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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056109/postural-ataxia-in-cerebellar-downbeat-nystagmus-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-and-vestibular-signals-and-cerebellar-atrophy
#1
Christoph Helmchen, Jan-Birger Kirchhoff, Martin Göttlich, Andreas Sprenger
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum integrates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals for postural control. Cerebellar patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) complain of unsteadiness of stance and gait as well as blurred vision and oscillopsia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of visual input, gaze eccentricity, vestibular and proprioceptive input on the postural stability in a large cohort of cerebellar patients with DBN, in comparison to healthy age-matched control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055858/icap-an-individualized-model-combining-gaze-parameters-and-image-based-features-to-predict-radiologists-decisions-while-reading-mammograms
#2
Ziba Gandomkar, Kevin Tay, William Ryder, Patrick C Brennan, Claudia Mello-Thoms
This study introduces an individualized tool for identifying mammogram interpretation errors, called eye-Computer Assisted Perception (iCAP). iCAP consists of two modules, one which processes areas marked by radiologists as suspicious for cancer and classifies these as False Positive (FP) or True Positive (TP) decisions, while the second module classifies fixated but not marked locations as False Negative (FN) or True-Negative (TN) decisions. iCAP relies on both radiologists' gaze-related parameters, extracted from eye tracking data, and image-based features...
December 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#3
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045963/collective-behaviour-in-video-viewing-a-thermodynamic-analysis-of-gaze-position
#4
Kate Burleson-Lesser, Flaviano Morone, Paul DeGuzman, Lucas C Parra, Hernán A Makse
Videos and commercials produced for large audiences can elicit mixed opinions. We wondered whether this diversity is also reflected in the way individuals watch the videos. To answer this question, we presented 65 commercials with high production value to 25 individuals while recording their eye movements, and asked them to provide preference ratings for each video. We find that gaze positions for the most popular videos are highly correlated. To explain the correlations of eye movements, we model them as "interactions" between individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003803/affective-priming-by-eye-gaze-stimuli-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-evidence
#5
Tingji Chen, Mikko J Peltola, Lotta J Ranta, Jari K Hietanen
The present study employed the affective priming paradigm and measurements of event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate implicit affective reactions elicited by gaze stimuli. Participants categorized positive and negative words primed by direct gaze, averted gaze and closed eyes. The behavioral response time (RT) results indicated that direct gaze implicitly elicited more positive affective reactions than did closed eyes. Analyses of the ERP responses to the target words revealed a priming effect on the N170 and an interaction on late positive potential (LPP) responses, and congruently with the behavioral results, suggested that, compared to closed eyes, direct gaze was affectively more congruent with positive words and more incongruent with negative words...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981586/gaze-evoked-nystagmus-induced-by-alcohol-intoxication
#6
Fausto Romano, Alexander A Tarnutzer, Dominik Straumann, Stefano Ramat, Giovanni Bertolini
Gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) is an ocular-motor finding commonly observed in cerebellar disease, characterized by increased centripetal eye-drift with centrifugal correcting saccades at eccentric gaze. With cerebellar degeneration being a rare and clinically heterogeneous disease, data from patients are limited. We hypothesized that a transient inhibition of cerebellar function by defined amounts of alcohol may provide a suitable model to study gaze-holding deficits in cerebellar disease. We recorded gaze-holding at varying horizontal eye positions in 15 healthy participants before and 30 min after alcohol intake required to reach 0...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976814/neural-mechanisms-of-attention-become-more-specialised-during-infancy-insights-from-combined-eye-tracking-and-eeg
#7
Louisa Kulke, Janette Atkinson, Oliver Braddick
: The Fixation Shift Paradigm (FSP) measures infants' ability to shift gaze from a central fixation stimulus to a peripheral target (e.g. Hood & Atkinson, 1993: Infant Behavior and Development, 16(4), 405-422). Cortical maturation has been suggested as crucial for the developing ability to shift attention. This study investigated the development of neural mechanisms by combining EEG with simultaneous eye tracking during FSP testing, in typically developing infants aged between 1 and 8 months...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974448/the-inion-response-revisited-evidence-for-a-possible-cerebellar-contribution-to-vestibular-evoked-potentials-produced-by-air-conducted-sound-stimulation
#8
Neil P M Todd, Sendhil Govender, James Gordon Colebatch
This study investigated the effect of eye gaze and head position on vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). Head position would be expected to affect myogenic sources and eye position is known to affect ocular myogenic responses (OVEMPs), whereas a neurogenic source should behave otherwise. 11 healthy subjects were recruited and VsEPs using 72 channel EEG were recorded at a fixed intensity above the vestibular threshold. Three eye gaze and three head positions were tested (-20°, 0° and+20° to the horizontal)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974341/vertical-muscle-transposition-with-silicone-band-belting-in-vi-nerve-palsy
#9
Ricardo Dourado Leite, Cristina Freitas, Sandra Guimaraes
A woman aged 60 years developed a Millard-Gubler syndrome after a diagnosis of a cavernous angioma in the median and paramedian areas of the pons. In this context, she presented a right VI nerve palsy, right conjugate gaze palsy, facial palsy and left hemiparesis. To improve the complete VI nerve palsy, we planned a modified transposition approach, in which procedure we made a partial transposition of vertical rectus with a silicone band that was fixated posteriorly. After the procedure, the patient gained the ability to slightly abduct the right eye...
December 14, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938915/six-month-old-infant-long-sleepers-prefer-a-human-face
#10
Wanqi Sun, Guanghai Wang, Yanrui Jiang, Yuanjin Song, Shumei Dong, Qingmin Lin, Yujiao Deng, Qi Zhu, Fan Jiang
BACKGROUND: Sleep is known to influence socio-emotional regulation among children and preschoolers, whereas little is known about the association between sleep and social preference during infancy. METHODS: In the current study, habitual sleep of 49 infants aged around six months old were surveyed by questionnaire, and their social preference was revealed by their preferential gaze in three conditions: (1) a human face paired with an object (ie, a cup), (2) a human face paired with an animal face (ie, a dog), and (3) a dog face paired with a cup...
November 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-functional-anatomy-of-the-superior-oblique-muscle-in-patients-with-primary-superior-oblique-overaction
#11
Q Gong, M Janowski, H Tang, Q Yang, H Wei, X Zhou, L Liu
PurposeTo quantitatively determine the size and contractility of the superior oblique (SO) muscle in primary SO overaction (PSOOA).Patients and methodsA prospective, observational study was conducted on 12 patients with PSOOA, and 10 healthy, orthotropic subjects. Sets of contiguous, 2 mm slice thickness, quasi-coronal magnetic resonance imaging were obtained during different gazes, giving pixel resolution of 0.391 mm. Cross-sectional areas of the SO muscles were determined in primary position, supraduction, and infraduction to evaluate size and contractility...
December 9, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932962/neural-differences-between-covert-and-overt-attention-studied-using-eeg-with-simultaneous-remote-eye-tracking
#12
Louisa V Kulke, Janette Atkinson, Oliver Braddick
Research on neural mechanisms of attention has generally instructed subjects to direct attention covertly while maintaining a fixed gaze. This study combined simultaneous eye tracking and electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure neural attention responses during exogenous cueing in overt attention shifts (with saccadic eye movements to a target) and compared these with covert attention shifts (responding manually while maintaining central fixation). EEG analysis of the period preceding the saccade latency showed similar occipital response amplitudes for overt and covert shifts, although response latencies differed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931196/attentional-bias-modification-in-depression-through-gaze-contingencies-and-regulatory-control-using-a-new-eye-tracking-intervention-paradigm-study-protocol-for-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Carmelo Vazquez, Ivan Blanco, Alvaro Sanchez, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Attentional biases, namely difficulties both to disengage attention from negative information and to maintain it on positive information, play an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disorder. Recently, researchers have developed specific attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques aimed to modify these maladaptive attentional patterns. However, the application of current ABM procedures has yielded, so far, scarce results in depression due, in part, to some methodological shortcomings...
December 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923726/single-stage-soft-tissue-reconstruction-and-orbital-fracture-repair-for-complex-facial-injuries
#14
Peng Sen Wu, Reshvin Matoo, Hong Sun, Li Yuan Song, Don O Kikkawa, Wei Lu
BACKGROUND: Orbital fractures with open periorbital wounds cause significant morbidity. Timing of debridement with fracture repair and soft tissue reconstruction is controversial. This study focuses on the efficacy of early single-stage repair in combined bony and soft tissue injuries. METHODS: Retrospective review. Twenty-three patients with combined open soft tissue wounds and orbital fractures were studied for single-stage orbital reconstruction and periorbital soft tissue repair...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921204/a-case-of-double-depressor-palsy-followed-by-pursuit-deficit-due-to-sequential-infarction-in-bilateral-thalamus-and-right-medial-superior-temporal-area
#15
Su Jin Kim, Myeong In Yeom, Seung Uk Lee
BACKGROUND: We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening...
December 5, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916510/effect-of-upgaze-on-lower-eyelid-position-in-korean-patients-with-congenital-ptosis
#16
Livia Teo, Sang Yeul Lee, Chang Yeom Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate accompanying clinical features besides lid droop in congenital ptosis and to determine the effect of upgaze on lower eyelid position in patients with congenital ptosis. METHODS: Pediatric patients with congenital ptosis who visited our clinic over a 1-month period in 2014 were recruited for this study. Clinical photographs and measurements were taken prospectively in primary gaze and upgaze. Measurements taken from photographs and clinical records include inferior scleral show (ISS), vertical lower lid height (LL), and canthal tilt angle (CTA)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914318/older-adults-attentional-deployment-differential-gaze-patterns-for-different-negative-mood-states
#17
Ineke Demeyer, Alvaro Sanchez, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Older adults are characterized by an attentional preference for positive over negative information. Since this positivity effect is considered to be an emotion regulation strategy, it should be more pronounced when emotion regulation is needed. In contrast to previous studies that focused on the effects of sad mood on attention, we used a stressor to activate emotion regulation and evaluate the effects of different types of mood state changes. Moreover, we evaluated mood effects on attentional processes using a paradigm that allows disentangling between different attentional engagement and disengagement processes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#18
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
January 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898608/effect-of-spatial-orientation-of-the-horizontal-semicircular-canal-on-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#19
Rebecca Maxwell, Constantin von Kirschbaum, Claudia Jerin, Nadine Lehnen, Eike Krause, Robert Gürkov
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an alignment of the horizontal semi-circular canal (hSCC) with the plane of rotation would enhance the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) gain result as it has been previously suggested. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study of a physiological vestibular function test in healthy subjects. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for otology and neurotology. PATIENTS: Twenty two healthy volunteers were recruited for this study...
November 24, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893894/face-exploration-dynamics-differentiate-men-and-women
#20
Antoine Coutrot, Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
The human face is central to our everyday social interactions. Recent studies have shown that while gazing at faces, each one of us has a particular eye-scanning pattern, highly stable across time. Although variables such as culture or personality have been shown to modulate gaze behavior, we still don't know what shapes these idiosyncrasies. Moreover, most previous observations rely on static analyses of small-sized eye-position data sets averaged across time. Here, we probe the temporal dynamics of gaze to explore what information can be extracted about the observers and what is being observed...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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