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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214434/an-examination-of-alcohol-risk-profiles-and-co-occurring-mental-health-symptoms-among-oef-oif-veterans
#1
Jennifer M Cadigan, Alicia K Klanecky, Matthew P Martens
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and meet criteria for mental health disorders including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Less is known how distinct profiles of alcohol use behavior relate to mental health symptoms. METHOD: The current study examined the extent that indicators of alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, peak blood alcohol concentration, and alcohol-related problems) are categorized into different alcohol risk profiles utilizing a person-centered approach...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214119/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-olifants-river-basin-south-africa-bioaccumulation-and-trophic-transfer-through-a-subtropical-aquatic-food-web
#2
Vera Verhaert, Nadine Newmark, Wendy D'Hollander, Adrian Covaci, Wynand Vlok, Victor Wepener, Abraham Addo-Bediako, Antoinette Jooste, Johannes Teuchies, Ronny Blust, Lieven Bervoets
This study investigates the trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs and PFASs) in the subtropical aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River Basin (South Africa) by means of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Relative trophic levels were determined by stable isotope analysis. POP levels in surface water, sediment and biota were low. Only ∑DDTs levels in fish muscle (<LOQ-61ng/g ww) were comparable or higher than values from other temperate and tropical regions. Significant positive relationships between relative trophic level and PCB, DDT and HCH concentrations were observed so trophic levels play an important role in the movement of contaminants through the food web...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213304/photocatalytic-effects-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-aquatic-organisms-current-knowledge-and-suggestions-for-future-research
#3
REVIEW
Vena N Haynes, J Evan Ward, Brandon J Russell, Alexander G Agrios
Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms...
February 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212657/pharmacists-views-and-reported-practices-in-relation-to-a-new-generic-drug-substitution-policy-in-lebanon-a-mixed-methods-study
#4
Fadi El-Jardali, Racha Fadlallah, Rami Z Morsi, Nour Hemadi, Mounir Al-Gibbawi, Magda Haj, Suzan Khalil, Youssef Saklawi, Diana Jamal, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Governments in both developed and developing countries have adopted generic drug substitution policies to decrease pharmaceutical expenditures and improve access to medicine. In August 2015, the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Lebanon introduced generic drug substitution and a unified medical prescription form as policy instruments to promote generic drug use. The objective of this exploratory study was to examine the attitudes of community pharmacists and the reported practices in relation to the implementation of the new generic drug substitution policy...
February 17, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212417/splitax-a-novel-method-to-assess-the-function-of-engineered-nucleases
#5
Richard A Axton, Sharmin S Haideri, Martha Lopez-Yrigoyen, Helen A Taylor, Lesley M Forrester
Engineered nucleases have been used to generate knockout or reporter cell lines and a range of animal models for human disease. These new technologies also hold great promise for therapeutic genome editing. Current methods to evaluate the activity of these nucleases are time consuming, require extensive optimization and are hampered by readouts with low signals and high background. We have developed a simple and easy to perform method (SplitAx) that largely addresses these issues and provides a readout of nuclease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212309/the-association-of-knowledge-and-behaviours-related-to-salt-with-24-h-urinary-salt-excretion-in-a-population-from-north-and-south-india
#6
Claire Johnson, Sailesh Mohan, Kris Rogers, Roopa Shivashankar, Sudhir Raj Thout, Priti Gupta, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor, Jacqui Webster, Anand Krishnan, Pallab K Maulik, K Srinath Reddy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Bruce Neal
Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants' physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211981/first-report-of-factors-associated-with-satisfaction-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis
#7
Eric Riklin, Mojtaba Talaei-Kheoi, Vanessa L Merker, Monica R Sheridan, Justin T Jordan, Scott R Plotkin, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
Patient satisfaction is an integral part of quality health care. We assessed whether health literacy and psychosocial factors are associated with patient satisfaction among adults with neurofibromatosis. Eighty adults (mean age = 44 years; 55% female, 87% white) with NF (50% NF1, 41% NF2, and 9% schwannomatosis) completed an adapted Functional, Communicative, and Critical Health Literacy Questionnaire (FCCHL), the Health Literacy Assessment, a series of Patient Reported Outcome Measures Information System (PROMIS) psychosocial tests, and demographics before the medical visit...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211644/healthcare-professionals-and-pharmacovigilance-of-pediatric-adverse-drug-reactions-a-5-year-analysis-of-adverse-events-reporting-system-database-of-the-food-and-drug-administration
#8
Caterina Bigi, Marco Tuccori, Guido Bocci
BACKGROUND: To analyze the Adverse Events Reporting System (AERS) database of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), investigating the characteristics of pediatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and describing the effective participation of healthcare professionals in the reporting activity. METHODS: Reports of ADRs were obtained from the FDA website. Only ADRs in pediatric subjects (divided by age, by country and by professional category) were included into the analysis...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211530/factors-affecting-leaf-selection-by-foregut-fermenting-proboscis-monkeys-new-insight-from-in-vitro-digestibility-and-toughness-of-leaves
#9
Ikki Matsuda, Marcus Clauss, Augustine Tuuga, John Sugau, Goro Hanya, Takakazu Yumoto, Henry Bernard, Jürgen Hummel
Free-living animals must make dietary choices in terms of chemical and physical properties, depending on their digestive physiology and availability of food resources. Here we comprehensively evaluated the dietary choices of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consuming young leaves. We analysed the data for leaf toughness and digestibility measured by an in vitro gas production method, in addition to previously reported data on nutrient composition. Leaf toughness, in general, negatively correlated with the crude protein content, one of the most important nutritional factors affecting food selection by leaf-eating primates...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211100/safety-and-feasibility-of-heated-egg-yolk-challenge-for-children-with-egg-allergies
#10
Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Kiyotake Ogura, Magnus P Borres, Motohiro Ebisawa
BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy is a frequent cause of childhood food allergy. Egg yolk is used in various commonly consumed foods; if children with allergy to hen's egg could eat heated egg yolk, their quality of life (QOL) would improve. No reports exist regarding oral food challenges (OFCs) for heated egg yolk. We aimed to clarify whether pediatric patients allergic to hen's egg could consume heated egg yolk. METHODS: Data from pediatric patients who had undergone OFCs for heated egg yolk were evaluated retrospectively...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210216/flavor-dependent-retention-of-remote-food-preference-memory
#11
Aditya Singh, Suraj Kumar, Vikram Pal Singh, Asish Das, J Balaji
Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209151/exploring-relationships-between-hospital-patient-safety-culture-and-consumer-reports-safety-scores
#12
Scott Alan Smith, Naomi Yount, Joann Sorra
BACKGROUND: A number of private and public companies calculate and publish proprietary hospital patient safety scores based on publicly available quality measures initially reported by the U.S. federal government. This study examines whether patient safety culture perceptions of U.S. hospital staff in a large national survey are related to publicly reported patient safety ratings of hospitals. METHODS: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS) assesses provider and staff perceptions of hospital patient safety culture...
February 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208811/does-the-valuation-of-nutritional-claims-differ-among-consumers-insights-from-spain
#13
Francesc Jurado, Azucena Gracia
The presence in the market of food products with nutritional claims is increasing. The objective of this paper is to assess consumers' valuation of some nutritional claims ('high in fiber' and 'reduced saturated fat') in a European country and to test for differences among consumers. An artefactual non-hypothetical experiment was carried out in a realistic setting (mock/real brick-and-mortar supermarket) with a sample of 121 Spanish consumers stratified by gender, age, and body mass index. A latent class model was specified and estimated with the data from the experiment...
February 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208688/the-impact-of-heat-exposure-and-sleep-restriction-on-firefighters-work-performance-and-physiology-during-simulated-wildfire-suppression
#14
Grace E Vincent, Brad Aisbett, Brianna Larsen, Nicola D Ridgers, Rod Snow, Sally A Ferguson
This study was designed to examine the effects of ambient heat on firefighters' physical task performance, and physiological and perceptual responses when sleep restricted during simulated wildfire conditions. Thirty firefighters were randomly allocated to the sleep restricted (n = 17, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Firefighters performed two days of simulated, intermittent, self-paced work circuits comprising six firefighting tasks...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207926/alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drinks-daily-context-of-use
#15
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco
The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. The present study used a two-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred METHODS: Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week...
February 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207373/food-label-knowledge-usage-and-attitudes-of-older-adults
#16
Beverly A Jackey, Nancy Cotugna, Elizabeth Orsega-Smith
Few recent studies have investigated food label practices in older adults. This cross-sectional study surveyed adults, 60 years and older in Delaware (n = 100, 82% female, 74% between 60 and 79 years, 49% Caucasian, 45% African Americans) to examine associations between food label knowledge, attitudes, and usage patterns. A 28-item questionnaire assessed knowledge, attitudes, usage, and demographic information. Bivariate analysis results showed food label knowledge was associated with education and monthly income...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207328/socioeconomic-determinants-of-sodium-intake-in-adult-populations-of-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Carlos de Mestral, Ana-Lucia Mayén, Dusan Petrovic, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
BACKGROUND: A poorer quality diet among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) may partly explain the higher burden of noncommunicable disease among disadvantaged populations. Because there is a link between sodium intake and noncommunicable diseases, we systematically reviewed the current evidence on the social patterning of sodium intake. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between SES and sodium intake in healthy adult populations of high-income countries...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207316/calcium-sulfate-dihydrate-urolithiasis-in-a-pet-rabbit
#18
Jaroslav Kucera, Tamara Koristkova, Barbora Gottwaldova, Vladimir Jekl
CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-year-old sexually intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of a 1-day history of signs of anorexia and depression. CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical examination revealed signs of depression, hunched posture, low skin elasticity (suggesting dehydration), slightly distended abdomen, and penile and preputial edema. The owner reported that the rabbit had been fed a routine diet, received water via a sipper bottle, and was allowed free movement around the home. It had been observed by the owner to bite and chew gypsum-based plaster from the walls of the home...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203465/st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-normal-coronary-arteries-after-consuming-energy-drinks
#19
S Michael Gharacholou, Nkechinyere Ijioma, Emma Banwart, Freddy Del Carpio Munoz
The use of energy drinks, which often contain stimulants, is common among young persons, yet there have been few reports of adverse cardiac events. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to our facility with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the setting of using energy drinks. Angiography revealed no obstructive coronary disease. The patient had elevation of cardiac troponin. Noninvasive testing with echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated both abnormalities in resting wall motion at the anterior apex along with late gadolinium enhancement of the anterior wall, respectively...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202929/prohibition-of-e-cigarettes-in-the-us-are-prohibitions-where-alcohol-is-consumed-related-to-lower-alcohol-consumption
#20
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, Melissa A Cyders
Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
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