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positions of gaze

Andrea Marotta, Rafael Román-Caballero, Juan Lupiáñez
Eye gaze conveys rich information concerning the states of mind of others, playing a critical role in social interactions, signaling internal states, and guiding others' attention. On the basis of its social significance, some researchers have proposed that eye gaze may represent a unique attentional stimulus. However, contrary to this notion, the majority of the literature has shown indistinguishable attentional effects when eye gaze and arrows have been used as cues. Taking a different approach, in this study we aimed at finding qualitative attentional differences between gazes and arrows when they were used as targets instead of as cues...
March 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Henry Zhao, Lauren Pesavento, Skye Coote, Edrich Rodrigues, Patrick Salvaris, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard, Michael Stephenson, Leonid Churilov, Nawaf Yassi, Stephen M Davis, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical triage scales for prehospital recognition of large vessel occlusion (LVO) are limited by low specificity when applied by paramedics. We created the 3-step ambulance clinical triage for acute stroke treatment (ACT-FAST) as the first algorithmic LVO identification tool, designed to improve specificity by recognizing only severe clinical syndromes and optimizing paramedic usability and reliability. METHODS: The ACT-FAST algorithm consists of (1) unilateral arm drift to stretcher <10 seconds, (2) severe language deficit (if right arm is weak) or gaze deviation/hemineglect assessed by simple shoulder tap test (if left arm is weak), and (3) eligibility and stroke mimic screen...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Sabrina Baldofski, Patrick Lüthold, Ingmar Sperling, Anja Hilbert
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by excessive evening and/or nocturnal eating episodes. Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in other eating disorders. For NES, however, evidence of attentional food processing is lacking. Attention towards food and non-food stimuli was compared using eye-tracking in 19 participants with NES and 19 matched controls without eating disorders during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in initial fixation position or gaze duration...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A French
While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Cody A Cushing, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Kestutis Kveraga
During face perception, we integrate facial expression and eye gaze to take advantage of their shared signals. For example, fear with averted gaze provides a congruent avoidance cue, signaling both threat presence and its location, whereas fear with direct gaze sends an incongruent cue, leaving threat location ambiguous. It has been proposed that the processing of different combinations of threat cues is mediated by dual processing routes: reflexive processing via magnocellular (M) pathway and reflective processing via parvocellular (P) pathway...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Gregory W Poorman, Peter G Passias, Rabia Qureshi, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Samantha Horn, Cole Bortz, Frank Segreto, Amit Jain, Michael Kelly, Richard Hostin, Christopher Ames, Justin Smith, Virginie LaFage, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Chris Shaffrey, Frank Schwab, Munish Gupta
OBJECT: Cost-utility analysis, a special case of cost-effectiveness analysis, estimates the ratio between the cost of an intervention to the benefit it produces in number of quality-adjusted life years. Cervical deformity correction has not been evaluated in terms of cost-utility and in the context of value-based health care. Our objective, therefore, was to determine the cost-utility ratio of cervical deformity correction. METHODS: Retrospective review of a prospective, multicenter cervical deformity database...
February 27, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Martin A Leitritz, Marvin Bende, Liane Jiang, Jana Prokoph, Focke Ziemssen, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Thomas Bende, Dorothea Besch
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present a feasibility study to evaluate and compare a self-constructed, digital-based tangent scale using the Harms tangent screen test for the examination of patients' strabismus angles. METHODS: The documented strabismus angles of 10 patients were measured at nine gaze-positions and compared using the Harms tangent screen test (Harms Screen) and a self-constructed digital screen test (Digital Screen). The primary outcome is the difference in the measured angles between both methods...
March 1, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Vicky Tsang
The eye-tracking experiment was carried out to assess fixation duration and scan paths that individuals with and without high-functioning autism spectrum disorders employed when identifying simple and complex emotions. Participants viewed human photos of facial expressions and decided on the identification of emotion, the negative-positive emotion orientation, and the degree of emotion intensity. Results showed that there was an atypical emotional processing in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group to identify facial emotions when eye-tracking data were compared between groups...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Zeynep Dadaci, Cengiz Kadiyoran, Mustafa Golen, Hilal Akay Cizmecioglu
The authors report a 35-year-old woman who presented 1 month after delivery with the complaint of pain behind her left eye which started during her pregnancy. The patient described increased fullness with dependent head position and pain on left gaze but she had no proptosis and her ocular examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intraconal mass with inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. As the authors did not suspect malignity and her ocular examination was normal without any signs of inflammation, the authors followed the patient closely...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Filofteia Tacea, Edward Loane, Andre Grixti, Ian B Marsh, Kimia Ziahosseini
PURPOSE: Rectus muscle resection in thyroid eye disease (TED) is generally avoided due to the risk of worsening restriction or reactivating inflammation. However, for some patients with large-angle strabismus or diplopia in primary gaze despite maximum recession surgery, rectus muscle resection may be beneficial. We report our surgical experience with rectus muscle resection in the management of vertical strabismus associated with TED. METHODS: Retrospective review of eight patients with TED and vertical diplopia who underwent vertical rectus muscle resection by a single surgeon (IBM) at a tertiary referral centre in Liverpool, UK, from 2001 to 2013...
February 27, 2018: Strabismus
Anupam Singh, P K Pandey, Ajai Agrawal, Kartik Maheshbhai Rana, S K Mittal, Barun Kumar
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of simultaneous superior rectus (SR) recession and anterior transposition of inferior oblique (ATIO) muscle in patients with traumatically lost inferior rectus (IR) muscle. METHODS: Six patients with history of ocular trauma, followed by sudden onset vertical diplopia along with marked hypertropia (HT) and limitation of depression in abduction in the affected eye suggestive of IR disinsertion, were included in this prospective study...
February 27, 2018: Strabismus
Arnaud Saj, Vincent Verdon, Claude-Alain Hauert, Patrik Vuilleumier
Spatial neglect is a complex neuropsychological disorder, in which patients fail to detect and respond to contralesional stimuli. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may reflect a combination of different component deficits, associated with different lesion substrates. Thus, damage to right lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions produce different degrees of left neglect on cancellation and line bisection tasks, respectively. Here we tested for dissociable behaviors across two tasks designed to assess distinct cognitive processes possibly mediating such components, in 14 patients with right focal lesion in either the frontal or parietal lobe...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Marco Costa, Andrea Simone, Valeria Vignali, Claudio Lantieri, Nicola Palena
The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Yue Leng, Yanmei Zhu, Sheng Ge, Xing Qian, Jili Zhang
Eye gaze plays a fundamental role in social communication. The averted eye gaze during social interaction, as the most common form of silent treatment, conveys a signal of social exclusion. In the present study, we examined the time course of brain response to social exclusion by using a modified version of Eye-gaze paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs) data and the subjective rating data showed that the frontocentral P200 was positively correlated with negative mood of excluded events, whereas, the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) was positively correlated with the perceived ostracism intensity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Laura Kress, Mirko Bristle, Tatjana Aue
Optimism bias and positive attention bias have important highly similar implications for mental health but have only been examined in isolation. Investigating the causal relationships between these biases can improve the understanding of their underlying cognitive mechanisms, leading to new directions in neurocognitive research and revealing important information about normal functioning as well as the development, maintenance, and treatment of psychological diseases. In the current project, we hypothesized that optimistic expectancies can exert causal influences on attention deployment...
2018: PloS One
Romy S Bakker, Luc P J Selen, W Pieter Medendorp
For the brain to decide on a reaching movement, it needs to select which hand to use. A number of body-centered factors affect this decision, such as the anticipated movement costs of each arm, recent choice success, handedness, and task demands. While the relative position of each hand to the target is also known to be an important spatial factor, it is unclear which reference frames coordinate the spatial aspects in the decisions of hand choice. Here, we tested the role of gaze- and head-centered reference frames in a hand selection task...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Samantha Engel, Lewis P Shapiro, Tracy Love
Purpose: To evaluate processing and comprehension of pronouns and reflexives in individuals with agrammatic (Broca's) aphasia and age-matched control participants. Specifically, we evaluate processing and comprehension patterns in terms of a specific hypothesis -- the Intervener Hypothesis - that posits that the difficulty of individuals with agrammatic (Broca's) aphasia results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between two elements of a dependency chain...
February 2018: Journal of Neurolinguistics
Yong-Hwee Nah, Robyn L Young, Neil Brewer
While autism spectrum disorder screening tools provide a useful resource for practitioners, the reality is they are underused. The justifications often provided include the time required for administration and the training involved. A brief tool with good psychometric properties that require minimal training is required. This study examined the development and the psychometric properties of a brief version of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood. The data showed the potential of the brief version of Autism Detection in Early Childhood for screening children age 12-36 months...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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