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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627901/cone-of-gaze-in-positive-schizotypy-relationship-to-referential-thinking-and-social-functioning
#1
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619523/affective-associations-with-negativity-why-popular-peers-attract-youths-visual-attention
#2
Tessa A M Lansu, Wendy Troop-Gordon
Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual attention for high-status versus low-status peers, 122 early adolescents (67 girls; Mage=11.0years, SD=0.7) completed a primed attention paradigm. Visual attention was measured using eye tracking as participants looked simultaneously at photographs of two classmates: one nominated by peers as popular and one nominated by peers as unpopular...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617652/a-comparative-evaluation-of-in-vehicle-side-view-displays-layouts-in-critical-lane-changing-situation
#3
Donghyun Beck, Minho Lee, Woojin Park
This study conducted a driving simulator experiment to comparatively evaluate three in-vehicle side-view displays layouts for camera monitor systems (CMS) and the traditional side-view mirror arrangement. The three layouts placed two electronic side-view displays near the traditional mirrors positions, on the dashboard at each side of the steering wheel and on the centre fascia with the two displays joined side-by-side, respectively. Twenty-two participants performed a time- and safety-critical driving task that required rapidly gaining situation awareness through the side-view displays/mirrors and making a lane change to avoid collision...
June 15, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615328/effect-of-eye-position-during-human-visual-vestibular-integration-of-heading-perception
#4
Benjamin Thomas Crane
Visual and inertial stimuli provide heading discrimination cues. Integration of these multisensory stimuli has been demonstrated to depend on their relative reliability. However, the reference frame of visual stimuli is eye centered while inertial is head centered and it remains unclear how these are reconciled with combined stimuli. Seven human subjects completed a heading discrimination task consisting of a 2s translation with a peak velocity of 16 cm/s. Eye position was varied between 0°, and ±25° left/right...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610830/mutual-regulation-between-infant-facial-affect-and-maternal-touch-in-depressed-and-nondepressed-dyads
#5
Ida Egmose, Katharina Cordes, Johanne Smith-Nielsen, Mette Skovgaard Væver, Simo Køppe
The ability to regulate affect is important for later adaptive child development. In the first months of life, infants have limited resources for regulating their own affects (e.g. by gaze aversion), and for this reason they are dependent on external affect regulation from their parents. Previous research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants' affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants...
June 10, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604053/are-fixations-in-static-natural-scenes-a-useful-predictor-of-attention-in-the-real-world
#6
Tom Foulsham, Alan Kingstone
Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601994/radiologic-features-of-dropped-head-syndrome-in-the-overall-sagittal-alignment-of-the-spine
#7
Kazuki Hashimoto, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Terumasa Ikeda, Masao Akagi
PURPOSE: Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a rare clinical entity which is defined as a chin-on-chest deformity in the standing or sitting position, resulting from sagittal imbalance of the cervical region. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the radiologic features of DHS in the overall sagittal alignment of the spine. We also investigated the changes in sagittal alignment after correction surgery for DHS. METHODS: Twenty DHS patients [1 male and 19 female, with an average age of 78...
June 10, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601564/angle-of-gaze-and-optic-flow-direction-modulate-body-sway
#8
Milena Raffi, Alessandro Piras, Michela Persiani, Monica Perazzolo, Salvatore Squatrito
Optic flow is a crucial signal in maintaining postural stability. We sought to investigate whether the activity of postural muscles and body sway was modulated by eye position during the view of radial optic flow stimuli. We manipulated the spatial distribution of dot speed and the fixation point position to simulate specific heading directions combined with different gaze positions. The experiments were performed using stabilometry and surface electromyography (EMG) on 24 right-handed young, healthy volunteers...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600922/the-object-of-my-desire-five-year-olds-rapidly-reason-about-a-speaker-s-desire-during-referential-communication
#9
Valerie San Juan, Craig G Chambers, Jared Berman, Chelsea Humphry, Susan A Graham
Two experiments examined whether 5-year-olds draw inferences about desire outcomes that constrain their online interpretation of an utterance. Children were informed of a speaker's positive (Experiment 1) or negative (Experiment 2) desire to receive a specific toy as a gift before hearing a referentially ambiguous statement ("That's my present") spoken with either a happy or sad voice. After hearing the speaker express a positive desire, children (N=24) showed an implicit (i.e., eye gaze) and explicit ability to predict reference to the desired object when the speaker sounded happy, but they showed only implicit consideration of the alternate object when the speaker sounded sad...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597294/grasping-occluded-targets-investigating-the-influence-of-target-visibility-allocentric-cue-presence-and-direction-of-motion-on-gaze-and-grasp-accuracy
#10
Ryan W Langridge, Jonathan J Marotta
Participants executed right-handed reach-to-grasp movements toward horizontally translating targets. Visual feedback of the target when reaching, as well as the presence of additional cues placed above and below the target's path, was manipulated. Comparison of average fixations at reach onset and at the time of the grasp suggested that participants accurately extrapolated the occluded target's motion prior to reach onset, but not after the reach had been initiated, resulting in inaccurate grasp placements...
June 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592301/pneumococcal-meningitis-with-normal-cerebrospinal-biochemistry-and-no-pneumococci-at-microscopy-mimicking-a-stroke-a-case-report
#11
Gideon Ertner, Jeppe Romme Christensen, Christian T Brandt
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis commonly presents with symptoms such as headache, impaired consciousness, neck stiffness, and fever. In most cases, cerebrospinal fluid analysis will yield white cell counts >100/mm(3). Atypical presentations occur, especially in the very young or very elderly and the immunocompromised. We report an unusual case of pneumococcal meningitis in a healthy 78-year-old Danish woman who presented with clinical features mimicking a stroke with normal cerebrospinal fluid parameters and without microscopic evidence of bacteria...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586711/an-eye-tracking-system-for-monitoring-face-scanning-patterns-reveals-the-enhancing-effect-of-oxytocin-on-eye-contact-in-common-marmosets
#12
Manato Kotani, Kohei Shimono, Toshihiro Yoneyama, Tomokazu Nakako, Kenji Matsumoto, Yuji Ogi, Naho Konoike, Katsuki Nakamura, Kazuhito Ikeda
Eye tracking systems are used to investigate eyes position and gaze patterns presumed as eye contact in humans. Eye contact is a useful biomarker of social communication and known to be deficient in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Interestingly, the same eye tracking systems have been used to directly compare face scanning patterns in some non-human primates to those in human. Thus, eye tracking is expected to be a useful translational technique for investigating not only social attention and visual interest, but also the effects of psychiatric drugs, such as oxytocin, a neuropeptide that regulates social behavior...
May 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581688/when-you-re-happy-and-i-know-it-four-year-olds-emotional-perspective-taking-during-online-language-comprehension
#13
Melanie Khu, Craig Chambers, Susan A Graham
Using a novel emotional perspective-taking task, this study investigated 4-year-olds' (n = 97) use of a speaker's emotional prosody to make inferences about the speaker's emotional state and, correspondingly, their communicative intent. Eye gaze measures indicated preschoolers used emotional perspective inferences to guide their real-time interpretation of ambiguous statements. However, these sensitivities were less apparent in overt responses, suggesting preschoolers' ability to integrate emotional perspective cues is at an emergent state...
June 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566712/developmental-changes-in-social-attention-and-oxytocin-levels-in-infants-and-children
#14
Minaho Nishizato, Takashi X Fujisawa, Hirotaka Kosaka, Akemi Tomoda
Oxytocin (OT) signalling represents one of the most critical systems involved in human social behaviour. Although several studies have examined the relationship between social functioning and peripheral OT levels, the association between OT and the development of social attention has not been well studied. Therefore, we investigated the developmental relationship between gaze fixation for social cues and OT levels during young childhood. We examined visual attention using an eye tracking system in infants and children (5-90 months of age) and measured the concentration of OT in saliva samples...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529498/eyelid-retraction-in-isolated-unilateral-congenital-blepharoptosis
#15
Michael S Salman, Ian H Clark
Isolated unilateral congenital ptosis is encountered relatively infrequently in clinical practice. It typically consists of a unilateral droopy eyelid, weak levator palpebrae superioris muscle function, lid lag, and an absent upper lid crease with no other abnormalities on examination. We present a four-and-a-half-year-old girl with isolated and mild unilateral congenital ptosis who unexpectedly demonstrated a static upper eyelid on downgaze in conjunction with a well-formed upper lid skin crease. We attribute this uncommon sign in congenital ptosis to stiffness and presumed fibrosis of the levator muscle...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528360/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-midbrain-superior-colliculus-that-generates-saccadic-motor-commands
#16
Bahadir Kasap, A John van Opstal
Single-unit recordings suggest that the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) acts as an optimal controller for saccadic gaze shifts. The SC is proposed to be the site within the visuomotor system where the nonlinear spatial-to-temporal transformation is carried out: the population encodes the intended saccade vector by its location in the motor map (spatial), and its trajectory and velocity by the distribution of firing rates (temporal). The neurons' burst profiles vary systematically with their anatomical positions and intended saccade vectors, to account for the nonlinear main-sequence kinematics of saccades...
May 20, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514361/-the-complications-of-transethmoidal-decompressive-orbitotomy-associated-with-endocrine-ophthalmopathy
#17
P A Kochetkov, Ya O Grusha, V M Svistushkin, S S Danilov
The objective of the present study was the analysis of the results of transethmoidal decompressive orbitotomy (TEDO) with the resection of the bone matrix of the medial and inferior orbital walls in the patients presenting with endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP) with the purpose of reduction of the risk of development of this pathological conditions. A total of 51 patient with EOP at the stage of complete remission or pharmacotherapeutic compensation underwent transethmoidal decompressive medial orbitotomy in the ENT Clinic of 1 I...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500508/the-whereabouts-of-visual-attention-involuntary-attentional-bias-toward-the-default-gaze-direction
#18
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
This study proposed and verified a new hypothesis on the relationship between gaze direction and visual attention: attentional bias by default gaze direction based on eye-head coordination. We conducted a target identification task in which visual stimuli appeared briefly to the left and right of a fixation cross. In Experiment 1, the direction of the participant's head (aligned with the body) was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to a central fixation point. In Experiment 2, head direction was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to the body direction...
May 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499831/resolution-of-hypertropia-with-correction-of-consecutive-horizontal-deviation
#19
Rui Hao, Kanxing Zhao, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: To study the resolution of hypertropia in patients who undergo horizontal deviation surgery for consecutive esotropia or consecutive exotropia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 23 patients with consecutive esotropia or exotropia who had concomitant vertical tropia. All patients had had surgery for horizontal deviation that required further surgery to correct consecutive horizontal strabismus and had a minimum of six months of postoperative follow-up...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495046/transient-neonatal-myasthenia-gravis-due-to-a-mother-with-ocular-onset-of-anti-muscle-specific-kinase-myasthenia-gravis
#20
Ju-Yeun Lee, Ju-Hong Min, Sueng-Han Han, Jinu Han
We describe a 27-year-old pregnant female with new onset of conjugate gaze deficit during the third trimester of pregnancy. Repetitive nerve stimulation tests, neostigmine tests, and acetylcholine receptor antibody assays were all negative. The patient delivered a normal healthy baby at a local clinic via cesarean section. The baby became hypotonic and had respiratory failure several minutes after birth. The result of acetylcholine receptor antibody was negative in the neonate. The neonate became healthy spontaneously and was extubated after 21 days of ventilation care...
July 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
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