Read by QxMD icon Read


Viviane Wilms, Christine Köppl, Chris Söffgen, Anna-Maria Hartmann, Hans Gerd Nothwang
In the cochlea, mammals maintain a uniquely high endolymphatic potential (EP), which is not observed in other vertebrate groups. However, a high [K(+)] is always present in the inner ear endolymph. Here, we show that Kir4.1, which is required in the mammalian stria vascularis to generate the highly positive EP, is absent in the functionally equivalent avian tegmentum vasculosum. In contrast, the molecular repertoire required for K(+) secretion, specifically NKCC1, KCNQ1, KCNE1, BSND and CLC-K, is shared between the tegmentum vasculosum, the vestibular dark cells and the marginal cells of the stria vascularis...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Georgios Koutsis, Panagiotis Kokotis, Aikaterini E Papagianni, Maria-Eleftheria Evangelopoulos, Constantinos Kilidireas, Nikolaos Karandreas
OBJECTIVE: To integrate neurophysiological findings with clinical and imaging data in a consecutive series of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients developing facial numbness during the course of an MS attack. METHODS: Nine consecutive patients with MS and recent-onset facial numbness were studied clinically, imaged with routine MRI, and assessed neurophysiologically with trigeminal somatosensory evoked potential (TSEP), blink reflex (BR), masseter reflex (MR), facial nerve conduction, facial muscle and masseter EMG studies...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Junko Kono, Kohtarou Konno, Ashraf Hossain Talukder, Toshimitsu Fuse, Manabu Abe, Katsuya Uchida, Shuhei Horio, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Keiichi Itoi
We examined the morphological features of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in a mouse line in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was expressed under the CRF promoter. We previously generated the CRF-Venus knock-in mouse, in which Venus is inserted into the CRF gene locus by homologous recombination. In the present study, the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (Neo), driven by the pgk-1 promoter, was deleted from the CRF-Venus mouse genome, and a CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse was generated. Venus expression is much more prominent in the CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse when compared to the CRF-Venus mouse...
September 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Jia Mei Hong, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Mitchell K P Lai, Gavin S Dawe
Relaxin-3 has been proposed to modulate emotional-behavioural functions such as arousal and behavioural activation, appetite regulation, stress responses, anxiety, memory, sleep and circadian rhythm. The nucleus incertus (NI), in the midline tegmentum close to the fourth ventricle, projects widely throughout the brain and is the primary site of relaxin-3 neurons. Over recent years, a number of preclinical studies have explored the function of the NI and relaxin-3 signalling, including reports of mRNA or peptide expression changes in the NI in response to behavioural or pharmacological manipulations, effects of lesions or electrical or pharmacological manipulations of the NI, effects of central microinfusions of relaxin-3 or related agonist or antagonist ligands on physiology and behaviour, and the impact of relaxin-3 gene deletion or knockdown...
September 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Lidia Sabater, Jesús Planagumà, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against IgLON5, a neuronal adhesion protein of unknown function, are markers of a novel neurological disorder termed anti-IgLON5 syndrome. The disorder shows a remarkable association with the HLA-DQB1*0501 and HLA-DRB1*1001 alleles, and postmortem studies demonstrate a novel neuronal tauopathy predominantly involving the hypothalamus and tegmentum of the brainstem. The role of IgLON5 antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease is currently unknown. Here, we have determined the target epitopes of IgLON5 antibodies, the effects of the IgLON5 antibodies in rat hippocampal neurons, and the IgG subclass responsible for these effects...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mallory N Locklear, Michalis Michealos, William F Collins, Mary F Kritzer
The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems regulate cognitive and motivational processes and are strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders in which these processes are disturbed. Sex differences and sex hormone modulation are also known for these dopamine-sensitive behaviors in health and disease. One relevant mechanism of hormone impact appears to be regulation of cortical and subcortical dopamine levels. This study asked whether this regulation of dopamine tone is a consequence of sex or sex hormone impact on the firing modes of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Leona Möller, Martin Südmeyer, Rüdiger Hilker, Elke Hattingen, Karl Egger, Florian Amtage, Gesine Respondek, Maria Stamelou, Alfons Schnitzler, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Wolfgang H Oertel, Susanne Knake, Jan Kassubek, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes is still challenging. OBJECTIVES: A fully automated method for quantitative MRI analysis using atlas-based volumetry combined with support vector machine classification was evaluated for differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes in a multicenter study. METHODS: Atlas-based volumetry was performed on MRI data of healthy controls (n = 73) and patients with PD (204), PSP with Richardson's syndrome phenotype (106), MSA of the cerebellar type (21), and MSA of the Parkinsonian type (60), acquired on different scanners...
October 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Lin Zhang, Yixin Xu, Jianhua Zhuang, Hua Peng, Huijuan Wu, Zhengqing Zhao, Bin He, Zhongxin Zhao
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the metabolism differences in pontine tegmentum among patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), secondary RBD (sRBD) and healthy control groups using magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and whether metabolic changes are correlated with age in patients with RBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The iRBD, sRBD, and control groups were composed of 18, 26, and 29 patients, respectively. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (1)H-MRS detection at 17:00 for approximately 15min...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Wayne E Pratt, Kara A Clissold, Peagan Lin, Amanda E Cain, Alexa F Ciesinski, Thomas R Hopkins, Adeolu O Ilesanmi, Erin A Kelly, Zachary Pierce-Messick, Daniel S Powell, Ian A Rosner
Central serotonin (5-HT) pathways are known to influence feeding and other ingestive behaviors. Although the ventral tegmentum is important for promoting the seeking and consumption of food and drugs of abuse, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this region on food intake have yet to be comprehensively examined. In these experiments, food restricted rats were given 2-h access to rat chow; separate groups of non-restricted animals had similar access to a sweetened fat diet. Feeding and locomotor activity were monitored following ventral tegmentum stimulation or blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT2C receptors...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Ellen Gelpi, Romana Höftberger, Francesc Graus, Helen Ling, Janice L Holton, Timothy Dawson, Mara Popovic, Janja Pretnar-Oblak, Birgit Högl, Erich Schmutzhard, Werner Poewe, Gerda Ricken, Joan Santamaria, Josep Dalmau, Herbert Budka, Tamas Revesz, Gabor G Kovacs
We recently reported a novel neurological syndrome characterized by a unique NREM and REM parasomnia with sleep apnea and stridor, accompanied by bulbar dysfunction and specific association with antibodies against the neuronal cell-adhesion protein IgLON5. All patients had the HLA-DRB1*1001 and HLA-DQB1*0501 alleles. Neuropathological findings in two patients revealed a novel tauopathy restricted to neurons and predominantly involving the hypothalamus and tegmentum of the brainstem. The aim of the current study is to describe the neuropathological features of the anti-IgLON5 syndrome and to provide diagnostic levels of certainty based on the presence of associated clinical and immunological data...
October 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund, Marianne Lannsjö, Timothy Howells, Raili Raininko, Johan Wikström, Per Enblad
Clinical outcome after traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is difficult to predict. In this study, three MRI sequences were used to quantify the anatomical distribution of lesions, to grade DAI according to Adams' grading system and to evaluate the value of lesion localization in combination with clinical prognostic factors to improve outcome prediction. Thirty patients (mean 31.2 years +/- 14.3 SD) with severe DAI (Glasgow motor score (GMS) < 6) examined with MRI within one week post-injury were included...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Matthew R B Evans, Robert A Weeks
The anatomical localisation of brainstem syndromes is the domain of the clinical neurologist, though MRI has made an encyclopaedic knowledge of neuroanatomy less crucial. Isolated pontine syndromes comprise ∼20% of the brainstem lacunar syndromes. Typical presentations such as pure motor hemiparesis and ataxic hemiparesis are easily recognisable but atypical syndromes, particularly when bilateral, may present with puzzling signs. We discuss a patient with an unusual acute bilateral brainstem syndrome, in whom MRI was contraindicated...
June 27, 2016: Practical Neurology
Eunmi Kim, Inyoung Jeong, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Boa Kim, Jae Young Seong, Young-Ki Bae, Jae-Ho Ryu, Hae-Chul Park
Galanin is a multifunctional neuropeptide that is implicated in the modulation of physiological processes, including nociception, cognition, feeding behavior, neuronal growth, and reproduction. The physiological effects of galanin are mediated through its interaction with three different G protein-coupled receptors, i.e., GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. Unlike mammals, zebrafish have four different receptors for galanin, diversified from GALR1 (GAL1a and GALR1b) and GALR2 (GALR2a and GALR2b). Despite the importance of galanin in the central nervous system (CNS), no information has been reported regarding GalR2 in zebrafish CNS...
August 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Kiyohide Usami, Riki Matsumoto, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Hiroatsu Murakami, Morito Inouchi, Tomoyuki Fumuro, Akihiro Shimotake, Takeo Kato, Tatsuya Mima, Hiroshi Shirozu, Hiroshi Masuda, Hidenao Fukuyama, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shigeki Kameyama, Akio Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the brain networks involved in epileptogenesis/encephalopathy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) by EEG with functional MRI (EEG-fMRI), and evaluate its efficacy in locating the HH interface in comparison with subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM). METHODS: Eight HH patients underwent EEG-fMRI. All had gelastic seizures (GS) and 7 developed other seizure types. Using a general linear model, spike-related activation/deactivation was analyzed individually by applying a hemodynamic response function before, at, and after spike onset (time-shift model=-8-+4s)...
September 2016: Epilepsy Research
José R L P Cavalcanti, André L B Pontes, Felipe P Fiuza, Kayo D A Silva, Fausto P Guzen, Eudes E S Lucena, Expedito S Nascimento-Júnior, Judney C Cavalcante, Miriam S M O Costa, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Jeferson S Cavalcante
It is widely known that the catecholamine group is formed by dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. Its synthesis is regulated by the enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase. 3-hydroxytyramine/dopamine (DA) is a precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline synthesis and acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The three main nuclei, being the retrorubral field (A8 group), the substantia nigra pars compacta (A9 group) and the ventral tegmental area (A10 group), are arranged in the die-mesencephalic portion and are involved in three complex circuitries - the mesostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Soufiane Boucetta, Ali Salimi, Mahsa Dadar, Barbara E Jones, D Louis Collins, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hongbin Yang, Junhua Yang, Wang Xi, Sijia Hao, Benyan Luo, Xiaobin He, Liya Zhu, Huifang Lou, Yan-Qin Yu, Fuqiang Xu, Shumin Duan, Hao Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Hendrik Strumpf, Toemme Noesselt, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld, Jürgen Voges, Patricia Panther, Joern Kaufmann, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Jens-Max Hopf
The parapontine nucleus of the thalamus (PPN) is a neuromodulatory midbrain structure with widespread connectivity to cortical and subcortical motor structures, as well as the spinal cord. The PPN also projects to the thalamus, including visual relay nuclei like the LGN and the pulvinar. Moreover, there is intense connectivity with sensory structures of the tegmentum in particular with the superior colliculus (SC). Given the existence and abundance of projections to visual sensory structures, it is likely that activity in the PPN has some modulatory influence on visual sensory selection...
2016: PloS One
Héctor Albert-Gascó, Álvaro García-Avilés, Salma Moustafa, Sandra Sánchez-Sarasua, Andrew L Gundlach, Francisco E Olucha-Bordonau, Ana M Sánchez-Pérez
The medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DB) is a relay region connecting the hypothalamus and brainstem with the hippocampus, and both the MS/DB and dorsal/ventral hippocampus receive strong topographic GABA/peptidergic projections from the nucleus incertus of the pontine tegmentum. The neuropeptide relaxin-3, released by these neurons, is the cognate ligand for a Gi/o-protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, which is highly expressed within the MS/DB, and both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in this region of rat brain receive relaxin-3 positive terminals/boutons...
May 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Juliana Voll, Rui Campos
Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle...
August 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"