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external cuneate nucleus

Chiaki Takahashi
Infarction located in the midbrain and pons presents various ophthalmic symptoms, because of the damage of the nuclei that control the movement of internal and external ocular and palpebral muscles. We experienced a case which presented with rare ocular symptoms and course. A 61-year-old man presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria, bilateral ptosis, and bilateral impaired eyeball movement: right eyeball movement was totally impaired and left could only perform slight adduction. MRI showed fresh stroke in the right thalamus, cerebral crus, and posterior lobe and cuneate lesion on bilateral paramedian portion of the midbrain...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Aneesha K Suresh, Jeremy E Winberry, Christopher Versteeg, Raeed Chowdhury, Tucker Tomlinson, Joshua M Rosenow, Lee E Miller, Sliman J Bensmaia
While the response properties of neurons in the somatosensory nerves and anterior parietal cortex have been extensively studied, little is known about the encoding of tactile and proprioceptive information in the cuneate nucleus (CN) or external cuneate nucleus (ECN), the first recipients of upper limb somatosensory afferent signals. The major challenge in characterizing neural coding in CN/ECN has been to record from these tiny, difficult-to-access brain stem structures. Most previous investigations of CN response properties have been carried out in decerebrate or anesthetized animals, thereby eliminating the well-documented top-down signals from cortex, which likely exert a strong influence on CN responses...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jie Peng, Ben Long, Jing Yuan, Xue Peng, Hong Ni, Xiangning Li, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Anan Li
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Alexandre Tiriac, Mark S Blumberg
Nervous systems distinguish between self- and other-generated movements by monitoring discrepancies between planned and performed actions. To do so, corollary discharges are conveyed to sensory areas and gate expected reafference. Such gating is observed in neonatal rats during wake-related movements. In contrast, twitches, which are self-generated movements produced during active (or REM) sleep, differ from wake movements in that they reliably trigger robust neural activity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the gating actions of corollary discharge are absent during twitching...
August 3, 2016: ELife
Masako Ito, Keiko Nakamura, Fumiaki Mori, Yasuo Miki, Kunikazu Tanji, Koichi Wakabayashi
We report the occurrence of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) in the external cuneate nucleus of humans. The NCIs appeared as accumulations of eosinophilic rod-like structures in the neuronal somata in 20 (9.5%) of 211 consecutive autopsy cases. Histochemically, the NCIs were stained bright red with Gomori trichrome, Azan-Mallory and methyl green-pyronin, indicating that they contain protein and RNA. Immunohistochemically, the NCIs were positive for stress granule marker proteins, including Hu-antigen R, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 and poly(A)-binding protein 1, but negative for ubiquitin- and autophagy-related proteins...
October 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Rachel Yuengert, Kei Hori, Erin E Kibodeaux, Jacob X McClellan, Justin E Morales, Teng-Wei P Huang, Jeffrey L Neul, Helen C Lai
Proprioception, the sense of limb and body position, is essential for generating proper movement. Unconscious proprioceptive information travels through cerebellar-projecting neurons in the spinal cord and medulla. The progenitor domain defined by the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, ATOH1, has been implicated in forming these cerebellar-projecting neurons; however, their precise contribution to proprioceptive tracts and motor behavior is unknown. Significantly, we demonstrate that Atoh1-lineage neurons in the spinal cord reside outside Clarke's column (CC), a main contributor of neurons relaying hindlimb proprioception, despite giving rise to the anatomical and functional correlate of CC in the medulla, the external cuneate nucleus (ECu), which mediates forelimb proprioception...
November 10, 2015: Cell Reports
Henrik Jörntell, Fredrik Bengtsson, Pontus Geborek, Anton Spanne, Alexander V Terekhov, Vincent Hayward
Our tactile perception of external objects depends on skin-object interactions. The mechanics of contact dictates the existence of fundamental spatiotemporal input features-contact initiation and cessation, slip, and rolling contact-that originate from the fact that solid objects do not interpenetrate. However, it is unknown whether these features are represented within the brain. We used a novel haptic interface to deliver such inputs to the glabrous skin of finger/digit pads and recorded from neurons of the cuneate nucleus (the brain's first level of tactile processing) in the cat...
September 17, 2014: Neuron
Arabinda Kumar Choudhary, Vinod G Maller
Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital absence of normal horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis through childhood and adolescence. The characteristic radiological features in HGPPS are butterfly configuration of the medulla, split pons sign, selective volume loss of dorsomedial brainstem, relatively spared cerebellum, relatively prominent inferior olivary nucleus and absent posterior prominence of the facial colliculi and gracilis and cuneate nuclei...
February 2014: Delaware Medical Journal
Denys V Volgin, Georg M Stettner, Leszek Kubin
Serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and orexins (ORX) are the three best established mediators of wake-related activation of hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons that innervate the muscles of the tongue. Since the tongue's use is temporarily closely aligned with the rest-activity cycle, we tested whether expression of mRNA for relevant 5-HT, norepinephrine and ORX receptors varies in the XII nucleus with the rest-activity cycle. Adult rats (n=7-9/group) were decapitated at 8-9 am (near rest period onset) or at 6-7 pm (near active period onset)...
September 15, 2013: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Luis Herrero, Joanne Pardoe, Nadia L Cerminara, Richard Apps
The present study uses a double retrograde tracer technique in rats to examine the spatial localization and pattern of axonal branching in mossy fibres arising from three major sources in the medulla-the external cuneate nucleus, the sensory trigeminal nucleus and the reticular formation, to two electrophysiologically-identified parts of the cerebellar cortex that are linked by common climbing fibre input - the forelimb-receiving parts of the C1 zone in lobulus simplex and the paramedian lobule. In each experiment a small injection of rhodamine-tagged beads was injected into one cortical region and an injection of fluorescein-tagged beads was injected into the other region...
February 2012: European Journal of Neuroscience
Claire L Witham, Stuart N Baker
Somatosensory signals undergo substantial modulation in the dorsal column nuclei. We examined transmission of signals from forelimb afferents in primate cuneate and external cuneate nuclei. In anesthetized macaque monkeys, the median, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves were electrically stimulated at 1.5-2× motor threshold with independent Poisson trains whereas extracellular recordings were made from 317 cells. Responses to peripheral stimulation included instances of both brief facilitation and long lasting suppression...
November 2011: Journal of Neurophysiology
Doyeun Kim, Susan L Ackerman
The cerebellum receives its input from multiple precerebellar nuclei located in the brainstem and sends processed information to other brain structures via the deep cerebellar neurons. Guidance molecules that regulate the complex migrations of precerebellar neurons and the initial guidance of their leading processes have been identified. However, the molecules necessary for dorsal guidance of precerebellar axons to the developing cerebellum or for guidance of decussating axons of the deep nuclei are not known...
February 9, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marina Quartu, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Tiziana Melis, Rossano Ambu, Marina Del Fiacco
Occurrence and distribution of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a neuroplasticity marker known to modulate BDNF signalling, were examined by immunohistochemistry in the human brainstem precerebellar nuclei at prenatal, perinatal and adult age. Western blot analysis performed in human brainstem showed for both molecules a single protein band compatible with the molecular weight of the dimeric form of mature BDNF and with that of PSA-NCAM...
December 2, 2010: Brain Research
Joan S Baizer, Will L Corwin, James F Baker
Vestibular information is critical for the control of balance, posture, and eye movements. Signals from the receptors, the semicircular canals and otoliths, are carried by the eighth nerve and distributed to the four nuclei of the vestibular nuclear complex, the VNC. However, anatomical and physiological data suggest that many additional brainstem nuclei are engaged in the processing of vestibular signals and generation of motor responses. To assess the role of these structures in vestibular functions, we have used the expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos as a marker for neurons activated by stimulation of the otoliths or the semicircular canals...
September 10, 2010: Brain Research
Joan S Baizer
Vestibular information is essential for the control of posture, balance, and eye movements. The vestibular nerve projects to the four nuclei of the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), as well as to several additional brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum. We have found that expression of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR) and calbindin (CB), and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) define subdivisions of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and the nucleus prepositus (PrH), in cat, monkey, and human...
November 17, 2009: Brain Research
D Albe-Fessard, J Boivie, G Grant, A Levante
Injections of horseradish peroxidase were performed in macaque monkeys in the intralaminar and the ventroposterior thalamic region, respectively. Following injection in the intralaminar region labelled cells were present in the marginal zone both in the spinal trigeminal nuclues and in the spinal dorsal horn. The same areas contained labelled cells after injections in the ventroposterior thalamic region, but in such experiments labelled cells were also present in the lamina IV-V region of the spinal cord, in the gracile and main cuneate nuclei and in the external cuneate nucleus...
August 1975: Neuroscience Letters
M Burian, W Gstoettner, R Mayr
We explored the course and termination of primary vestibular afferent fibers within the brainstem of the guinea pig by means of anterograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Primary vestibular afferent fibers distribute within the entire vestibular nuclear complex, with the exception of the dorsal part of the lateral vestibular nucleus. The superior vestibular nucleus is characterized by the concentration of terminals within its central part...
March 8, 1990: Journal of Comparative Neurology
A Casabona, M S Valle, G Bosco, V Perciavalle
In this paper we examined the neuronal activities of external cuneate nucleus, spinocerebellar Purkinje cells and interpositus nucleus during passive forelimb movements in anesthetized rats with the aim of identifying common or different patterns of activation across structures. By means of principal components analysis, we identified two main patterns of discharge which explained most of the dataset variance. One component characterized the movement-related activity of external cuneate and spinocerebellar cortical neurons, while the other reflected neuronal activity of the interpositus nucleus...
November 11, 2008: Neuroscience
Eliana de Souza, Rafael Coveñas, Pedro Yi, Luís Angel Aguilar, Luís Lerma, Roy Andrade, Arturo Mangas, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez
In this study, we demonstrate the presence of immunoreactive structures containing calcitonin gene-related peptide in the alpaca brainstem. This is the first time that a detailed mapping of the cell bodies and fibers containing this neuropeptide in the alpaca brainstem has been carried out using an immunocytochemical technique. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were widely distributed throughout the alpaca brainstem. A high density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive perikarya was found in the superior colliculus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the trochlear nucleus, the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the motor trigeminal nucleus, the facial nucleus, the pons reticular formation, the retrofacial nucleus, the rostral hypoglossal nucleus, and in the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, whereas a high density of fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, and in the area postrema...
July 2008: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Nadia de Mota, Xavier Iturrioz, Cedric Claperon, Laurence Bodineau, Celine Fassot, Bernard Pierre Roques, Miklos Palkovits, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Aminopeptidase A (APA) generated brain angiotensin III, one of the main effector peptides of the brain renin angiotensin system, exerting a tonic stimulatory effect on the control of blood pressure in hypertensive rats. The distribution of APA in human brain has not been yet studied. We first biochemically characterized human brain APA (apparent molecular mass of 165 and 130 kDa) and we showed that the human enzyme exhibited similar enzymatic characteristics to recombinant mouse APA. Both enzymes had similar sensitivity to Ca(2+)...
July 2008: Journal of Neurochemistry
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