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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909103/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#1
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
: Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877100/striatal-and-tegmental-neurons-code-critical-signals-for-temporal-difference-learning-of-state-value-in-domestic-chicks
#2
Chentao Wen, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872689/role-of-nitric-oxide-on-dopamine-release-and-morphine-dependency
#3
REVIEW
Amir Arash Motahari, Hedayat Sahraei, Gholam Hossein Meftahi
The catastrophic effects of opioids use on public health and the economy are documented clearly in numerous studies. Repeated morphine administration can lead to either a decrease (tolerance) or an increase (sensitization) in its behavioral and rewarding effects. Morphine-induced sensitization is a major problem and plays an important role in abuse of the opioid drugs. Studies reported that morphine may exert its effects by the release of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a potent neuromodulator, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843044/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-finding-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-symmetrical-central-tegmental-tract-hyperintensity
#4
Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Evrim Ozmen, Havva Akmaz-Unlu, Namik Kemal Altinbas, Esra Gurkas, Oznur Boyunaga
BACKGROUND: Central tegmental tract is an extrapyramidal tract between red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus which is located in the tegmentum pontis bilaterally and symmetrically. The etiology of the presence of central tegmental tract hyperintensity on MRI is unclear. PURPOSE: In this study our aim is to evaluate the frequency of central tegmental tract lesions in patients with cerebral palsy and control group, as well as to determine whether there is an association between central tegmental tract lesions and cerebral palsy types...
November 11, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815400/a-human-brain-network-derived-from-coma-causing-brainstem-lesions
#5
David B Fischer, Aaron D Boes, Athena Demertzi, Henry C Evrard, Steven Laureys, Brian L Edlow, Hesheng Liu, Clifford B Saper, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Michael D Fox, Joel C Geerling
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a brainstem location specific to coma-causing lesions, and its functional connectivity network. METHODS: We compared 12 coma-causing brainstem lesions to 24 control brainstem lesions using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in a case-control design to identify a site significantly associated with coma. We next used resting-state functional connectivity from a healthy cohort to identify a network of regions functionally connected to this brainstem site...
November 4, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803416/two-cases-of-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-vaccination-against-human-papilloma-virus
#6
Kenji Sekiguchi, Naoko Yasui, Hisatomo Kowa, Fumio Kanda, Tatsushi Toda
We herein present two cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV). Case 1 experienced diplopia and developed an unstable gait 14 days after a second vaccination of Cervarix. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an isolated small, demyelinating lesion in the pontine tegmentum. Case 2 experienced a fever and limb dysesthesia 16 days after a second vaccination of Gardasil. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense lesion in the pons with slight edema on a T2-weighted image...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768782/quantitative-t1-t2-and-t2-mapping-and-semi-quantitative-neuromelanin-sensitive-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-midbrain
#7
Takashi Hashido, Shigeyoshi Saito
PURPOSE: Neuromelanin is a dark pigment granule present within certain catecholamine neurons of the human brain. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between contrast of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR relaxation times using T1, T2, and T2* mapping of the lower midbrain. METHODS: The subjects were 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, mean age 29.9 ± 6.9 years). Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI was acquired using an optimized T1-weighted two-dimensional (2D)-turbo spin-echo sequence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680950/molecular-bases-of-k-secretory-cells-in-the-inner-ear-shared-and-distinct-features-between-birds-and-mammals
#8
Viviane Wilms, Christine Köppl, Chris Söffgen, Anna-Maria Hartmann, Hans Gerd Nothwang
In the cochlea, mammals maintain a uniquely high endolymphatic potential (EP), which is not observed in other vertebrate groups. However, a high [K(+)] is always present in the inner ear endolymph. Here, we show that Kir4.1, which is required in the mammalian stria vascularis to generate the highly positive EP, is absent in the functionally equivalent avian tegmentum vasculosum. In contrast, the molecular repertoire required for K(+) secretion, specifically NKCC1, KCNQ1, KCNE1, BSND and CLC-K, is shared between the tegmentum vasculosum, the vestibular dark cells and the marginal cells of the stria vascularis...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645362/a-neurophysiological-study-of-facial-numbness-in-multiple-sclerosis-integration-with-clinical-data-and-imaging-findings
#9
Georgios Koutsis, Panagiotis Kokotis, Aikaterini E Papagianni, Maria-Eleftheria Evangelopoulos, Constantinos Kilidireas, Nikolaos Karandreas
OBJECTIVE: To integrate neurophysiological findings with clinical and imaging data in a consecutive series of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients developing facial numbness during the course of an MS attack. METHODS: Nine consecutive patients with MS and recent-onset facial numbness were studied clinically, imaged with routine MRI, and assessed neurophysiologically with trigeminal somatosensory evoked potential (TSEP), blink reflex (BR), masseter reflex (MR), facial nerve conduction, facial muscle and masseter EMG studies...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638512/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-neurons-in-the-mouse-brain-a-study-using-corticotropin-releasing-factor-modified-yellow-fluorescent-protein-knock-in-mouse
#10
Junko Kono, Kohtarou Konno, Ashraf Hossain Talukder, Toshimitsu Fuse, Manabu Abe, Katsuya Uchida, Shuhei Horio, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Keiichi Itoi
We examined the morphological features of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in a mouse line in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was expressed under the CRF promoter. We previously generated the CRF-Venus knock-in mouse, in which Venus is inserted into the CRF gene locus by homologous recombination. In the present study, the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (Neo), driven by the pgk-1 promoter, was deleted from the CRF-Venus mouse genome, and a CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse was generated. Venus expression is much more prominent in the CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse when compared to the CRF-Venus mouse...
September 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597467/relaxin-the-brain-a-case-for-targeting-the-nucleus-incertus-network-and-relaxin-3-rxfp3-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Tharindunee Jayakody, Subhi Marwari, Jia Mei Hong, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Mitchell K P Lai, Gavin S Dawe
Relaxin-3 has been proposed to modulate emotional-behavioural functions such as arousal and behavioural activation, appetite regulation, stress responses, anxiety, memory, sleep and circadian rhythm. The nucleus incertus (NI), in the midline tegmentum close to the fourth ventricle, projects widely throughout the brain and is the primary site of relaxin-3 neurons. Over recent years, a number of preclinical studies have explored the function of the NI and relaxin-3 signalling, including reports of mRNA or peptide expression changes in the NI in response to behavioural or pharmacological manipulations, effects of lesions or electrical or pharmacological manipulations of the NI, effects of central microinfusions of relaxin-3 or related agonist or antagonist ligands on physiology and behaviour, and the impact of relaxin-3 gene deletion or knockdown...
September 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586161/cellular-investigations-with-human-antibodies-associated-with-the-anti-iglon5-syndrome
#12
Lidia Sabater, Jesús Planagumà, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against IgLON5, a neuronal adhesion protein of unknown function, are markers of a novel neurological disorder termed anti-IgLON5 syndrome. The disorder shows a remarkable association with the HLA-DQB1*0501 and HLA-DRB1*1001 alleles, and postmortem studies demonstrate a novel neuronal tauopathy predominantly involving the hypothalamus and tegmentum of the brainstem. The role of IgLON5 antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease is currently unknown. Here, we have determined the target epitopes of IgLON5 antibodies, the effects of the IgLON5 antibodies in rat hippocampal neurons, and the IgG subclass responsible for these effects...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564091/gonadectomy-but-not-biological-sex-affects-burst-firing-in-dopamine-neurons-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-in-prefrontal-cortical-neurons-projecting-to-the-ventral-tegmentum-in-adult-rats
#13
Mallory N Locklear, Michalis Michealos, William F Collins, Mary F Kritzer
The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems regulate cognitive and motivational processes and are strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders in which these processes are disturbed. Sex differences and sex hormone modulation are also known for these dopamine-sensitive behaviors in health and disease. One relevant mechanism of hormone impact appears to be regulation of cortical and subcortical dopamine levels. This study asked whether this regulation of dopamine tone is a consequence of sex or sex hormone impact on the firing modes of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452874/differentiation-of-neurodegenerative-parkinsonian-syndromes-by-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-analysis-and-support-vector-machine-classification
#14
Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Leona Möller, Martin Südmeyer, Rüdiger Hilker, Elke Hattingen, Karl Egger, Florian Amtage, Gesine Respondek, Maria Stamelou, Alfons Schnitzler, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Wolfgang H Oertel, Susanne Knake, Jan Kassubek, Günter U Höglinger
BACKGROUND: Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes is still challenging. OBJECTIVES: A fully automated method for quantitative MRI analysis using atlas-based volumetry combined with support vector machine classification was evaluated for differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes in a multicenter study. METHODS: Atlas-based volumetry was performed on MRI data of healthy controls (n = 73) and patients with PD (204), PSP with Richardson's syndrome phenotype (106), MSA of the cerebellar type (21), and MSA of the Parkinsonian type (60), acquired on different scanners...
October 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448046/metabolic-abnormality-of-pontine-tegmentum-in-patients-with-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-analyzed-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#15
Lin Zhang, Yixin Xu, Jianhua Zhuang, Hua Peng, Huijuan Wu, Zhengqing Zhao, Bin He, Zhongxin Zhao
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the metabolism differences in pontine tegmentum among patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), secondary RBD (sRBD) and healthy control groups using magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and whether metabolic changes are correlated with age in patients with RBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The iRBD, sRBD, and control groups were composed of 18, 26, and 29 patients, respectively. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (1)H-MRS detection at 17:00 for approximately 15min...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431937/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-differential-roles-for-ventral-tegmentum-serotonin-1-and-2-type-receptors-on-food-intake-in-the-rat
#16
Wayne E Pratt, Kara A Clissold, Peagan Lin, Amanda E Cain, Alexa F Ciesinski, Thomas R Hopkins, Adeolu O Ilesanmi, Erin A Kelly, Zachary Pierce-Messick, Daniel S Powell, Ian A Rosner
Central serotonin (5-HT) pathways are known to influence feeding and other ingestive behaviors. Although the ventral tegmentum is important for promoting the seeking and consumption of food and drugs of abuse, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this region on food intake have yet to be comprehensively examined. In these experiments, food restricted rats were given 2-h access to rat chow; separate groups of non-restricted animals had similar access to a sweetened fat diet. Feeding and locomotor activity were monitored following ventral tegmentum stimulation or blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT2C receptors...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358064/neuropathological-criteria-of-anti-iglon5-related-tauopathy
#17
Ellen Gelpi, Romana Höftberger, Francesc Graus, Helen Ling, Janice L Holton, Timothy Dawson, Mara Popovic, Janja Pretnar-Oblak, Birgit Högl, Erich Schmutzhard, Werner Poewe, Gerda Ricken, Joan Santamaria, Josep Dalmau, Herbert Budka, Tamas Revesz, Gabor G Kovacs
We recently reported a novel neurological syndrome characterized by a unique NREM and REM parasomnia with sleep apnea and stridor, accompanied by bulbar dysfunction and specific association with antibodies against the neuronal cell-adhesion protein IgLON5. All patients had the HLA-DRB1*1001 and HLA-DQB1*0501 alleles. Neuropathological findings in two patients revealed a novel tauopathy restricted to neurons and predominantly involving the hypothalamus and tegmentum of the brainstem. The aim of the current study is to describe the neuropathological features of the anti-IgLON5 syndrome and to provide diagnostic levels of certainty based on the presence of associated clinical and immunological data...
October 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356857/extended-anatomical-grading-in-diffuse-axonal-injury-using-mri-hemorrhagic-lesions-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-mesencephalic-tegmentum-indicate-poor-long-term-outcome
#18
Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund, Marianne Lannsjö, Tim Howells, Raili Raininko, Johan Wikström, Per Enblad
Clinical outcome after traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is difficult to predict. In this study, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were used to quantify the anatomical distribution of lesions, to grade DAI according to the Adams grading system, and to evaluate the value of lesion localization in combination with clinical prognostic factors to improve outcome prediction. Thirty patients (mean 31.2 years ±14.3 standard deviation) with severe DAI (Glasgow Motor Score [GMS] <6) examined with MRI within 1 week post-injury were included...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354565/putting-pontine-anatomy-into-clinical-practice-the-16-syndrome
#19
Matthew R B Evans, Robert A Weeks
The anatomical localisation of brainstem syndromes is the domain of the clinical neurologist, though MRI has made an encyclopaedic knowledge of neuroanatomy less crucial. Isolated pontine syndromes comprise ∼20% of the brainstem lacunar syndromes. Typical presentations such as pure motor hemiparesis and ataxic hemiparesis are easily recognisable but atypical syndromes, particularly when bilateral, may present with puzzling signs. We discuss a patient with an unusual acute bilateral brainstem syndrome, in whom MRI was contraindicated...
June 27, 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315774/distribution-of-galanin-receptor-2b-neurons-and-interaction-with-galanin-in-the-zebrafish-central-nervous-system
#20
Eunmi Kim, Inyoung Jeong, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Boa Kim, Jae Young Seong, Young-Ki Bae, Jae-Ho Ryu, Hae-Chul Park
Galanin is a multifunctional neuropeptide that is implicated in the modulation of physiological processes, including nociception, cognition, feeding behavior, neuronal growth, and reproduction. The physiological effects of galanin are mediated through its interaction with three different G protein-coupled receptors, i.e., GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. Unlike mammals, zebrafish have four different receptors for galanin, diversified from GALR1 (GAL1a and GALR1b) and GALR2 (GALR2a and GALR2b). Despite the importance of galanin in the central nervous system (CNS), no information has been reported regarding GalR2 in zebrafish CNS...
August 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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