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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600162/the-effect-of-antioxidants-on-sperm-motility-activation-in-the-booroolong-frog
#1
L M Keogh, P G Byrne, A J Silla
Motile sperm can generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) post activation, and ROS can quickly accumulate to levels that impair motility and fertilising ability. The addition of antioxidants to sperm suspensions has been suggested as a means of reducing oxidative stress and enhancing sperm motility during and after sperm storage. Despite this, very few studies have attempted to experimentally test the effects of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in animals that use an external mode of fertilisation, espcially in amphibians...
May 20, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575486/leaf-water-maintains-daytime-transpiration-in-young-cryptomeria-japonica-trees
#2
Sawa Himeno, Wakana Azuma, Koichiro Gyokusen, H Roaki Ishii
Compared with stem water storage, leaf water storage is understudied although it may be important for alleviating water stress by contributing quickly and directly to transpiration demand. To quantify the relative contribution of stem versus leaf water storage to daily water deficit, we measured diurnal changes in transpiration rate, sap-flow velocity and stem radius of 10-year-old Cryptomeria japonica D. Don trees. We assumed that the duration of time lags between transpiration rate and sap-flow velocity reflected stored water in the stem and leaf, and that stem volume change represented water content of elastic tissue...
May 31, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552362/transformation-of-perception-from-sensory-to-motor-cortex
#3
Arash Fassihi, Athena Akrami, Francesca Pulecchi, Vinzenz Schönfelder, Mathew E Diamond
To better understand how a stream of sensory data is transformed into a percept, we examined neuronal activity in vibrissal sensory cortex, vS1, together with vibrissal motor cortex, vM1 (a frontal cortex target of vS1), while rats compared the intensity of two vibrations separated by an interstimulus delay. Vibrations were "noisy," constructed by stringing together over time a sequence of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution; each vibration's mean speed was proportional to the width of the normal distribution...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536922/head-shaking-tilt-suppression-a-clinical-test-to-discern-central-from-peripheral-causes-of-vertigo
#4
F C Zuma E Maia, Renato Cal, Ricardo D'Albora, Sergio Carmona, Michael C Schubert
Tilt suppression refers to both tilting the head away from an Earth vertical axis and a reduction of an induced horizontal nystagmus. This phenomenon of reducing an induced horizontal nystagmus involves a circuitry of neurons within the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum (collectively referred to as velocity storage) and signals from the otolith end organs. Lesions involving this circuitry can disrupt tilt suppression of induced horizontal nystagmus. We investigated the clinical value of combining the horizontal head-shaking nystagmus test with tilt suppression in 28 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction and 11 patients with lesions affecting the central nervous system...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532841/quality-and-fertility-of-frozen-ovine-spermatozoa-from-epididymides-stored-at-room-temperature-18-25%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-for-up-to-48%C3%A2-h-post-mortem
#5
Tácia Gomes Bergstein-Galan, Romildo Romualdo Weiss, Melina Andrea F Bertol, Ana Cláudia M R Abreu, Eduarda Busato, Luiz E Kozicki, Sony Dimas Bicudo
This study investigates the effect of time of storage of epididymides at room temperature and the addition of 20% of seminal plasma to the cryopreservation extender, on post thaw quality and fertility of ovine spermatozoa collected from the cauda epididymis. Spermatic kinetics, integrity and the stability of plasma membrane, damage to the acrosome and fertility following laparoscopic artificial insemination were evaluated in samples collected in an artificial vagina (AV) and from epididymides stored at room temperature for zero (G0), six (G6), twelve (G12), twenty-four (G24) and forty-eight (G48) hours post mortem...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525330/effect-of-boar-ejaculate-fraction-extender-type-and-time-of-storage-on-quality-of-spermatozoa
#6
A Dziekońska, K Świąder, M Koziorowska-Gilun, K Mietelska, Ł Zasiadczyk, W Kordan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect the sperm-rich fraction (F1) and the post-F1 fraction (F2) on the quality of boar spermatozoa stored in a liquid state. Ejaculates were collected from three Polish Landrace boars. Each ejaculate fraction was diluted with BTS short-term extender and Safe-Cell Plus (SCP) long-term extender and stored for seven days (D1-D7) at 17°C. Analyses included sperm motility parameters, normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosomes and plasma membrane integrity (PMI). Prior to the dilution of fractions, marked changes (p<0...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463274/theoretical-design-for-generation-of-slow-light-in-a-two-dimensional-magneto-optical-trap-using-electromagnetically-induced-transparency
#7
Sumit Bhushan, Raghavan K Easwaran
In this paper, we propose a novel technique for slow light experiments using electromagnetically induced transparency using a two-dimensional magneto optical trap (2D-MOT). A compact 2D-MOT design efficient for quantum memory applications with adjustable optical depth (OD) is proposed. We estimated the OD for our 2D-MOT setup and found that light group velocities as low as 1.4 m/s can be attained. Our design for 2D-MOT allows precise control and optimization of the OD such that high storage efficiencies could also be achieved...
May 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446583/a-shared-neural-integrator-for-human-posture-control
#8
Stephanie E Haggerty, Amy R Wu, Kathleen H Sienko, Arthur D Kuo
Control of standing posture requires fusion of multiple inputs including visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and other sensors, each having distinct dynamics. The semicircular canals, for example, have a high-pass filter response to angular velocity, quickly sensing a step change in head rotational velocity followed by a decay. To stabilize gaze despite this decay, the central nervous system supplies a neural "velocity storage" integrator, a filter that extends the angular velocity signal. Similar filtering might contribute temporal dynamics to posture control, as suggested by some state estimation models...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438216/improved-pressure-contour-analysis-for-estimating-cardiac-stroke-volume-using-pulse-wave-velocity-measurement
#9
Shun Kamoi, Christopher Pretty, Joel Balmer, Shaun Davidson, Antoine Pironet, Thomas Desaive, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Pressure contour analysis is commonly used to estimate cardiac performance for patients suffering from cardiovascular dysfunction in the intensive care unit. However, the existing techniques for continuous estimation of stroke volume (SV) from pressure measurement can be unreliable during hemodynamic instability, which is inevitable for patients requiring significant treatment. For this reason, pressure contour methods must be improved to capture changes in vascular properties and thus provide accurate conversion from pressure to flow...
April 24, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395346/carbon-nanotubes-in-the-human-respiratory-tract-clearance-modeling
#10
Robert Sturm
Clearance of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, diameter: 5 nm) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, diameter: 50 nm) in the respiratory tract was predicted for various age groups (infants, children, adolescents, and adults). The model was founded on the assumption that lung clearance takes place in three distinct phases: (i) fast mucociliary clearance, (ii) slow bronchial clearance, and (iii) alveolar clearance. To each of these phases a specific fraction of deposited particles was attributed, the amount of which depended on particles' geometry and particles' deposition sites in the respiratory system...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362648/abnormal-angiogenesis-in-blood-outgrowth-endothelial-cells-derived-from-von-willebrand-disease-patients
#11
Soundarya N Selvam, Lara J Casey, Mackenzie L Bowman, Lindsey G Hawke, Avery J Longmore, Jeffrey Mewburn, Mark L Ormiston, Stephen L Archer, Donald H Maurice, Paula James
Bleeding associated with angiodysplasia is a common, often intractable complication in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). von Willebrand factor (VWF), the protein deficient or defective in VWD, is a negative regulator of angiogenesis, which may explain the pathologic blood vessel growth in VWD. This study explores the normal range of angiogenesis in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) derived from healthy donors and compares this to angiogenesis in BOECs from VWD patients of all types and subtypes...
March 30, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303437/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-first-charge-of-a-li-ion-si-anode-nanobattery
#12
Diego E Galvez-Aranda, Victor Ponce, Jorge M Seminario
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are the most popular devices for energy storage but still a lot of research needs to be done to improve their cycling and storage capacity. Silicon has been proposed as an anode material because of its large theoretical capacity of ∼3600 mAh/g. Therefore, focus is needed on the lithiation process of silicon anodes where it is known that the anode increases its volume more than 300%, producing cracking and other damages. We performed molecular dynamics atomistic simulations to study the swelling, alloying, and amorphization of a silicon nanocrystal anode in a full nanobattery model during the first charging cycle...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295662/chilled-and-post-thaw-storage-of-sperm-in-different-goldfish-types
#13
G Bernáth, I Ittzés, Z Szabó, Á Horváth, S Krejszeff, J Lujić, L Várkonyi, B Urbányi, Z Bokor
The effective storage time of sperm after stripping (for 48 hr in 6-hr intervals) and after thawing (for 6 hr in 2-hr intervals) in Black moor, Oranda and Calico goldfish types was investigated. Variations in sperm density were also measured in all lines. The efficiency of a sperm cryopreservation method formerly developed for common carp was recorded in all three goldfish lines. Motility parameters ((pMOT, %), curvilinear velocity (VCL, μm/s) and straightness (STR, %)) of Black moor sperm did not decrease significantly during 48 hr of storage...
March 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284571/dynamic-mechanical-analysis-to-assess-viscoelasticity-of-liver-tissue-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Xinyu Zhang, Xuehua Gao, Pengpeng Zhang, Yanrong Guo, Haoming Lin, Xianfen Diao, Yingxia Liu, Changfeng Dong, Yaxin Hu, Siping Chen, Xin Chen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in both developed and developing countries. A noninvasive method of detecting early stage NAFLD and distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis (SS) would be useful. The over-accumulation of fat in hepatocytes alters the physical microstructure and chemical contents of the liver tissue. This study included dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) testing on liver samples from a rat model of NAFLD to determine whether the tissue shows any significant changes in viscoelasticity due to the histological changes...
June 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140601/current-induced-generation-and-synchronous-motion-of-highly-packed-coupled-chiral-domain-walls
#15
Rafael P Del Real, Victor Raposo, Eduardo Martinez, Masamitsu Hayashi
Chiral domain walls of Neel type emerge in heterostructures that include heavy metal (HM) and ferromagnetic metal (FM) layers owing to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction at the HM/FM interface. In developing storage class memories based on the current induced motion of chiral domain walls, it remains to be seen how dense such domain walls can be packed together. Here we show that a universal short-range repulsion that scales with the strength of the DM interaction exists among chiral domain walls. The distance between the two walls can be reduced with the application of the out-of-plane field, allowing the formation of coupled domain walls...
March 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133593/stereoselective-biotransformation-of-racemic-mandelic-acid-using-immobilized-laccase-and-s-mandelate-dehydrogenase
#16
Xing Chen, Chengli Yang, Peng Wang, Xuan Zhang, Bingxin Bao, Dali Li, Ruofu Shi
OBJECTIVES: (S)-Mandelate dehydrogenase (SMDH) and laccase were immobilized on chitosan. The bi-enzymatic system with immobilized SMDH and immobilized laccase was taken to catalyze the stereoselective transformation of racemic mandelic acid and (R)-mandelic acid was obtained from its racemic mixture. RESULTS: Characteristics of the immobilized enzymes were valuated. The optimum pH and temperature of the immobilized SMDH were found to be pH 3.4 and 45 °C, and these of the immobilized laccase were about pH 6...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129919/loss-of-huntingtin-stimulates-capture-of-retrograde-dense-core-vesicles-to-increase-synaptic-neuropeptide-stores
#17
Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
The Huntington's disease protein Huntingtin (Htt) regulates axonal transport of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing neurotrophins and neuropeptides. DCVs travel down axons to reach nerve terminals where they are either captured in synaptic boutons to support later release or reverse direction to reenter the axon as part of vesicle circulation. Currently, the impact of Htt on DCV dynamics in the terminal is unknown. Here we report that knockout of Drosophila Htt selectively reduces retrograde DCV flux at proximal boutons of motoneuron terminals...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120447/effects-of-sildenafil-a-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitor-on-the-primary-single-afferent-activity-of-the-rat-bladder
#18
Naoki Aizawa, Hiroki Ito, Rino Sugiyama, Tetsuya Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Haruki Kume, Yukio Homma, Yasuhiko Igawa
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the direct effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, on the single-unit mechanosensitive afferent activities (SAAs) primarily originated from the bladder in the rat. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. SAAs were recorded from the left L6 dorsal roots and classified by conduction velocity as Aδ- or C-fibers. A catheter was inserted into the bladder dome, and a separate catheter was placed in the carotid artery and external iliac vein for monitoring of blood pressure and sildenafil-administration, respectively...
January 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100277/stress-echo-2020-the-international-stress-echo-study-in-ischemic-and-non-ischemic-heart-disease
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Eugenio Picano, Quirino Ciampi, Rodolfo Citro, Antonello D'Andrea, Maria Chiara Scali, Lauro Cortigiani, Iacopo Olivotto, Fabio Mori, Maurizio Galderisi, Marco Fabio Costantino, Lorenza Pratali, Giovanni Di Salvo, Eduardo Bossone, Francesco Ferrara, Luna Gargani, Fausto Rigo, Nicola Gaibazzi, Giuseppe Limongelli, Giuseppe Pacileo, Maria Grazia Andreassi, Bruno Pinamonti, Laura Massa, Marco A R Torres, Marcelo H Miglioranza, Clarissa Borguezan Daros, José Luis de Castro E Silva Pretto, Branko Beleslin, Ana Djordjevic-Dikic, Albert Varga, Attila Palinkas, Gergely Agoston, Dario Gregori, Paolo Trambaiolo, Sergio Severino, Ayana Arystan, Marco Paterni, Clara Carpeggiani, Paolo Colonna
BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) has an established role in evidence-based guidelines, but recently its breadth and variety of applications have extended well beyond coronary artery disease (CAD). We lack a prospective research study of SE applications, in and beyond CAD, also considering a variety of signs in addition to regional wall motion abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study design, > 100 certified high-volume SE labs (initially from Italy, Brazil, Hungary, and Serbia) will be networked with an organized system of clinical, laboratory and imaging data collection at the time of physical or pharmacological SE, with structured follow-up information...
January 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070903/myocardial-deformation-in-pediatric-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidoses-a-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-study
#20
Francesco Borgia, Enrica Pezzullo, Vincenzo Schiano Lomoriello, Regina Sorrentino, Francesco Lo Iudice, Sara Cocozza, Roberto Della Casa, Giancarlo Parenti, Pietro Strisciuglio, Bruno Trimarco, Maurizio Galderisi
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of required glycosaminoglycans breakdown enzymes, inducing cardiac involvement. Little is known about myocardial deformation involvement in MPS. Our aim was to assess biventricular structure and function in asymptomatic children with MPS using standard echo Doppler and 2D speckle tracking (STE). METHODS: Fifteen MPS children (one type I, six type II, three type III A, one III B, three IV A, one VI), asymptomatic for cardiac symptoms, and 15 age and sex-matched healthy controls underwent echo Doppler and STE...
January 10, 2017: Echocardiography
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