposure to the oral form of the drug...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230253/risk-of-vigabatrin-associated-brain-abnormalities-on-mri-in-the-treatment-of-infantile-spasms-is-dose-dependent
#10
Shaun A Hussain, Jackie Tsao, Menglu Li, Madeline D Schwarz, Raymond Zhou, Joyce Y Wu, Noriko Salamon, Raman Sankar
OBJECTIVE: Although the link between vigabatrin (VGB) and retinotoxicity is well known, little attention has been focused on the risk of VGB-associated brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (VABAM), namely reversible-and largely asymptomatic-signal changes in the thalami, basal ganglia, brainstem tegmentum, and cerebellar nuclei. Using a large infantile spasms cohort, we set out to identify predictors of these phenomena. METHODS: Children with infantile spasms were retrospectively identified...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215246/regional-gray-matter-changes-in-shift-workers-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#11
Jung Bin Kim, Ji Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous neuroimaging studies have shown subtle structural changes of the brain in various sleep disorders, suggesting detrimental effects of disrupted sleep-wake cycle on brain structures. We aimed to identify structural changes in shift workers relative to day workers. We hypothesized that brain structures belonging to sleep-wake modulation may be altered in shift workers. METHODS: Nineteen male shift workers (median age, 21 years) and 19 male day workers (median age, 21 years) voluntarily participated in the current study...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187408/analysis-of-differential-gene-expression-by-rna-seq-data-in-brain-areas-of-laboratory-animals
#12
Vladimir N Babenko, Anatoly O Bragin, Anastasia M Spitsina, Irina V Chadaeva, Elvira R Galieva, Galina V Orlova, Irina V Medvedeva, Yuriy L Orlov
Computer analysis of gene expression in the nervous system plays a fundamental role in biology, genetics, and neurosciences. We studied molecular and genetic mechanisms of enhanced aggressiveness in comparison with tolerant behaviour using experimental animal models developed at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS. Grey rats (Rattus norvegicus) have been subjected to selection during several generations in two directions – friendly, tolerant behaviour towards man (tame grey rats) and increased aggressive behaviour...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122575/drug-induced-parkinson-s-disease-modulates-protein-kinase-a-and-olfactory-marker-protein-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#13
Carla Mucignat, Antonio Caretta
BACKGROUND: Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice. FINDINGS: Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and exploratory behavior. Brains and olfactory mucosa were investigated via immunohistochemistry for thyrosine hydroxylase, Olfactory Marker Protein and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as an intracellular pathway involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission...
January 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122432/functional-neuroanatomy-for-posture-and-gait-control
#14
REVIEW
Kaoru Takakusaki
Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115218/contrasting-effects-of-5-ht3-receptor-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-or-ventral-tegmentum-on-food-intake-in-the-rat
#15
Wayne E Pratt, Peagan Lin, Zachary Pierce-Messick, Adeolu O Ilesanmi, Kara A Clissold
Although serotonin (5-HT) signaling is known to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis, the roles of the 5-HT3 receptor in feeding processes have been elusive. 5-HT3 receptors are found throughout mesolimbic circuitry that promote feeding not only in response to hunger, but also to the palatable and rewarding properties of food. These experiments examined if stimulation or blockade of the 5-HT3 receptor of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or ventral tegmentum affected food intake in the rat in response to hunger or the presence of a palatable diet...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077908/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-case-of-central-neurocytoma
#16
Kreshnike Dedushi, Serbeze Kabashi, Mehmet Sahin Ugurel, Naser Ramadani, Sefedin Mucaj, Kamber Zeqiraj
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI features of central neurocytoma. CASE REPORT: A 45 year old man with 3 months of worsening daily headaches. These headaches were diffuse, lasted for several hours, and mostly occurred in the morning. She was initially diagnosed and treated for migraines but later he had epileptic attack and diplopia and neurolog recomaded MRI. METHODS: precontrast MRI; TSE/T2Wsequence in axial/coronal planes; 3D-Hi-resolution T1W sagittal; FLAIR/T2W axial; FLAIR/T2W and Flash/T2W oblique coronal plane (perpendicular to temporal lobes) GRE/T2W axial plane for detection of heme products...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053043/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#17
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031220/pathological-ponto-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-activations-in-primary-orthostatic-tremor-during-lying-and-stance
#18
Florian Schöberl, Katharina Feil, Guoming Xiong, Peter Bartenstein, Christian la Fougére, Klaus Jahn, Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Marianne Dieterich, Andreas Zwergal
Primary orthostatic tremor is a rare neurological disease characterized mainly by a high frequency tremor of the legs while standing. The aim of this study was to identify the common core structures of the oscillatory circuit in orthostatic tremor and how it is modulated by changes of body position. Ten patients with orthostatic tremor and 10 healthy age-matched control subjects underwent a standardized neurological and neuro-ophthalmological examination including electromyographic and posturographic recordings...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010956/central-tegmentum-tract-hyperintensities-in-pediatric-neurological-patients-incidence-or-coincidence
#19
Uğur Işık, Alp Dinçer
AIM: The central tegmental tract hyperintensities (CTTH) have been found in many different pediatric neurological conditions. There is only scarce data about the value of this radiological phenomenon. In this study we aimed to show the neurological conditions associated with this radiological finding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all pediatric brain MRI's between 2013 and 2015. After finding those patients with CTTH, we evaluated them in the pediatric neurology clinic...
May 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978801/visual-sexual-stimulation-and-erection-a-brief-review-with-new-fmri-data
#20
Sharon L Wu, Maggie Sm Chow, Y L Jiang, Jingjin Yang, Hao Zhou, David T Yew
This review examines brain sites involved in sexual stimulation. New data on brain activation sites in individuals having erections concomitant with visual erotic stimulation was documented. The activation was chiefly at the midbrain around the cerebral peduncle, and in the pons centering on the tegmentum, they are indicated by blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) images captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The cerebellum and inferior temporal lobe were activated more extensively in individuals viewing pornographic movie with a concomitant erection than those without...
December 12, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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