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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813953/bridge-behavioural-reaching-interfaces-during-daily-antigravity-activities-through-upper-limb-exoskeleton-preliminary-results
#1
Marta Gandolla, Andrea Costa, Lorenzo Aquilante, Margit Gfoehler, Markus Puchinger, Francesco Braghin, Alessandra Pedrocchi
People with neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy experience a distributed and evolutive weakness in the whole body. Recent technological developments have changed the daily life of disabled people strongly improving the perceived quality of life, mostly concentrating on powered wheelchairs, so to assure autonomous mobility and respiratory assistance, essential for survival. The key concept of the BRIDGE project is to contrast the everyday experience of losing functions by providing them of a system able to exploit the best their own residual capabilities in arm movements so to keep them functional and autonomous as much as possible...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813578/incomitance-and-eye-dominance-in-intermittent-exotropia
#2
Daniel L Adams, John R Economides, Jonathan C Horton
Purpose: To determine if the deviation angle changes in subjects with intermittent exotropia as they alternate fixation between the right and left eye in primary gaze. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 37 subjects with intermittent exotropia were tested for evidence of incomitance. The position of each eye was recorded with a video tracker during fixation on a small central target. A cover-uncover test was performed by occluding one eye with a shutter that passed infrared light, allowing continuous tracking of both eyes...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800428/socially-anxious-tendencies-affect-neural-processing-of-gaze-perception
#3
Yuki Tsuji, Sotaro Shimada
The gaze of others is known to be a particularly common cause of social anxiety. In the current study, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during gaze perception among people with or without high socially anxious tendencies (HSA). The experimental stimuli were grayscale images of the eye region of a face, showing direct or averted eye gaze (leftward gaze or rightward gaze) or closed eyes. We found that negative ERPs at a right occipito-temporal site (N170) and positive ERPs at the fronto-central region (P2) were evoked by eye gaze stimuli...
August 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792611/modulation-of-the-eyeblink-and-cardiac-startle-reflexes-by-genuine-eye-contact
#4
Tingji Chen, Mikko J Peltola, Richard Dunn, Sanna M Pajunen, Jari K Hietanen
Is another person's direct gaze an inherently positive or negative stimulus? The present study employed the startle reflex methodology to investigate individuals' automatic reactions to another person's direct and averted gaze. In the study, participants' eyeblink startle and cardiac reflexes elicited by a high-intensity acoustic noise stimulus were measured in the context of viewing a live model's direct and downward gaze. Both the eyeblink electromyographic and electrocardiographic data revealed that the startle reflex was modulated by gaze direction...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777230/auditory-acclimatization-to-bilateral-hearing-aids-effects-on-sentence-in-noise-processing-times-and-speech-evoked-potentials
#5
Julia Habicht, Mareike Finke, Tobias Neher
OBJECTIVES: Using a longitudinal design, the present study sought to substantiate indications from two previous cross-sectional studies that hearing aid (HA) experience leads to improved speech processing abilities as quantified using eye-gaze measurements. Another aim was to explore potential concomitant changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) to speech stimuli. DESIGN: Groups of elderly novice (novHA) and experienced (expHA) HA users matched in terms of age and working memory capacity participated...
August 2, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768750/echo-acoustic-scanning-with-noseleaf-and-ears-in-phyllostomid-bats
#6
Kathrin Kugler, Lutz Wiegrebe
The mammalian visual system is highly directional and mammals typically employ rapid eye movements to scan their environment. Both sound emission and hearing in echolocating bats are directional but not much is known about how bats use ear movements and possibly movements of the sound-emitting structures to scan space. Here, we investigated in a tightly controlled behavioural experiment how Phyllostomusdiscolor bats employ their echolocation system while being moved through differently structured environments: we monitored and reconstructed both a close-up of the facial structures in 3D, including the motile noseleaf and outer ears, and the sonar-beam of the bat while it was moved along reflectors...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765147/the-association-between-ocular-surface-measurements-with-visual-field-reliability-indices-and-gaze-tracking-results-in-preperimetric-glaucoma
#7
Takahiro Arai, Hiroshi Murata, Masato Matsuura, Tomohiko Usui, Ryo Asaoka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the relationship between gaze tracking (GT) results and ocular surface condition in glaucoma. METHOD: The Humphrey 24-2 visual field (VF) was measured in 34 eyes of 30 patients with open-angle glaucoma without VF damage. Tear break-up time, Schirmer's test, tear meniscus volume (TMV) and presence of superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) were also measured in order to describe the condition of the ocular surface. Various GT parameters were calculated: the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 1° and 2° (move1-2), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus between 3° and 5° (move3-5), the average frequency of eye movements per stimulus more than 6° (move≥6), the average tracking failure frequency per stimulus (TFF) and the average blinking frequency...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745471/visual-control-in-basketball-shooting-under-exertion-conditions
#8
Teresa Zwierko, Marek Popowczak, Jarosław Woźniak, Andrzej Rokita
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of physical exertion on gaze behavior during basketball shooting in both stationary and dynamic conditions. METHODS: Thirteen skilled basketball players performed two-point shooting during a 60 second fatigue protocol. Before and after a jump shot test, players performed two free throws. Eye movements were registered using an SMI Mobile EyeTracker. The frequency of all fixation points (number) and fixation duration during the motor phases of shooting were determined using frame-by- frame analysis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737664/smap3d-corneo-scleral-topographer-repeatability-in-scleral-lens-patients
#9
Gregory DeNaeyer, Donald R Sanders
OBJECTIVES: To determine repeatability of measurements using the sMap3D Corneo-Scleral Topographer in patients presenting for scleral lens fitting. METHODS: As part of our standard clinical evaluation, 25 eyes of 23 patients who presented for scleral lens fitting were examined twice in the same day with the sMap3D in this retrospective study. Sagittal height (SAG), sMap3D principal toricity magnitude (as calculated by the instrument software), and steep axis location were measured at a 16-mm chord diameter...
July 21, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735177/the-visual-system-encodes-others-direction-of-gaze-in-a-first-person-frame-of-reference
#10
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
The primate visual system contains specialised neural mechanisms for encoding the direction of others' gaze. A foundational question that we can ask in this domain concerns the frame of reference in which another person's gaze is represented. Electrophysiological recordings in macaque monkeys suggest that direction of gaze might be encoded relative to the observer (i.e., in a first person reference frame) or relative to the head or body of the stimulus (i.e., in a second person reference frame). Here we use sensory adaptation to gaze direction as a psychophysical tool to probe how this property of the environment is represented in the human visual system...
July 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728924/strabismus-measurements-with-novel-video-goggles
#11
Konrad P Weber, Daniel Rappoport, Muriel Dysli, Tanja Schmückle Meier, Guy B Marks, Christopher J Bockisch, Klara Landau, Hamish G MacDougall
PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a novel, simplified, noninvasive test for strabismus using video goggles. DESIGN: Cross-sectional method comparison study in which the new test, the strabismus video goggles, is compared with the existing reference standard, the Hess screen test. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 41 adult and child patients aged ≥6 years with ocular misalignment owing to congenital or acquired paralytic or comitant strabismus and 17 healthy volunteers...
July 17, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707506/perception-action-coupling-in-complex-game-play-exploring-the-quiet-eye-in-contested-basketball-jump-shots
#12
André Klostermann, Derek Panchuk, Damian Farrow
The duration of the final fixation before movement initiation - a gaze strategy labelled quiet eye - has been found to explain differences in motor expertise and performance in precision tasks. To date, research only addressed this phenomenon in situations without adversarial constraints. In the present study, we compared the quiet-eye behaviour of intermediately-skilled and highly-skilled basketball players in defended vs. undefended game situations. We predicted differences in quiet-eye duration as a function of skill and performance particularly resulting from late quiet-eye offsets...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698242/abnormal-fixational-eye-movements-in-strabismus
#13
Fatema F Ghasia, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef G Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695348/acquisition-of-joint-attention-by-olive-baboons-gesturing-toward-humans
#14
Augustine Lamaury, Hélène Cochet, Marie Bourjade
Joint attention is a core ability of human social cognition which broadly refers to the coordination of attention with both the presence and activity of social partners. In both human and non-human primates, joint attention can be assessed from behaviour; gestures and gaze alternation between the partner and a distal object are standard behavioural manifestations of joint attention. Here we examined the acquisition of joint attention in olive baboons as a function of their individual experience of a human partner's attentional states during training regimes...
July 10, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683138/rapid-target-foraging-with-reach-or-gaze-the-hand-looks-further-ahead-than-the-eye
#15
Jonathan S Diamond, Daniel M Wolpert, J Randall Flanagan
Real-world tasks typically consist of a series of target-directed actions and often require choices about which targets to act on and in what order. Such choice behavior can be assessed from an optimal foraging perspective whereby target selection is shaped by a balance between rewards and costs. Here we evaluated such decision-making in a rapid movement foraging task. On a given trial, participants were presented with 15 targets of varying size and value and were instructed to harvest as much reward as possible by either moving a handle to the targets (hand task) or by briefly fixating them (eye task)...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681278/are-we-overlooking-masked-bilateral-congenital-superior-oblique-palsy-in-children-is-it-possible-to-diagnose-before-surgery
#16
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, Ali Sefik Sanac
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of children who had subsequent contralateral superior oblique underaction (SOUA) and inferior oblique overaction (IOOA) after unilateral inferior oblique weakening surgery and to identify suggestive clinical features for masked bilateral fourth nerve palsy. METHODS: The medical records of children who underwent unilateral inferior oblique tenotomy as a single procedure for unilateral superior oblique palsy were all reviewed...
July 5, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678886/gaze-centered-coding-of-proprioceptive-reach-targets-after-effector-movement-testing-the-impact-of-online-information-time-of-movement-and-target-distance
#17
Stefanie Mueller, Katja Fiehler
In previous research, we demonstrated that spatial coding of proprioceptive reach targets depends on the presence of an effector movement (Mueller & Fiehler, Neuropsychologia, 2014, 2016). In these studies, participants were asked to reach in darkness with their right hand to a proprioceptive target (tactile stimulation on the finger tip) while their gaze was varied. They either moved their left, stimulated hand towards a target location or kept it stationary at this location where they received a touch on the fingertip to which they reached with their right hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666215/just-look-away-gaze-aversions-as-an-overt-attentional-disengagement-mechanism
#18
Dekel Abeles, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
During visual exploration of a scene, the eye-gaze tends to be directed toward more salient image-locations, containing more information. However, while performing non-visual tasks, such information-seeking behavior could be detrimental to performance, as the perception of irrelevant but salient visual input may unnecessarily increase the cognitive-load. It would be therefore beneficial if during non-visual tasks, eye-gaze would be governed by a drive to reduce saliency rather than maximize it. The current study examined the phenomenon of gaze-aversion during non-visual tasks, which is hypothesized to act as an active avoidance mechanism...
June 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661702/maternal-gaze-behaviors-during-latching-on-for-breastfeeding
#19
Keiko Kikuchi, Mari Toyota, Keiko Endo, Yasuka Nakamura, Fumi Atogami, Toyoko Yoshizawa
BACKGROUND: Studies in various fields have demonstrated that experts use specific gaze strategies to achieve better performance. Therefore, we hypothesized that mothers familiar with breastfeeding would use a specific gaze strategy to achieve better latching-on. METHODS: A head-mounted eye tracker was used to record pupil positions from 14 breastfeeding mothers with 1-month-old infants. Eye gazes were analyzed during the latching-on and assessment phases. RESULTS: During the latching-on phase, participants tended to fixate on their breast, the infant's lower face, an intermediate region between the infant's face and the breast, and the region of contact between the infant's mouth and the breast...
June 29, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661425/characterizing-computer-access-using-a-one-channel-eeg-wireless-sensor
#20
Alberto J Molina-Cantero, Jaime Guerrero-Cubero, Isabel M Gómez-González, Manuel Merino-Monge, Juan I Silva-Silva
This work studies the feasibility of using mental attention to access a computer. Brain activity was measured with an electrode placed at the Fp1 position and the reference on the left ear; seven normally developed people and three subjects with cerebral palsy (CP) took part in the experimentation. They were asked to keep their attention high and low for as long as possible during several trials. We recorded attention levels and power bands conveyed by the sensor, but only the first was used for feedback purposes...
June 29, 2017: Sensors
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