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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775567/characterization-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-system-in-the-neotropical-teleost-steindachneridion-parahybae-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-in-captivity
#1
Renato Massaaki Honji, Danilo Caneppele, Matias Pandolfi, Fabiana Laura Lo Nostro, Renata Guimarães Moreira
This study evaluated by immunohistochemical and western blot methods, the distribution of two distinct gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), corresponding to catfish GnRH (cfGnRH or GnRH1) and chicken-II GnRH (cGnRH-II or GnRH2), in Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, focusing these analyses on the reproductive cycle by semi-quantification of optical density (OD). Further, we found that the GnRH neuronal systems co-localized with their respective GnRH-associated peptides (GAPs). A group of neurons immunoreactive (ir) to GnRH1 were identified along the ventral region of the olfactory bulb (vOB) in the telencephalon (vTel) and in the main areas of the diencephalon (especially the medial basal hypothalamus, HBM), including fibers extending into the pituitary gland...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751228/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-alters-postsynaptic-ampa-receptors-and-glutamate-neurotransmission-within-the-laterodorsal-tegmentum-ldt-of-juvenile-mice
#3
Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Despite dissemination of information regarding the harm on fetal development of smoking while pregnant, the number of pregnancies associated with nicotine exposure appears to have stagnated. Presence of nicotine during neural formulation is associated with a higher susceptibility of drug dependence, suggesting an altered development of neurons in circuits involved in saliency and motivation. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) plays a role in coding stimuli valence via afferents to mesolimbic nuclei. Accordingly, alterations in development of neural mechanisms in the LDT could be involved in vulnerability to drug dependency...
April 25, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750732/the-patchy-tremor-landscape-recent-advances-in-pathophysiology
#4
Freek Nieuwhof, Pattamon Panyakaew, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Cecile Gallea, Rick C Helmich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on new insights in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease tremor, essential tremor, tremor in dystonia, and orthostatic tremor. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging findings suggest that Parkinson's disease resting tremor is associated with dopaminergic dysfunction, serotonergic dysfunction, or both. Not all tremors in Parkinson's disease have the same pathophysiology: postural tremor in Parkinson's disease can be subdivided into pure postural tremor, which involves nondopaminergic mechanisms, and re-emergent tremor, which has a dopaminergic basis...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722152/modulation-of-forebrain-function-by-nucleus-incertus-and-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Francisco E Olucha-Bordonau, Héctor Albert-Gascó, Francisco Ros-Bernal, Valeria Rytova, Emma K E Ong-Pålsson, Sherie Ma, Ana M Sánchez-Pérez, Andrew L Gundlach
The nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum sends ascending projections to the midbrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, basal forebrain, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, and has a postulated role in modulating several forebrain functions. A substantial population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the neuropeptide, relaxin-3, which acts via the Gi/o -protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, present throughout the forebrain target regions. Broad and specific manipulations of these systems by activation or inhibition of the NI or modulating RXFP3 signaling have revealed key insights into the likely influence of the NI/relaxin-3/RXFP3 system on modalities including arousal, feeding, stress responses, anxiety and addiction, and attention and memory...
May 2, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718741/high-throughput-behavioral-assay-to-investigate-seizure-sensitivity-in-zebrafish-implicates-zfhx3-in-epilepsy
#6
Tyson D Fuller, Trudi A Westfall, Tirthasree Das, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Epilepsy, which affects ∼1% of the population, is caused by abnormal synchronous neural activity in the central nervous system (CNS). While there is a significant genetic contribution to epilepsy, the underlying causes for the majority of genetic cases remain unknown. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Project (UDP) utilized exome sequencing to identify genetic variants in patients affected by various conditions with undefined etiology, including epilepsy. Confirming the functional relevance of the candidate genes identified by exome sequencing in a timely manner is crucial to translating exome data into clinically useful information...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692521/clinicoradiological-aspects-of-pontine-tegmental-cap-dysplasia-case-report-of-a-rare-hindbrain-malformation
#7
Aanchal Bhayana, Sunil K Bajaj, Ritu N Misra, S Senthil Kumaran
Malformations involving the brainstem are very rare and present with a varied spectrum of clinical symptoms due to multiple cranial nerve palsies and pyramidal tract involvement. Of these, pontine tegmental cap dysplasia is a very unusual malformation, characterized by ventral pons hypoplasia and an ectopic dorsal band of tissue, projecting into the fourth ventricle, from dorsal pontine tegmentum. A 4-year-old male child, presenting with left facial nerve palsy, revealed hypoplastic ventral pons and an ectopic structure on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656986/eight-and-a-half-syndrome-a-combination-of-intracranial-capillary-telangiectasia-and-hematencephalon
#8
Wei Li, Deren Hou, Yanyao Deng, Yi Tian
Eight-and-a-half syndrome, a combination of one-and-a-half syndrome and ipsilateral facial palsy, was first described by Eggenberger in 1998. Intracranial capillary telangiectasia (ICT) is a rare type of latent cerebral vascular malformation characterized by a number of small, dilated, and thin-walled blood capillaries with normal brain tissues between them. Susceptibility weighted imaging is the recommended diagnostic method to detect ICT. Oommen once reported 1 case about pontine hemorrhage causing Fisher one-and-a-half syndrome with facial paralysis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608536/eight-syndrome-horizontal-gaze-palsy-plus-ipsilateral-seventh-nerve-palsy
#9
Kemar E Green, David P W Rastall, Eric R Eggenberger
A 62-year-old woman developed a right horizontal gaze palsy and ipsilateral facial nerve palsy due to a right pontine tegmentum infarct. This constitutes a forme fruste of the eight-and-a-half syndrome that we have termed the eight syndrome.
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574885/cholinergic-innervation-of-principal-neurons-in-the-cochlear-nucleus-of-the-mongolian-gerbil
#10
Charlene Gillet, David Goyer, Stefanie Kurth, Hannah Griebel, Thomas Kuenzel
Principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) receive powerful ascending excitation and pass on the auditory information with exquisite temporal fidelity. Despite being dominated by ascending inputs, the VCN also receives descending cholinergic connections from olivocochlear neurons and from higher regions in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum. In Mongolian gerbils acetylcholine acts as an excitatory and modulatory neurotransmitter on VCN neurons, but the anatomical structure of cholinergic innervation of gerbil VCN is not well described...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571861/a-diagnostic-decision-tree-for-adult-cerebellar-ataxia-based-on-pontine-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Miwa Higashi, Kokoro Ozaki, Takaaki Hattori, Takashi Ishii, Kazumasa Soga, Nozomu Sato, Makoto Tomita, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Kinya Ishikawa, Takanori Yokota
Cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are heterogeneous conditions often require differential diagnosis. This study aimed to establish a diagnostic decision tree for differentiating CAs based on pontine MRI findings. Two-hundred and two consecutive ataxia patients were clinically classified into 4 groups: (1) spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) with brainstem involvement (SCA-BSI), (2) Pure cerebellar SCA, (3) cerebellar dominant multiple system atrophy (MSA-c), and (4) Other CA. Signal intensity in pons was graded into 3 types: hot cross bun sign (HCBS), pontine midline linear T2-hyperintensity (PMH), or normal...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549469/why-acute-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-lesions-rarely-manifest-with-rotational-vertigo-a-clinical-and-modelling-approach-to-head-direction-cell-function
#12
Marianne Dieterich, Stefan Glasauer, Thomas Brandt
A retrospective clinical study focused on the frequency of rotational vertigo in 63 patients with acute unilateral midbrain strokes involving the vestibular and ocular motor systems. In contrast to unilateral pontomedullary brainstem lesions, rotational vertigo in midbrain lesions occurred with a low frequency (14%) and transient (< 1 day) course. Swaying vertigo or unspecific dizziness (22%) and postural imbalance (31%) were more frequent. Midbrain strokes with transient rotational vertigo manifested with lesions chiefly in the caudal midbrain tegmentum, while manifestations with swaying, unspecific, or no vertigo chiefly occurred in rostral mesencephalic or meso-diencephalic lesions...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518566/abstinence-to-chronic-methamphetamine-switches-connectivity-between-striatal-hippocampal-and-sensorimotor-regions-and-increases-cerebral-blood-volume-response
#13
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Yin-Ching Iris Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463454/diagnostic-potential-of-dentatorubrothalamic-tract-analysis-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#14
Morinobu Seki, Klaus Seppi, Christoph Mueller, Thomas Potrusil, Georg Goebel, Eva Reiter, Michael Nocker, Ruth Steiger, Matthias Wildauer, Elke R Gizewski, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Christoph Scherfler
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P) from Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a major clinical challenge. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of observer-independent assessments of microstructural integrity within infratentorial brain regions to differentiate PSP-Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS), PSP-P and PD. METHODS: 3T MRI parameters of mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, grey and white matter volumes from patients with PSP-RS (n = 12), PSP-P (n = 12) and mean disease duration of 2...
April 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406916/quantitative-transcranial-sonography-in-wilson-s-disease-and-healthy-controls-cut-off-values-and-functional-correlates
#15
Gotthard G Tribl, Mateus C Trindade, Kelson James Almeida, Rosana Cardoso Alves, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Erich T Fonoff, Alexandre A Machado, Manoel J Teixeira, Egberto R Barbosa, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu
To compare transcranial sonography (TCS) findings in patients with predominantly neurological Wilson's disease (WD) to those from controls, and to correlate TCS data with the clinical profile of WD. Patients with WD (n=40/f=18) and healthy, matched controls (n=49/f=20) were assessed in terms of TCS, serum copper and iron parameters, and clinical scales, such as the Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Beck Depression Inventory...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374635/rare-occurrence-of-eight-and-a-half-syndrome-as-a-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#16
Sneha Jacob, Ann Murray
Eight-and-a-half syndrome is a rare condition that is described as a combination of one-and-a-half syndrome and an ipsilateral facial nucleus lesion. We present a clinical case of occurrence of eight-and-a-half syndrome that was caused by a demyelinating lesion in the dorsal pontine tegmentum. A 44-year-old man presented to the hospital with a subacute onset of horizontal diplopia and left-sided facial weakness. MRI revealed a T2 hyperintense lesion in his dorsal pons, which was consistent with a demyelinating pathology...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243534/eight-and-a-half-syndrome-caused-by-a-pontine-haemorrhage-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Nian-Ge Xia, Yan-Yan Chen, Jia Li, Xi Chen, Zu-Sen Ye, Si-Yan Chen, Zhen-Guo Zhu
BACKGROUND: Eight-and-a-half syndrome is caused by a lesion in the dorsal tegmentum of the caudal pons involving parapontine reticular formation and median longitudinal fasciculus, as well as the nucleus and/or the fasciculus of the facial nerve. It is characterized by one-and-a-half syndrome and an ipsilateral cranial nerve VII palsy. Also, many variants of eight-and-a-half syndrome have been described, including nine syndrome, thirteen-and-a-half syndrome and fifteen-and-a-half syndrome...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187832/isolated-horizontal-gaze-palsy-observations-and-explanations
#18
Renee Ewe, Owen B White, Ailbhe Burke
We present three cases that we suggest require a novel diagnosis and a reconsideration of current understandings of pontine anatomy. In this case series, we highlight a series of patients with monophasic, fully recovering inflammatory lesions in the pontine tegmentum not due to any of the currently recognized causes of this syndrome. We highlight other similar cases in the literature and suggest there may be a particular epitope for an as-yet-undiscovered antibody underlying the tropism for this area. We highlight the potential harm of misdiagnosis with relapsing inflammatory or other serious diagnoses with significant adverse impact on the patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187684/-a-case-of-hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-1e-with-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-as-an-initial-symptom
#19
Masashi Watanabe, Yushi Matsumoto, Kensho Okamoto, Bungo Okuda, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno
A 49-year-old man had developed gradually personality change, gait disturbance, and hearing loss for five years. On admission, he presented with frontal release signs, stuttering, vertical gaze palsy, sensorineural deafness, muscle rigidity, ataxia, and sensory disturbance with areflexia in the lower extremities. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy in the cerebellum and midbrain tegmentum as well as cerebral atrophy, predominantly in the frontal lobe. He was tentatively diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy on the basis of clinical features and imagings...
December 27, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161694/immunohistochemical-localization-of-darpp-32-in-the-brain-of-two-lungfishes-further-assessment-of-its-relationship-with-the-dopaminergic-system
#20
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The distribution of DARPP-32 (a phosphoprotein related to the dopamine D1 receptor) has been widely used as a means to clarify the brain regions with dopaminoceptive cells, primarily in representative species of tetrapods. The relationship between dopaminergic and dopaminoceptive elements is frequently analyzed using the catecholamine marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In the present study, by means of combined immunohistochemistry, we have analyzed these relationships in lungfishes, the only group of sarcopterygian fishes represented by 6 extant species that are the phylogenetically closest living relatives of tetrapods...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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