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Maddox Rod

Jinu Han, Minjae Kang, Sueng-Han Han
We present a case of acquired severe excyclotropia that occurred following multiple orbital wall fracture and traumatic superior oblique palsy in an 18-year-old man. The patient suffered from severe torsional diplopia in the right eye; double Maddox rod testing showed excylotorsion of 25°. After anterior nasal transposition of the right inferior oblique muscle, His subjective torsional diplopia improved; however, severe antielevation syndrome was noted after surgery.
September 20, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
G E Arblaster, J P Burke
AIM: To describe the surgical management and long-term outcome of a case of symptomatic residual acquired primary position excyclotropia, without changing the primary position vertical deviation. METHODS: This case report describes ipsilateral half tendon width transpositions of the left superior rectus temporally and inferior rectus nasally, combined with right inferior rectus posterior fixation suture at 11 mm. RESULTS: Three days postoperatively, the transposition procedure produced a 10° cyclotorsional change in primary position, resulting in 5° of incyclotorsion (double Maddox rod)...
September 2016: Strabismus
Katarina Ivana Tudor, Damir Petravić, Anđela Jukić, Zlatko Juratovac
OBJECTIVE: To present a patient with a sudden onset ocular tilt reaction (OTR) and review recent knowledge and evolving insights of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of skew deviation and OTR. METHODS: A middle-aged hypertensive man who had previously suffered stroke with good recovery presented with sudden-onset double vision, slurred speech, ataxia, and a head tilt. Romberg test was positive. The patient denied having disturbances of visual acuity, eye pain, or recent trauma...
July 29, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Sara Flodin, Per Karlsson, Marita Andersson Grönlund
PURPOSE: To establish if cyclotorsion measurements obtained in a patient population using different methods of testing give equivalent results, and if the results from each test are repeatable over time. METHODS: Twenty referrals, from the orthoptic waiting list at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden, with vertical deviation stated as the primary reason for referral, were examined. Subjective cyclotorsion measurements using three different methods were performed...
2016: Strabismus
Kyle Arnoldi, James D Reynolds
PURPOSE: Thyroid eye disease (TED) frequently causes strabismus and diplopia. Though the condition involves multiple extraocular muscles in both eyes, the inferior rectus (IR) muscle is particularly susceptible. TED may be so asymmetric as to mask the involvement of the contralateral IR. The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree of preoperative cyclotropia measured with an objective test could be used to predict the extent of bilateral IR disease and assist in surgical planning...
2015: American Orthoptic Journal
Tara L Alvarez
PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between the near dissociated phoria and disparity vergence eye movements. Convergence insufficiency (CI) patients before vergence therapy were compared to: (1) the same patients after vergence therapy; and (2) binocularly normal controls (BNC). METHODS: Sixteen subjects were studied-twelve BNC and four with CI. Measurements from the CI subjects were obtained before and after 18 h of vergence eye movement therapy. The near dissociated phoria was measured using the flashed Maddox rod technique...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ken Steinegger, Raoul De Haller, Delphine Courvoisier, Paolo Scolozzi
The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the prevalence of orthoptic anomalies following conservative management of pure blowout orbital fractures and to evaluate their clinical relevance. Clinical and radiologic data of patients with unilateral conservatively managed pure blowout orbital fractures with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. Eligible patients were contacted and invited to undergo an extended ophthalmologic examination as follows: distance and near visual acuities, Hertel exophthalmometry, corneal light reflex (Hirschberg test), ductions and versions in the 6 cardinal fields of gaze, eye deviation with prisms and alternate cover test in all of the 9-gaze directions with Maddox rod, degrees of incyclo/excyclotorsion with right and left eye fixation, horizontal and vertical deviation with Hess-Weiss coordimetry, degree of horizontal/vertical and incyclo/excyclotorsion deviation with Harms wall deviometry, and vertical deviation with Bielschowsky head-tilt test...
July 2015: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Dennis M Maddox, Gayle B Collin, Akihiro Ikeda, C Herbert Pratt, Sakae Ikeda, Britt A Johnson, Ron E Hurd, Lindsay S Shopland, Jürgen K Naggert, Bo Chang, Mark P Krebs, Patsy M Nishina
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular basis and characterize the pathological consequences of a spontaneous mutation named cone photoreceptor function loss 8 (cpfl8) in a mouse model with a significantly reduced cone electroretinography (ERG) response. METHODS: The chromosomal position for the recessive cpfl8 mutation was determined by DNA pooling and by subsequent genotyping with simple sequence length polymorphic markers in an F2 intercross phenotyped by ERG...
June 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jitendra Jethani, Paaraj Dave
Ocular torsion can been measured by perimetry, double Maddox rod, Bagolini glasses, indirect ophthalmoscopy lens, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, synoptophore, and fundus photography. Wide variations have been reported in the measurement of the disk foveal angle (DFA) using fundus photography. We describe a technique for measuring the DFA, formed by a horizontal line extending from the center of the optic disk and a line from the center of disk to the fovea, using Microsoft PowerPoint and ImageJ software.
February 2015: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Justin D Marsh, Martin W Durkin, Andrew E Hack, Bethany B Markowitz, Edward W Cheeseman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The double Maddox rod is a commonly used instrument to test for cyclotorsion in the clinical setting. This paper assesses the ability of patients without torsional complaint to accurately demonstrate torsional status with varying degrees of induced hypertropia as tested by double Maddox rod. METHODS: Thirty-seven orthophoric subjects underwent double Maddox rod testing with vertical prism of 3(Δ), 10(Δ), 16(Δ), 20(Δ), and 30(Δ). Subjective torsion was recorded for each prism diopter...
2014: American Orthoptic Journal
Mingmei Liu, Jingcong Zhao, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of superior oblique recession on the status of ocular torsion. METHODS: Twenty patients (31 eyes ) underwent superior oblique recession for treatment of superior oblique overacting, 11 cases had both eyes involvement while 9 had monocular.Objective cyclotorsion were examined pre-operation, as well as 1, 30, 90 days post-operation with fundus photograph. The photographs were transferred to a computer and then the fovea-disa angle (FDA) was measured by a software for drawing pictures...
July 2014: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Federico G Velez, Erica Oltra, Sherwin J Isenberg, Stacy L Pineles
BACKGROUND: Superior rectus transposition with or without medial rectus recession has been advocated for the treatment of abducens nerve palsy and esotropic Duane syndrome. Early reports have focused mainly on postoperative ocular alignment, but there is concern that superior rectus transposition may induce torsional misalignment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate torsional outcomes after superior rectus transposition surgery using prospective preoperative and postoperative torsional assessments...
October 2014: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Marc Dinkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article offers a pragmatic roadmap to the practicing neurologist on how to approach the patient with double vision. Strategies of history taking and examination techniques are reviewed, followed by a broad overview of the causes of diplopia organized by neuroanatomic localization. Diplopia may be the first symptom of serious vision or life-threatening neurologic disease, and its correct localization and diagnosis are therefore essential. The systems responsible for ocular movement and alignment in the vertical and horizontal plane include complex supranuclear circuitry, brainstem nuclei, cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, and their respective neuromuscular junctions and target muscles...
August 2014: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Yehoshua Almog, Arie Y Nemet, Yokrat Ton
BACKGROUND: To describe a modified technique to measure ocular cyclotorsion using only 1 Maddox rod and compare it with the traditional double Maddox rod test (DMR). METHODS: Ocular cyclotorsion was prospectively measured in 48 consecutive patients with superior oblique palsy. Four measurements were taken; 2 using 2 Maddox rods: (A) a red rod in front of the affected eye and a white rod in front of the fellow eye and (B) red rod in front of the sound eye and red in front of the affected eye...
December 2014: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Jose Luis Cebrian, Beatriz Antona, Ana Barrio, Enrique Gonzalez, Angel Gutierrez, Isabel Sanchez
PURPOSE: To determine the interexaminer and intraexaminer repeatability of the modified Thorington test (TH) for distance vision in young adults and to compare these results with those observed for the heterophoria tests most commonly used in clinical practice. Agreement among tests was also assessed. METHODS: Distance heterophoria was quantified on two separate occasions by two examiners in 110 subjects aged 18 to 32 years (mean, 19.74 years; SD, 2.5 years) using four different tests: cover test (CT) Von Graefe, Maddox rod, and modified TH...
July 2014: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam, Frank Eperjesi, James Kundart, Kazem Mostafavi-Nam
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether stereoacuity can be used as an indicator of prism adaptation. In particular, we wanted to know whether the time required for stereoacuity to return to the initial level after viewing through a prism can be used to determine the degree of adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen subjects participated in this study. Stereoacuity and dissociated phoria were determined using the TNO stereotest and the Maddox rod, respectively...
August 2014: Current Eye Research
Jung Jin Lee, Ko I Chun, Seung-Hee Baek, Ungsoo Samuel Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion in acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP). METHODS: Thirty-one patients with acquired unilateral SOP were recruited for this study. The torsional angle of each patient was assessed via one objective method (fundus photography) and two subjective methods (double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope). The patient population was divided into two groups (concordance group, n = 19 and discordance group, n = 12) according to the correspondence between the hypertropic eye (paralytic eye) and the more extorted eye (non-fixating eye), which was evaluated by fundus photography...
February 2013: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
E Khawam, M Abdulaal, V Massoud, M Jaroudi
Cyclovertical muscle palsies are very common. We propose rules that help clinicians and resident physicians diagnose easily the affected muscle. We simplified evaluation of the deviation by measuring it only in the cardinal directions of gaze and omit the oblique fields of gaze. Then the Beilschowsky forced head tilt test is done routinely along with measurement of the cyclotorsion by the double Maddox rod test. In oblique muscle palsy, when the vertical deviation is less than 15 prism diopters (PD), the procedure of choice is weakening of the direct oblique antagonist muscle...
2012: Binocular Vision & Strabology Quarterly, Simms-Romano's
Nijil Sanker, Avinash Prabhu, Avik Ray
BACKGROUND: Many clinical techniques exist to quantify the magnitude of heterophoria in free space. In this article, we determine the agreement between the modified Thorington test and three different tests for dissociated heterophoria at near distance in free space. METHODS: The modified Thorington, Maddox rod, von Graefe and alternate cover tests were performed on 49 university students at near distance in free space. The 95% limits of agreement between the modified Thorington and other tests were compared in pairs by using the Bland-Altman statistical test...
November 2012: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Raul de Haller, Benoît Imholz, Paolo Scolozzi
PURPOSE: To prospectively assess the incidence of orthoptic anomalies and, more specifically, the possible development of pseudo-Brown syndrome related to inferior oblique muscle (IO) myotomy after the transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach for orbital fracture repair and its effect on the possible development of annoying diplopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data from 14 patients with severe isolated medial wall or combined medial wall/floor fractures treated using titanium meshes placed using a transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach...
August 2012: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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