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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703418/relationship-between-sperm-motility-characteristics-and-atp-concentrations-and-association-with-fertility-in-two-different-pig-breeds
#1
Nina Hårdnes Tremoen, Ann Helen Gaustad, Ina Andersen-Ranberg, Maren van Son, Teklu Tewoldebrhan Zeremichael, Kirsten Frydenlund, Eli Grindflek, Dag Inge Våge, Frøydis Deinboll Myromslien
Boar fertility has a major impact on overall pig reproductive efficiency. Using accurate and objective in vitro sperm variables for predicting in vivo fertility from a single ejaculate, however, is challenging. Motility is the most widely used indicator of sperm quality, and a computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system is now available for objective assessment of sperm motility characteristics. In this study sperm motility characteristics and semen ATP concentrations were investigated and the effect of both were evaluated on total number of piglets born (TNB) when Norwegian Landrace (NL) and Norwegian Duroc (ND) boar semen was used for AI...
April 19, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699918/cyclodextrins-or-cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins-a-better-choice-for-improved-cryosurvival-of-chicken-spermatozoa
#2
Agnieszka Partyka, Maciej Strojecki, Wojciech Niżański
This study was designed to test if treating chicken sperm with i) the cyclodextrins 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) alone improve fresh, liquid-stored and cryopreserved semen quality, or ii) cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLCs): 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded with cholesterol (HCLC) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded with cholesterol (MCLC) enhance chicken semen quality for application to assisted reproductive technologies. Three consecutive experiments were performed with different concentrations of additives: Exp...
April 21, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693731/genetic-and-epigenetic-defects-at-the-gnas-locus-lead-to-distinct-patterns-of-skeletal-growth-but-similar-early-onset-obesity
#3
Patrick Hanna, Virginie Grybek, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, Léa C Tran, Luisa de Sanctis, Francesca Elli, Javier Errea, Bruno Francou, Peter Kamenicky, Léa Linglart, Arrate Pereda, Anya Rothenbuhler, Daniele Tessaris, Susanne Thiele, Alessia Usardi, Ashley H Shoemaker, Marie-Laure Kottler, Harald Jüppner, Giovanna Mantovani, Agnès Linglart
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A), pseudoPHP (PPHP), and PHP type 1B (PHP1B) are caused by maternal and paternal GNAS mutations, and abnormal methylation at maternal GNAS promoter(s), respectively. Adult PHP1A patients are reportedly obese and short, whereas most PPHP patients are born small. In addition to PTH resistance, PHP1A and PHP1B patients may display early-onset obesity. As early-onset and severe obesity and short stature are daily burdens for PHP1A patients, we aimed at improving knowledge on the contribution of the GNAS transcripts to fetal and postnatal growth and fat storage...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689763/relationship-between-motion-sickness-susceptibility-and-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-gain-and-phase
#4
Gilles Clément, Millard F Reschke
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that individual susceptibility to motion sickness is related to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) through the activation of the velocity storage mechanism. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether motion sickness level was related to the gain and phase of the VOR. METHODS: VOR gain and phase were measured in 214 subjects while they rotated in yaw at 0.01 Hz, 0.02 Hz, 0.04 Hz, 0.08 Hz, and 0.16 Hz in darkness, and results were compared to the severity of symptoms the subjects experienced during subsequent tests to provoke motion sickness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627275/growth-impairment-in-mucopolysaccharidoses
#5
REVIEW
Melodie Melbouci, Robert W Mason, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Toshiyuki Fukao, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders that affect regulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) processing. In MPS, the lysosomes cannot efficiently break down GAGs, and the specific GAGs accumulated depend on the type of MPS. The level of impairment of breakdown varies between patients, making this one of the many factors that lead to a range of clinical presentations even in the same type of MPS. These clinical presentations usually involve skeletal dysplasia, in which the most common feature is bone growth impairment and successive short stature...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624023/effect-of-nitric-oxide-on-boar-sperm-motility-membrane-integrity-and-acrosomal-status-during-semen-storage
#6
M Jovicić, E Pintus, T Fenclova, O Simonik, E Chmelikova, J L Ros-Santaella, M Sedmikova
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major gasotransmitter involved in several physiological processes of male reproduction. There is, nevertheless, little information concerning the role of NO during semen storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NO on boar semen stored at 17oC for 72 h. For this purporse, sperm samples were treated with 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mM aminoguanidine (AG) or Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), a selective and non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, respectively...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619448/magnetization-switching-through-domain-wall-motion-in-pt-co-cr-racetracks-with-the-assistance-of-the-accompanying-joule-heating-effect
#7
Baoshan Cui, Dong Li, Jijun Yun, Yalu Zuo, Xiaobin Guo, Kai Wu, Xu Zhang, Yupei Wang, Li Xi, Desheng Xue
Heavy metal/ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have potential applications for high-density information storage in racetrack memories and nonvolatile magnetic random access memories. In these devices, deterministic magnetization switching has been achieved via electric current induced spin orbital torques (SOTs) with the assistance of a current directional external in-plane bias field, which causes technological obstacles for the real application of SOT based spintronic devices...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569803/elevated-co-2-did-not-affect-the-hydrological-balance-of-a-mature-native-eucalyptus-woodland
#8
Teresa E Gimeno, Tim R McVicar, Anthony P O'Grady, David T Tissue, David S Ellsworth
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCa ) might reduce forest water-use, due to decreased transpiration, following partial stomatal closure, thus enhancing water-use efficiency and productivity at low water availability. If evapotranspiration (Et ) is reduced, it may subsequently increase soil water storage (ΔS) or surface runoff (R) and drainage (Dg ), although these could be offset or even reversed by changes in vegetation structure, mainly increased leaf area index (L). To understand the effect of eCa in a water-limited ecosystem, we tested whether two years of eCa (~40% increase) affected the hydrological partitioning in a mature water-limited Eucalyptus woodland exposed to Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)...
March 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550136/optimizing-storage-temperature-of-liquid-bovine-semen-diluted-in-inra96
#9
Edel M Murphy, Ciara O' Meara, Bernard Eivers, Patrick Lonergan, Sean Fair
Temperature regulation of liquid bovine semen can be difficult in field situations. Two experiments were carried out to assess the effect of storage temperature on in vitro sperm characteristics and 60-d nonreturn rate (NRR) following artificial insemination (AI) of liquid bovine semen. In experiment 1, the effect of storage of liquid bovine semen in INRA96 diluent (IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France) at 1 of 5 storage temperatures (5, 15, or 28°C, and fluctuating between 5 and 15°C or 5 and 28°C) on total and progressive motility and kinematic parameters was assessed objectively via computer-assisted sperm analyzer on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 after collection...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549252/active-carbon-sequestration-in-the-alpine-mantle-wedge-and-implications-for-long-term-climate-trends
#10
Marco Giovanni Malusà, Maria Luce Frezzotti, Simona Ferrando, Enrico Brandmayr, Fabio Romanelli, Giuliano Francesco Panza
The long-term carbon budget has major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere, but the balance between carbon sequestration during subduction, and outgassing by volcanism is still poorly known. Although carbon-rich fluid inclusions and minerals are described in exhumed mantle rocks and xenoliths, compelling geophysical evidence of large-scale carbon storage in the upper mantle is still lacking. Here, we use a geophysical surface-wave seismic tomography model of the mantle wedge above the subducted European slab to document a prominent shear-wave low-velocity anomaly at depths greater than 180 km...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543019/electromagnetically-induced-transparency-in-circuit-quantum-electrodynamics-with-nested-polariton-states
#11
Junling Long, H S Ku, Xian Wu, Xiu Gu, Russell E Lake, Mustafa Bal, Yu-Xi Liu, David P Pappas
Quantum networks will enable extraordinary capabilities for communicating and processing quantum information. These networks require a reliable means of storage, retrieval, and manipulation of quantum states at the network nodes. A node receives one or more coherent inputs and sends a conditional output to the next cascaded node in the network through a quantum channel. Here, we demonstrate this basic functionality by using the quantum interference mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency in a transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting resonator...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535320/theory-of-isolated-magnetic-skyrmions-from-fundamentals-to-room-temperature-applications
#12
Felix Büttner, Ivan Lemesh, Geoffrey S D Beach
Magnetic skyrmions are topological quasiparticles of great interest for data storage applications because of their small size, high stability, and ease of manipulation via electric current. However, although models exist for some limiting cases, there is no universal theory capable of accurately describing the structure and energetics of all skyrmions. The main barrier is the complexity of non-local stray field interactions, which are usually included through crude approximations. Here we present an accurate analytical framework to treat isolated skyrmions in any material, assuming only a circularly-symmetric 360° domain wall profile and a homogeneous magnetization profile in the out-of-plane direction...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516729/meter-scale-reactive-transport-modeling-of-co-2-rich-fluid-flow-along-debonded-wellbore-casing-cement-interfaces
#13
Timotheus K T Wolterbeek, Amir Raoof
Defects along wellbore interfaces constitute potential pathways for CO2 to leak from geological storage systems. In previous experimental work, we demonstrated that CO2 -induced reaction over length-scales of several meters can lead to self-sealing of such defects. In the present work, we develop a reactive transport model that, on the one hand, enables μm-mm scale exploration of reactions along debonding defects and, on the other hand, allows simulation of the large, 6 m-long samples used in our experiments...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510737/effect-of-exposure-to-ceo-2-nanoparticles-on-ram-spermatozoa-during-storage-at-4-%C3%A2-c-for-96-hours
#14
Laura Falchi, Grazia Galleri, Gian Mario Dore, Maria Teresa Zedda, Salvatore Pau, Luisa Bogliolo, Federica Ariu, Alessandra Pinna, Stefano Nieddu, Plinio Innocenzi, Sergio Ledda
BACKGROUND: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are able to store and release oxygen, conferring them scavenger activity against oxidative stress. However, their effects in reproductive systems are not yet well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure of refrigerated ram semen to CeO2 NPs for 96 h on the main structural and kinematic parameters of spermatozoa. METHODS: The ejaculates of 5 Sarda rams were collected, pooled and diluted in a soybean lecithin extender...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498363/anisotropic-thermal-conductivity-in-carbon-honeycomb
#15
Xue-Kun Chen, Jun Liu, Dan Du, Zhong-Xiang Xie, Ke-Qiu Chen
Carbon honeycomb, a new kind of 3D carbon allotrope experimentally synthesized recently, has received much attention for its fascinating applications in electronic device and energy storage. In the present work, we perform equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) to study the thermal transport properties of carbon honeycombs with different chirality. It is found that the thermal conductivity along the honeycomb axis ([Formula: see text]) is three times larger than that normal to the axis ([Formula: see text]), which shows strong anisotropy reflecting their geometric anisotropy...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496341/comparison-of-plant-and-egg-yolk-based-semen-diluents-on-in-vitro-sperm-kinematics-and-in-vivo-fertility-of-frozen-thawed-bull-semen
#16
E M Murphy, C O'Meara, B Eivers, P Lonergan, S Fair
Diluents using components of plant origin have been developed as an alternative to animal based extenders for the dilution of bull semen, however, it is unclear if use of these diluents results in in vivo fertility rates similar to those that occur with use of traditional egg yolk-based diluents. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on 60-day non-return rate (NRR) following artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed bull semen. The effect of semen dilution in one of three different commercial diluents (BullXcell - egg yolk-based, OptiXcell - plant-based or AndroMed - plant-based) on post-thaw total and progressive motility as well as kinematic parameters (Experiment 1) and field fertility (Experiment 2, n = 1,480 inseminations) was assessed...
April 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488461/effectiveness-of-a-household-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-package-on-an-outpatient-program-for-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-chad
#17
Mathias Altmann, Chiara Altare, Nanette van der Spek, Jean-Christophe Barbiche, Jovana Dodos, Mahamat Bechir, Myriam Ait Aissa, Patrick Kolsteren
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions have a small but measurable benefit on stunting, but not on wasting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a household WASH package on the performance of an Outpatient Therapeutic feeding Program (OTP) for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial embedded in a routine OTP. The study population included 20 health centers (clusters) from Mao and Mondo districts in Chad. Both arms received the OTP. The intervention arm received an additional household WASH package (chlorine, soap, water storage container, and promotion on its use)...
April 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481212/mobility-and-congestion-in-dynamical-multilayer-networks-with-finite-storage-capacity
#18
S Manfredi, E Di Tucci, V Latora
Multilayer networks describe well many real interconnected communication and transportation systems, ranging from computer networks to multimodal mobility infrastructures. Here, we introduce a model in which the nodes have a limited capacity of storing and processing the agents moving over a multilayer network, and their congestions trigger temporary faults which, in turn, dynamically affect the routing of agents seeking for uncongested paths. The study of the network performance under different layer velocities and node maximum capacities reveals the existence of delicate trade-offs between the number of served agents and their time to travel to destination...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459843/hypothesis-the-vestibular-and-cerebellar-basis-of-the-mal-de-debarquement-syndrome
#19
Bernard Cohen, Sergei B Yakushin, Catherine Cho
The Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS) generally follows sea voyages, but it can occur after turbulent flights or spontaneously. The primary features are objective or perceived continuous rocking, swaying, and/or bobbing at 0.2 Hz after sea voyages or 0.3 Hz after flights. The oscillations can continue for months or years and are immensely disturbing. Associated symptoms appear to be secondary to the incessant sensation of movement. We previously suggested that the illness can be attributed to maladaptation of the velocity storage integrator in the vestibular system, but the actual neural mechanisms driving the MdDS are unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436832/droplet-impact-on-anisotropic-superhydrophobic-surfaces
#20
Chunfang Guo, Danyang Zhao, Yanjun Sun, Minjie Wang, Yahua Liu
A droplet impacting on a superhydrophobic surface exhibits complete bouncing. The impacting process usually consists of spreading and retracting stages, during which the droplet contacts the underlying substrate. Recent research has been devoted to reducing the contact time using textured surfaces with different morphologies or flexibilities. Here, we design submillimeter superhydrophobic ridges and show that impacting droplets bounce off the surface immediately after capillary emptying in a petal-like shape at a certain Weber number range...
March 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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