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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321545/mathematical-model-of-salt-cavern-leaching-for-gas-storage-in-high-insoluble-salt-formations
#1
Jinlong Li, Xilin Shi, Chunhe Yang, Yinping Li, Tongtao Wang, Hongling Ma
A mathematical model is established to predict the salt cavern development during leaching in high-insoluble salt formations. The salt-brine mass transfer rate is introduced, and the effects of the insoluble sediments on the development of the cavern are included. Considering the salt mass conservation in the cavern, the couple equations of the cavern shape, brine concentration and brine velocity are derived. According to the falling and accumulating rules of the insoluble particles, the governing equations of the insoluble sediments are deduced...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317768/ultrafast-syn-eruptive-degassing-and-ascent-trigger-high-energy-basic-eruptions
#2
Marisa Giuffrida, Marco Viccaro, Luisa Ottolini
Lithium gradients in plagioclase are capable of recording extremely short-lived processes associated with gas loss from magmas prior to extrusion at the surface. We present SIMS profiles of the 7Li/30Si ion ratio in plagioclase crystals from products of the paroxysmal sequence that occurred in the period 2011-2013 at Mt. Etna (Italy) in an attempt to constrain the final ascent and degassing processes leading to these powerful eruptions involving basic magma. The observed Li concentrations reflect cycles of Li addition to the melt through gas flushing, and a syn-eruptive stage of magma degassing driven by decompression that finally produce significant Li depletion from the melt...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301677/heat-balance-model-for-a-human-body-in-the-form-of-wet-bulb-globe-temperature-indices
#3
Tomonori Sakoi, Tohru Mochida, Yoshihito Kurazumi, Kohei Kuwabara, Yosuke Horiba, Shin-Ichi Sawada
The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296489/deformation-velocity-imaging-using-optical-coherence-tomography-and-its-applications-to-the-cornea
#4
Samuel Lawman, Peter W Madden, Vito Romano, Yue Dong, Sharon Mason, Bryan M Williams, Stephen B Kaye, Colin E Willoughby, Simon P Harding, Yao-Chun Shen, Yalin Zheng
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor human donor corneas non-invasively during the de-swelling process following storage for corneal transplantation, but currently only resultant thickness as a function of time is extracted. To visualize and quantify the mechanism of de-swelling, we present a method exploiting the nanometer sensitivity of the Fourier phase in OCT data to image deformation velocities. The technique was demonstrated by non-invasively showing during de-swelling that osmotic flow through an intact epithelium is negligible and removing the endothelium approximately doubled the initial flow at that interface...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187198/preliminary-reference-intervals-and-the-impact-of-citrate-storage-time-for-thrombelastography-in-cats-including-delta-and-the-velocity-curve
#5
Carolin Engelen, Andreas Moritz, Franziska Barthel, Natali Bauer
BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography is a useful tool in assessment of hemostasis. Beside the traditional variables, the velocity curve and the variable delta have lately earned attention. The velocity curve provides knowledge about the speed of clot formation including information about thrombin generation. Delta, which only reflects enzymatic coagulation, allows the determination of the origin of hypercoagulability when compared to clot rigidity, a variable that reflects both platelet and enzymatic activity...
November 29, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169423/-isolation-and-identification-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Suohua Ge, Yongbin Ma, Xing Rui, Junhua Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Jianhua Su
Objective To investigate the isolation and identification of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and the effect of -80DegreesCelsius cryopreservation on the structural integrity of the EVs' membrane. Methods EVs were isolated and purified from the culture supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-CS) by ultrahigh velocity centrifugation. The size and morphology of EVs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
October 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167020/laboratory-validation-of-a-point-velocity-probe-for-measuring-horizontal-flow-from-any-direction
#7
B Gibson, J F Devlin
The point-velocity probe (PVP) quantifies groundwater speed and flow direction, i.e., velocity, at the centimeter scale. The first probe designs required that the flow direction be known a priori, within about 100° in order to position the probe during installation. This study introduces and assesses a '360° PVP' that measures flow from any direction without foreknowledge of the groundwater velocity. In tests conducted in a Nested Storage Tank (NeST) aquifer simulator packed with sand, PVP-measured velocities matched expected velocities within ±9° in direction and ±15% in magnitude, on average, consistent with previously reported PVP performances in laboratory studies...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127253/first-biochemical-and-crystallographic-characterization-of-a-fast-performing-ferritin-from-a-marine-invertebrate
#8
E De Meulenaere, J B Bailey, F A Tezcan, D D Deheyn
Ferritin, a multimeric cage-like enzyme, is integral to iron metabolism across all phyla through the sequestration and storage of iron through efficient ferroxidase activity. While ferritin sequences from around 900 species have been identified, crystal structures from only 50 species have been reported, the majority from bacterial origin. We recently isolated a secreted ferritin from the marine invertebrate Chaetopterus sp. (parchment tubeworm), which resides in muddy coastal seafloors. Here, we present the first ferritin from a marine invertebrate to be crystallized, and its biochemical characterization...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116806/millimeter-sized-hole-damming
#9
So Hung Huynh, Dwayne Chung Kim Chung, Murat Muradoglu, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
Valves used to control liquid filling and draining processes from storage typically need to be actuated. Here, we show that similar flow enabling and restricting operations can be achieved through millimeter scale holes that function according to the amount of hydrostatic pressure applied without any other intervention. This phenomena is exhibited using receptacles where the base is made of either a hydrophilic or superhydrophobic substrate with hole sizes ranging from 1.0-2.0 mm. The construction is such that the drainage flow velocities are of the same order in both substrates and follow Torricelli's law trends...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079732/monitoring-ground-water-storage-at-mesoscale-using-seismic-noise-30-years-of-continuous-observation-and-thermo-elastic-and-hydrological-modeling
#10
Thomas Lecocq, Laurent Longuevergne, Helle Anette Pedersen, Florent Brenguier, Klaus Stammler
Groundwater is a vital freshwater resource for both humans and ecosystems. Achieving sustainable management requires a detailed knowledge of the aquifer structure and of its behavior in response to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. Traditional monitoring is carried out using piezometer networks, and recently complemented with new geophysical or satellite-based observations. These techniques survey either local (small-scale) water systems or regional areas (large scale) but, to date, adequate observation tools are lacking at the water management scale (i...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050419/successful-chilling-of-red-legged-partridge-alectoris-rufa-sperm-for-use-in-artificial-insemination
#11
J Santiago-Moreno, C Castaño, A Toledano-Díaz, M C Esteso, A López-Sebastián, S Villaverde-Morcillo, S G Dávila, M G Gil, E Blesbois
The fertilizing capacity of pure, fresh avian semen may disappear in just half an hour, hindering its successful use in artificial insemination (AI) projects. Longer storage requires the use of infra-physiological temperatures and of semen diluents that help preserve the spermatozoa but that do not interfere with their fertilizing capacity. This study examines the effect on sperm quality of storing red-legged partridge sperm for 3 h at 5°C with 2 different semen extenders: 1) a medium referred to as L&R-84, composed of sodium glutamate, glucose, magnesium acetate, potassium acetate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 2) Lake 7...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041103/ultraslow-weak-light-solitons-and-their-storage-and-retrieval-in-a-kagome-structured-hollow-core-photonic-crystal-fiber
#12
Datang Xu, Zhiming Chen, Guoxiang Huang
We investigate the formation and propagation of ultraslow weak-light solitons and their memory in the atomic gas filled in a kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that, due to the strong light-atom coupling contributed by the transverse confinement of the HC-PCF, the EIT and hence the optical Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced, and hence optical solitons with very short formation distance, ultraslow propagation velocity, and extremely low generation power can be realized...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019666/airborne-methane-emission-measurements-for-selected-oil-and-gas-facilities-across-california
#13
Shobhit Mehrotra, Ian Faloona, Maxime Suard, Stephen Conley, Marc L Fischer
We report 65 individual measurements of methane emissions from 24 oil and gas facilities across California. Methane emission rates were estimated using in situ methane and wind velocity measurements from a small aircraft by a novel Gauss' Theorem flux integral approach. The estimates are compared with annual mean emissions reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) through their respective greenhouse gas reporting programs. The average emissions from 36 measurements of 10 gas storage facilities were within a factor of 2 of emissions reported to USEPA or CARB, though large variance was observed and the reporting database did not contain all of the facilities...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951909/stress-relaxation-in-viscous-soft-spheres
#14
Julia Boschan, Siddarth A Vasudevan, Pouyan E Boukany, Ellák Somfai, Brian P Tighe
We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic...
October 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950568/enthalpy-based-multiple-relaxation-time-lattice-boltzmann-method-for-solid-liquid-phase-change-heat-transfer-in-metal-foams
#15
Qing Liu, Ya-Ling He, Qing Li
In this paper, an enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams under the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) condition. The enthalpy-based MRT-LB method consists of three different MRT-LB models: one for flow field based on the generalized non-Darcy model, and the other two for phase-change material (PCM) and metal-foam temperature fields described by the LTNE model. The moving solid-liquid phase interface is implicitly tracked through the liquid fraction, which is simultaneously obtained when the energy equations of PCM and metal foam are solved...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949274/determination-of-the-time-course-of-caloric-nystagmus-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-degeneration-using-caloric-step-stimulus-procedure
#16
Takamori Takeda, Ayane Makabe, Chiaki Hirai, Takeshi Tsutsumi
CONCLUSIONS: The step stimulus procedure can provide information on the time course of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Spinocerebellar degeneration and aging seem to shorten the time constant of the onset of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, causing a rapid rise up. Failure of the central processing of velocity storage might contribute to this rapid rise up. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the time course characteristics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration...
September 26, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941360/the-study-on-six-green-insensitive-high-energetic-coordination-polymers-based-on-alkali-alkali-earth-metals-and-4-5-bis-tetrazol-5-yl-2h-1-2-3-triazole
#17
Dong Chen, Dong Jing, Qi Zhang, Xianggui Xue, Shaohua Gou, Hongzhen Li, Fude Nie
Constructing insensitive high-performance ECPs with alkali/alkali-earth metal ions and nitrogen-rich organic backbone has been proved a feasible strategy in this work. Six diverse dimensional novel ECPs (Compounds 1-6) were successfully synthesized from Na(I), Cs(I), Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II) ions and a nitrogen-rich triheterocyclic 4,5-Bis(tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole (H3BTT). All compounds show outstanding stability and low sensitivity, the thermal stability of these ECPs are significantly improved as the structural reinforcement increased from 1D to 3D, in which the decomposition temperature of 3D Ba(II) based compound 6 is as high as 397 oC...
September 23, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937829/nonlinearity-coherence-and-complexity-biophysical-aspects-related-to-health-and-disease
#18
Alberto Foletti, Larissa Brizhik
Biological organisms are complex open dissipative systems whose dynamical stability is sustained due to the exchange of matter, energy and information. Dynamical stability occurs through a number of mechanisms that sustain efficient adaptive dynamics. Such properties of living matter can be the consequence of a self-consistent state of matter and electromagnetic field (EMF). Based on the soliton model of charge transport in redox processes, we describe a possible mechanism of the origin of endogenous EMF and coherence...
September 22, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924261/a-chip-integrated-coherent-photonic-phononic-memory
#19
Moritz Merklein, Birgit Stiller, Khu Vu, Stephen J Madden, Benjamin J Eggleton
Controlling and manipulating quanta of coherent acoustic vibrations-phonons-in integrated circuits has recently drawn a lot of attention, since phonons can function as unique links between radiofrequency and optical signals, allow access to quantum regimes and offer advanced signal processing capabilities. Recent approaches based on optomechanical resonators have achieved impressive quality factors allowing for storage of optical signals. However, so far these techniques have been limited in bandwidth and are incompatible with multi-wavelength operation...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917180/learning-from-the-operation-pathology-and-maintenance-of-a-bioretention-system-to-optimize-urban-drainage-practices
#20
Marina Batalini de Macedo, Altair Rosa, César Ambrogi Ferreira do Lago, Eduardo Mario Mendiondo, Vladimir Caramori Borges de Souza
LID practices for runoff control are increasingly being used as an integrated solution in urban drainage, helping to achieve hydrological balance close to the pre-urbanized period and decrease the diffuse pollution transported to urban rivers. Regarding bioretention, there is already broad knowledge about the detention of peak flows and their treatment capacity for many pollutants. However, there are still few field studies in microdrainage scale, which analyze the actual operation of these devices and raise common problems found, especially in subtropical climate...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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