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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213690/anticipatory-postural-adjustments-associated-with-reaching-movements-are-programmed-according-to-the-availability-of-visual-information
#1
Roberto Esposti, Carlo Bruttini, Francesco Bolzoni, Paolo Cavallari
During goal-directed arm movements, the eyes, head, and arm are coordinated to look at and reach the target. We examined whether the expectancy of visual information about the target modifies Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs). Ten standing subjects had to (1) move the eyes, head and arm, so as to reach, with both gaze and index-finger, a target of known position placed outside their visual field (Gaze-Reach); (2) look at the target while reaching it (Reach in Full Vision); (3) keep the gaze away until having touched it (Reach then Gaze) and (4) just Gaze without Reach the target...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205131/what-to-expect-from-your-remote-eye-tracker-when-participants-are-unrestrained
#2
Diederick C Niehorster, Tim H W Cornelissen, Kenneth Holmqvist, Ignace T C Hooge, Roy S Hessels
The marketing materials of remote eye-trackers suggest that data quality is invariant to the position and orientation of the participant as long as the eyes of the participant are within the eye-tracker's headbox, the area where tracking is possible. As such, remote eye-trackers are marketed as allowing the reliable recording of gaze from participant groups that cannot be restrained, such as infants, schoolchildren and patients with muscular or brain disorders. Practical experience and previous research, however, tells us that eye-tracking data quality, e...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198356/a-comparison-study-of-visually-stimulated-brain-computer-and-eye-tracking-interfaces
#3
Kaori Suefusa, Toshihisa Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: Brain--computer interfacing (BCI) based on visual stimuli detects the target on a screen on which a user is focusing. The detection of the gazing target can be achieved by tracking gaze positions with a video camera, which is called eye tracking or eye tracking interfaces (ETIs). Both types of interfaces have been developed in different communities. Thus, little work on the comprehensive comparison between these two types of interfaces has been reported. This paper quantitatively compares the performance of these two interfaces on the same experimental platform...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194350/changes-in-eyebrow-position-and-movement-with-aging
#4
Jeongseob Park, Sangho Yun, Daegu Son
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated dynamic changes in eyebrow position related to aging. METHODS: Female participants were recruited and separated into two groups aged 20-30 years (the younger group, n=20; mean age, 24.8 years) and 50-70 years (the older group, n=20; mean age, 55.8 years). Photogrammetry was used to determine the eyebrow position at the medial canthus (MC), lateral limbus, lateral canthus, and lateral end point (EP) for 6 actions: smooth opening (the reference action) and closing of the eye, forward gaze, maximum opening and closing of the eye, and maximum frown...
January 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194135/inaccurate-saccades-and-enhanced-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-suppression-during-combined-eye-head-movements-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-possible-implications-for-cervical-vertigo
#5
Janine L Johnston, Pierre M Daye, Glen T D Thomson
BACKGROUND: The primate ocular motor system is designed to acquire peripheral targets of interest by coordinating visual, vestibular, and neck muscle activation signals. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye-head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition. Previous studies have relied on manipulating head movements in normal individuals to study VOR suppression and gaze kinematics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193545/gaze-cueing-requires-intact-face-processing-insights-from-acquired-prosopagnosia
#6
Nicolas Burra, Dirk Kerzel, Meike Ramon
Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia...
February 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192092/peripheral-oculomotor-training-in-individuals-with-healthy-visual-systems-effects-of-training-and-training-transfer
#7
Dylan Rose, Peter Bex
Individuals with pathological or simulated central visual field loss can be trained to use a preferred retinal locus (PRL) as a substitute for their non-functioning fovea. The functional benefits of a stable PRL are well documented, but little is known about oculomotor adaptations during PRL acquisition or transfer of training to another location in response to real or simulated disease progression. In this study, eight normally-sighted observers were trained to use a pseudo-PRL (pPRL) at one of two locations by guiding an eccentrically placed, gaze-contingent ring over a fixation target...
February 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189059/augmented-reality-warnings-in-vehicles-effects-of-modality-and-specificity-on-effectiveness
#8
Felix Schwarz, Wolfgang Fastenmeier
In the future, vehicles will be able to warn drivers of hidden dangers before they are visible. Specific warning information about these hazards could improve drivers' reactions and the warning effectiveness, but could also impair them, for example, by additional cognitive-processing costs. In a driving simulator study with 88 participants, we investigated the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual) and specificity (low vs. high) on warning effectiveness. For the specific warnings, we used augmented reality as an advanced technology to display the additional auditory or visual warning information...
February 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132975/a-case-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-manifested-only-brain-involvement-by-preceding-parotitis
#9
Takahiro Furukawa, Naoko Matsui, Keiko Tanaka, Yuishin Izumi, Ryuji Kaji
A 33 year-old woman presented with intentional incontinence, motor aphasia, supranuclear gaze palsy, and spasticity after parotitis. Brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed abnormal signaling in long corticospinal tract involving internal capsules and cerebral peduncles, middle cerebellar peduncle, and frontal subcortical white matter lesions. She had a long history of dry eye and mouth. Immunoserological study showed that she was positive for anti-SS-A, aquaporin 4 (AQP4), and AQP5 antibodies. She clinically showed not only Sjögren's syndrome but also neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) without optic neuritis or myelitis...
January 28, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129427/the-effect-of-gaze-angle-on-visual-acuity-in-infantile-nystagmus
#10
Matt J Dunn, Debbie Wiggins, J Margaret Woodhouse, Tom H Margrain, Christopher M Harris, Jonathan T Erichsen
Purpose: Most individuals with infantile nystagmus (IN) have an idiosyncratic gaze angle at which their nystagmus intensity is minimized. Some adopt an abnormal head posture to use this "null zone," and it has therefore long been assumed that this provides people with nystagmus with improved visual acuity (VA). However, recent studies suggest that improving the nystagmus waveform could have little, if any, influence on VA; that is, VA is fundamentally limited in IN. Here, we examined the impact of the null zone on VA...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127750/standing-sagittal-alignment-of-the-whole-axial-skeleton-with-reference-to-the-gravity-line-in-humans
#11
Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Masashi Okamoto, Shun Hatsushikano, Haruka Shimoda, Masatoshi Ono, Takao Homma, Kei Watanabe
Human beings stand upright with the chain of balance beginning at the feet, progressing to the lower limbs (ankles, knees, hip joints, pelvis), each of the spinal segments, and then ending at the cranium to achieve horizontal gaze and balance using minimum muscle activity. The details of the alignment and balance of the chain, however, are not clearly understood, due to the lack of information regarding the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of all bony elements in relation to the gravity line (GL). We performed a clinical study to clarify the standing sagittal alignment of whole axial skeletons in reference to the GL using the EOS slot-scanning 3D X-ray imaging system with simultaneous force plate measurement in a healthy human population...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127416/eye-tracking-of-attention-to-emotion-in-bipolar-i-disorder-links-to-emotion-regulation-and-anxiety-comorbidity
#12
Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson, Jordan A Tharp
Research has yielded mixed findings regarding whether bipolar disorder is related to attentional bias for emotionally-relevant stimuli, yet little research has utilized advances in eye-tracking technology to study attention in this population. The current study used a free-viewing eye-tracking paradigm to test whether people with remitted bipolar disorder show preferential attention to positive faces, and to test if comorbid anxiety or emotion regulation strategies are related to attention bias. Twenty-nine adults with bipolar I disorder and 28 control participants viewed images of emotionally valenced faces while their gaze was tracked, and participants completed self-report measures of emotion regulation...
December 2016: International Journal of Cognitive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126379/use-of-eye-tracking-as-an-innovative-instructional-method-in-surgical-human-anatomy
#13
María Luísa Sánchez-Ferrer, María Dolores Grima-Murcia, Francisco Sánchez-Ferrer, Ana Isabel Hernández-Peñalver, Eduardo Fernández-Jover, Francisco Sánchez Del Campo
OBJECTIVE: Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114567/retinotopic-to-spatiotopic-mapping-in-blind-patients-implanted-with-the-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis
#14
Avi Caspi, Arup Roy, Jessy D Dorn, Robert J Greenberg
Purpose: To quantify the precision of mapping from retinotopic (retina-centered) to spatiotopic (world-centered) coordinates in blind humans implanted with a retinal prosthesis device. Additionally, to demonstrate that an eye tracker can be calibrated on sightless patients based on the percept from a visual implant. Methods: We directly activated epiretinal electrodes to create retinotopic stimuli and recorded the location of the percept at world-based coordinates...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111150/target-displacements-during-eye-blinks-trigger-automatic-recalibration-of-gaze-direction
#15
Gerrit W Maus, Marianne Duyck, Matteo Lisi, Thérèse Collins, David Whitney, Patrick Cavanagh
Eye blinks cause disruptions to visual input and are accompanied by rotations of the eyeball [1]. Like every motor action, these eye movements are subject to noise and introduce instabilities in gaze direction across blinks [2]. Accumulating errors across repeated blinks would be debilitating for visual performance. Here, we show that the oculomotor system constantly recalibrates gaze direction during blinks to counteract gaze instability. Observers were instructed to fixate a visual target while gaze direction was recorded and blinks were detected in real time...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102012/visual-perception-of-faces-with-unilateral-and-bilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-an-eye-tracking-study
#16
Furkan Dindaroğlu, Servet Doğan, Sonia Amado, Ege Doğan
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypotheses that there are differences between orthodontists, individuals with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and laypersons in the visual perception of faces with unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), the faces with UCLP and BCLP are visually perceived differently and the hierarchy of visual attention changes when viewing individuals with CLP. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Experimental Psychology at Ege University, İzmir...
February 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093035/cognitive-emotion-regulation-in-adulthood-and-old-age-positive-gaze-preferences-across-two-strategies
#17
Eric S Allard, Elizabeth A Kensinger
While positive emotional functioning may be enhanced across adulthood and old age, research is mixed as to the types of regulatory strategies that are more or less beneficial for facilitating well-being. The goal of the present study was to examine how specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies assumed to rely on varying levels of effortful processing (selective attention vs. reappraisal) would impact regulatory behaviors (via eye gaze deployment) and resultant affective outcomes. Participants viewed a series of positive, negative, and neutral film clips while their eyes were tracked across three conditions: passive viewing, selective attention, and reappraisal...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092393/surgical-treatment-of-adult-onset-esotropia-characteristics-and-outcomes
#18
Sara F Grace, Kara M Cavuoto, Wei Shi, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of the strabismus, surgical management, and outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for adult-onset esotropia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case study of patients at an academic tertiary referral center who underwent surgical treatment of esotropia acquired at or after age 18 years. Primary outcome measures were resolution of diplopia in primary position and a deviation of 10 prism diopters or less in primary gaze...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056109/postural-ataxia-in-cerebellar-downbeat-nystagmus-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-and-vestibular-signals-and-cerebellar-atrophy
#19
Christoph Helmchen, Jan-Birger Kirchhoff, Martin Göttlich, Andreas Sprenger
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum integrates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals for postural control. Cerebellar patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) complain of unsteadiness of stance and gait as well as blurred vision and oscillopsia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of visual input, gaze eccentricity, vestibular and proprioceptive input on the postural stability in a large cohort of cerebellar patients with DBN, in comparison to healthy age-matched control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055858/icap-an-individualized-model-combining-gaze-parameters-and-image-based-features-to-predict-radiologists-decisions-while-reading-mammograms
#20
Ziba Gandomkar, Kevin Tay, William Ryder, Patrick C Brennan, Claudia Mello-Thoms
This study introduces an individualized tool for identifying mammogram interpretation errors, called eye-Computer Assisted Perception (iCAP). iCAP consists of two modules, one which processes areas marked by radiologists as suspicious for cancer and classifies these as False Positive (FP) or True Positive (TP) decisions, while the second module classifies fixated but not marked locations as False Negative (FN) or True-Negative (TN) decisions. iCAP relies on both radiologists' gaze-related parameters, extracted from eye tracking data, and image-based features...
December 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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